Abstract

We propose a network structure for routing optical packets based on binary multiwavelength labels. We resolve the main drawbacks of previously proposed optical label switching scenarios: high splitting loss and complex, expensive hardware. In our scheme, the label is mapped bit-by-bit to a selection of wavelength bins. Variable-length packets are self-forwarded via a multistage switch. This structure is scalable, high-speed, simple, practical, and low-cost, exploiting the workhorses of today's optical communications systems: arrayed waveguide gratings, distributed feedback lasers, ${\rm LiNbO}_{3}$ switches, and low-speed photodiodes and electronics ($\sim {\hbox {100}}\,{\hbox {MHz}}$). We also propose a solution to alleviate the sophisticated label swapping processing required in generalized multiprotocol label switching (GMPLS) networks. We time-multiplex the binary multiwavelength labels for the entire optical label switching path. We examine the performance of both schemes experimentally by verifying successful routing and error-free transmission.

© 2009 IEEE

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  1. M. Y. Jeon, Z. Pan, J. Cao, Y. Bansal, J. Taylor, Z. Wang, V. Akella, K. Okamoto, S. Kamei, J. Pan, S. J. B. Yoo, "Demonstration of all-optical packet switching routers with optical label swapping and 2R regeneration for scalable optical label switching network applications," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 2723-2733 (2003).
  2. K. Vlachos, J. Zhang, J. Cheyns, Chi, N. Sulur, E. Van Breusegem, I. T. Monroy, J. G. L. Jennen, P. V. Holm-Nielsen, C. Peucheret, R. O'Dowd, P. Demeester, A. M. J. Koonen, "An optical IM/FSK coding technique for the implementation of a label-controlled arrayed waveguide packet router," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 2617-2628 (2003).
  3. J. E. McGeehan, M. C. Hauer, A. B. Sahin, A. E. Willner, "Multiwavelength-channel header recognition for reconfigurable WDM networks using optical correlators based on sampled fiber Bragg gratings," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1464-1466 (2003).
  4. M. C. Cardakli, S. Lee, A. E. Willner, V. Grubsky, D. Starodubov, J. Feinberg, "Reconfigurable optical packet header recognition and routing using time-to-wavelength mapping and tunable fiber Bragg gratings for correlation decoding," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 552-554 (2000).
  5. K. Kitayama, N. Wada, H. Sotobayashi, "Architectural considerations for photonic IP router based upon optical code correlation," J. Lightw. Technol. 18, 1834-1844 (2000).
  6. G. Cincotti, N. Wada, K. Kitayama, "Characterization of a full encoder/decoder in the AWG configuration for code-based photonic routers-part I: Modeling and design," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 103-112 (2006).
  7. N. Wada, H. Harai, W. Chujo, "Multi-hop, 40 Gbit/s variable length photonic packet routing based on multi-wavelength label switching, waveband routing and label swapping," Proc. Optical Fiber Communications Conf. (OFC 2002) (2002) pp. 216-217.
  8. B. Hoanca, S. Dubovitsky, X. Zhu, A. A. Sawchuk, W. H. Steier, P. D. Dapkus, "All-optical routing using wavelength recognizing switches," J. Lightw. Technol. 16, 2243-2254 (1998).
  9. L. A. Buckman, M. S. Wu, G. Giaretta, G. S. Li, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. W. Goodman, A. Varma, K. Y. Lau, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, "A novel all-optical self-routed wavelength-addressable network (SWANET)," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1066-1068 (1995).
  10. D. J. Blumenthal, P. R. Prucnal, J. R. Sauer, "Photonic packet switches: Architectures and experimental implementations," Proc. IEEE 82, 1650-1667 (1994).
  11. P. Seddighian, J. B. Rosas–Fernández, S. Ayotte, L. A. Rusch, S. LaRochelle, A. Leon-Garcia, "Low-cost, scalable optical packet switching networks with multi-wavelength labels," Proc. Optical Fiber Communications Conf. (OFC 2007) ().
  12. P. Seddighian, S. Ayotte, J. B. Rosas–Fernández, J. Penon, L. A. Rusch, S. LaRochelle, "Label stacking in photonic packet switched networks with spectral amplitude code labels," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 463-471 (2007).
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  15. D. J. Blumenthal, R. J. Feuerstein, J. R. Sauer, "First demonstration of multihop all-optical packet switching," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 457-460 (1994).
  16. N. Wada, H. Harai, W. Chujo, F. Kubota, "80 G to 10 Gbit/s variable rate photonic packet routing based on multi-wavelength label switch," Proc. 27th Eur. Conf. Optical Communications (ECOC 2001) () pp. 308-309.
  17. C. Skoufis, S. Sygletos, N. Leligou, C. Matrakidis, I. Pountourakis, A. Stavdas, "Data-centric networking using multiwavelength headers/labels in packet-over-WDM networks: A comparative study," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 2110-2122 (2003).
  18. S. Xiao, Q. Zeng, J. Wang, J. Xu, Y. Wang, "Realization of multiwavelength label optical packet switching," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 605-607 (2003).
  19. A. Stavdas, C. Skoufis, I. Angelopoulos, G. Stassinopoulos, I. Pountourakis, "On multi-$\lambda$ packet labeling for metropolitan and wide-area optical networks," Photon. Netw. Commun. 3, 131-145 (2001).
  20. J. W. Goodman, Statistical Optics (Wiley, 2000).
  21. S. Ayotte, M. Rochette, J. Magne, L. A. Rusch, S. LaRochelle, "Experimental verification and capacity prediction of FE-OCDMA using superimposed FBG," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 724-731 (2005).
  22. S. Ayotte, L. A. Rusch, "Experimental comparison of coherent versus incoherent sources in a four-user $\lambda$-${\rm t}$ OCDMA system at 1.25 Gb/s," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2493-2495 (2005).
  23. R. E. Gordon, L. R. Chen, "Demonstration of all-photonic spectral label switching for optical MPLS networks," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 586-588 (2006).
  24. P. Seddighian, V. Baby, C. Habib, L. R. Chen, L. A. Rusch, S. LaRochelle, "All-optical swapping of spectral amplitude code labels for packet switching," IEEE/LEOS Photonics in Switching Conf. San FranciscoCA (2007).
  25. C.-S. Weng, J. Wu, "Perfect difference codes for synchronous fiber-optic CDMA communication systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 19, 186-194 (2001).
  26. J. B. Rosas-Fernández, S. Ayotte, L. A. Rusch, S. LaRochelle, "A simple ultrafast forwarding architecture using a single optical processor for multiple SAC-label recognition based on FWM," J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (2007).
  27. Q. Yang, K. Bergman, F. G. Johnson, G. D. Hughes, "WDM packet routing for high capacity data networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 19, 1420-1426 (2001).
  28. Q. Yang, K. Bergman, "Performance of the data vortex switch architecture under nonuniform and bursty traffic," J. Lightw. Technol. 20, 1242-1247 (2002).
  29. C. S. Reed, Multiple level minimum logic network U.S. Patent 5 996 020 (1999).
  30. U. Black, MPLS and Label Switching Networks (Prentice Hall, 2002).
  31. A. S. Tanenbaum, Computer Networks (Prentice Hall, 1996).
  32. J. Kurumida, Y. Tatara, H. Uenohara, K. Kobayashi, "All-optical header recognition sub-system based on SOA-MZI switches," Proc. Pacific Rim Conf. Lasers Electro-Optics (CLEO 2005) () pp. 1790-1791.
  33. S. Yao, B. Mukherjee, S. J. B. Yoo, S. Dixit, "A unified study of contention-resolution schemes in optical packet-switched network," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 672-683 (2003).
  34. J. H. Patel, "Performance of processor-memory interconnections for multiprocessors," IEEE Trans. Comput. C-30, 771-780 (1981).
  35. C. Hawkins, B. A. Small, D. S. Wills, K. Bergman, "The data vortex, An all optical path multicomputer interconnection network," IEEE Trans. Parallel Distrib. Syst. 18, 409-420 (2007).
  36. P. Seddighian, Y. BenM'Sallem, A. Leon-Garcia, L. A. Rusch, "Time-stacked optical labels: An alternative to label-swapping," Optical Fiber Communications Conf. (OFC 2008) San Diego ().
  37. A. Iocco, H. G. Limberger, R. P. Salathé, L. A. Everall, K. E. Chisolm, J. A. R. Williams, I. Bennion, "Bragg grating fast tunable filter for wavelength division multiplexing," J. Lightw. Technol. 17, 1217-1221 (1999).
  38. N. Wada, G. Cincotti, S. Yoshima, N. Kataoka, K. Kitayama, "Characterization of a full encoder/decoder in the AWG configuration for code-based photonic Routers-part II: Experiments and applications," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 113-121 (2006).
  39. G. Cincotti, M. S. Moreolo, G. Manzacca, X. Wang, N. Wada, K. Kitayama, "Multi-dimensional optical code processing in MPLS photonic routers," Proc. Optical Fiber Communications Conf. (OFC 2006) ().

2007 (3)

P. Seddighian, S. Ayotte, J. B. Rosas–Fernández, J. Penon, L. A. Rusch, S. LaRochelle, "Label stacking in photonic packet switched networks with spectral amplitude code labels," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 463-471 (2007).

J. B. Rosas-Fernández, S. Ayotte, L. A. Rusch, S. LaRochelle, "A simple ultrafast forwarding architecture using a single optical processor for multiple SAC-label recognition based on FWM," J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (2007).

C. Hawkins, B. A. Small, D. S. Wills, K. Bergman, "The data vortex, An all optical path multicomputer interconnection network," IEEE Trans. Parallel Distrib. Syst. 18, 409-420 (2007).

2006 (3)

N. Wada, G. Cincotti, S. Yoshima, N. Kataoka, K. Kitayama, "Characterization of a full encoder/decoder in the AWG configuration for code-based photonic Routers-part II: Experiments and applications," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 113-121 (2006).

R. E. Gordon, L. R. Chen, "Demonstration of all-photonic spectral label switching for optical MPLS networks," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 586-588 (2006).

G. Cincotti, N. Wada, K. Kitayama, "Characterization of a full encoder/decoder in the AWG configuration for code-based photonic routers-part I: Modeling and design," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 103-112 (2006).

2005 (3)

S. Ayotte, M. Rochette, J. Magne, L. A. Rusch, S. LaRochelle, "Experimental verification and capacity prediction of FE-OCDMA using superimposed FBG," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 724-731 (2005).

S. Ayotte, L. A. Rusch, "Experimental comparison of coherent versus incoherent sources in a four-user $\lambda$-${\rm t}$ OCDMA system at 1.25 Gb/s," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2493-2495 (2005).

A. Shacham, B. A. Small, O. Liboiron-Ladouceur, K. Bergman, "A fully implemented data vortex optical packet switching interconnection network," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 3066-3075 (2005).

2003 (6)

C. Skoufis, S. Sygletos, N. Leligou, C. Matrakidis, I. Pountourakis, A. Stavdas, "Data-centric networking using multiwavelength headers/labels in packet-over-WDM networks: A comparative study," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 2110-2122 (2003).

S. Xiao, Q. Zeng, J. Wang, J. Xu, Y. Wang, "Realization of multiwavelength label optical packet switching," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 605-607 (2003).

M. Y. Jeon, Z. Pan, J. Cao, Y. Bansal, J. Taylor, Z. Wang, V. Akella, K. Okamoto, S. Kamei, J. Pan, S. J. B. Yoo, "Demonstration of all-optical packet switching routers with optical label swapping and 2R regeneration for scalable optical label switching network applications," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 2723-2733 (2003).

K. Vlachos, J. Zhang, J. Cheyns, Chi, N. Sulur, E. Van Breusegem, I. T. Monroy, J. G. L. Jennen, P. V. Holm-Nielsen, C. Peucheret, R. O'Dowd, P. Demeester, A. M. J. Koonen, "An optical IM/FSK coding technique for the implementation of a label-controlled arrayed waveguide packet router," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 2617-2628 (2003).

J. E. McGeehan, M. C. Hauer, A. B. Sahin, A. E. Willner, "Multiwavelength-channel header recognition for reconfigurable WDM networks using optical correlators based on sampled fiber Bragg gratings," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1464-1466 (2003).

S. Yao, B. Mukherjee, S. J. B. Yoo, S. Dixit, "A unified study of contention-resolution schemes in optical packet-switched network," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 672-683 (2003).

2002 (1)

Q. Yang, K. Bergman, "Performance of the data vortex switch architecture under nonuniform and bursty traffic," J. Lightw. Technol. 20, 1242-1247 (2002).

2001 (3)

Q. Yang, K. Bergman, F. G. Johnson, G. D. Hughes, "WDM packet routing for high capacity data networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 19, 1420-1426 (2001).

A. Stavdas, C. Skoufis, I. Angelopoulos, G. Stassinopoulos, I. Pountourakis, "On multi-$\lambda$ packet labeling for metropolitan and wide-area optical networks," Photon. Netw. Commun. 3, 131-145 (2001).

C.-S. Weng, J. Wu, "Perfect difference codes for synchronous fiber-optic CDMA communication systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 19, 186-194 (2001).

2000 (2)

M. C. Cardakli, S. Lee, A. E. Willner, V. Grubsky, D. Starodubov, J. Feinberg, "Reconfigurable optical packet header recognition and routing using time-to-wavelength mapping and tunable fiber Bragg gratings for correlation decoding," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 552-554 (2000).

K. Kitayama, N. Wada, H. Sotobayashi, "Architectural considerations for photonic IP router based upon optical code correlation," J. Lightw. Technol. 18, 1834-1844 (2000).

1999 (1)

A. Iocco, H. G. Limberger, R. P. Salathé, L. A. Everall, K. E. Chisolm, J. A. R. Williams, I. Bennion, "Bragg grating fast tunable filter for wavelength division multiplexing," J. Lightw. Technol. 17, 1217-1221 (1999).

1998 (1)

B. Hoanca, S. Dubovitsky, X. Zhu, A. A. Sawchuk, W. H. Steier, P. D. Dapkus, "All-optical routing using wavelength recognizing switches," J. Lightw. Technol. 16, 2243-2254 (1998).

1995 (1)

L. A. Buckman, M. S. Wu, G. Giaretta, G. S. Li, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. W. Goodman, A. Varma, K. Y. Lau, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, "A novel all-optical self-routed wavelength-addressable network (SWANET)," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1066-1068 (1995).

1994 (2)

D. J. Blumenthal, P. R. Prucnal, J. R. Sauer, "Photonic packet switches: Architectures and experimental implementations," Proc. IEEE 82, 1650-1667 (1994).

D. J. Blumenthal, R. J. Feuerstein, J. R. Sauer, "First demonstration of multihop all-optical packet switching," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 457-460 (1994).

1981 (1)

J. H. Patel, "Performance of processor-memory interconnections for multiprocessors," IEEE Trans. Comput. C-30, 771-780 (1981).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

S. Xiao, Q. Zeng, J. Wang, J. Xu, Y. Wang, "Realization of multiwavelength label optical packet switching," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 605-607 (2003).

R. E. Gordon, L. R. Chen, "Demonstration of all-photonic spectral label switching for optical MPLS networks," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 586-588 (2006).

IEEE Trans. Comput. (1)

J. H. Patel, "Performance of processor-memory interconnections for multiprocessors," IEEE Trans. Comput. C-30, 771-780 (1981).

IEEE Trans. Parallel Distrib. Syst. (1)

C. Hawkins, B. A. Small, D. S. Wills, K. Bergman, "The data vortex, An all optical path multicomputer interconnection network," IEEE Trans. Parallel Distrib. Syst. 18, 409-420 (2007).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

D. J. Blumenthal, R. J. Feuerstein, J. R. Sauer, "First demonstration of multihop all-optical packet switching," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 457-460 (1994).

J. E. McGeehan, M. C. Hauer, A. B. Sahin, A. E. Willner, "Multiwavelength-channel header recognition for reconfigurable WDM networks using optical correlators based on sampled fiber Bragg gratings," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1464-1466 (2003).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

M. C. Cardakli, S. Lee, A. E. Willner, V. Grubsky, D. Starodubov, J. Feinberg, "Reconfigurable optical packet header recognition and routing using time-to-wavelength mapping and tunable fiber Bragg gratings for correlation decoding," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 552-554 (2000).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

L. A. Buckman, M. S. Wu, G. Giaretta, G. S. Li, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. W. Goodman, A. Varma, K. Y. Lau, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, "A novel all-optical self-routed wavelength-addressable network (SWANET)," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1066-1068 (1995).

S. Ayotte, L. A. Rusch, "Experimental comparison of coherent versus incoherent sources in a four-user $\lambda$-${\rm t}$ OCDMA system at 1.25 Gb/s," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2493-2495 (2005).

J. Lightw. Technol. (8)

S. Yao, B. Mukherjee, S. J. B. Yoo, S. Dixit, "A unified study of contention-resolution schemes in optical packet-switched network," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 672-683 (2003).

C.-S. Weng, J. Wu, "Perfect difference codes for synchronous fiber-optic CDMA communication systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 19, 186-194 (2001).

A. Iocco, H. G. Limberger, R. P. Salathé, L. A. Everall, K. E. Chisolm, J. A. R. Williams, I. Bennion, "Bragg grating fast tunable filter for wavelength division multiplexing," J. Lightw. Technol. 17, 1217-1221 (1999).

M. Y. Jeon, Z. Pan, J. Cao, Y. Bansal, J. Taylor, Z. Wang, V. Akella, K. Okamoto, S. Kamei, J. Pan, S. J. B. Yoo, "Demonstration of all-optical packet switching routers with optical label swapping and 2R regeneration for scalable optical label switching network applications," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 2723-2733 (2003).

K. Vlachos, J. Zhang, J. Cheyns, Chi, N. Sulur, E. Van Breusegem, I. T. Monroy, J. G. L. Jennen, P. V. Holm-Nielsen, C. Peucheret, R. O'Dowd, P. Demeester, A. M. J. Koonen, "An optical IM/FSK coding technique for the implementation of a label-controlled arrayed waveguide packet router," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 2617-2628 (2003).

K. Kitayama, N. Wada, H. Sotobayashi, "Architectural considerations for photonic IP router based upon optical code correlation," J. Lightw. Technol. 18, 1834-1844 (2000).

P. Seddighian, S. Ayotte, J. B. Rosas–Fernández, J. Penon, L. A. Rusch, S. LaRochelle, "Label stacking in photonic packet switched networks with spectral amplitude code labels," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 463-471 (2007).

A. Shacham, B. A. Small, O. Liboiron-Ladouceur, K. Bergman, "A fully implemented data vortex optical packet switching interconnection network," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 3066-3075 (2005).

J. Lightw. Technol. (2)

N. Wada, G. Cincotti, S. Yoshima, N. Kataoka, K. Kitayama, "Characterization of a full encoder/decoder in the AWG configuration for code-based photonic Routers-part II: Experiments and applications," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 113-121 (2006).

S. Ayotte, M. Rochette, J. Magne, L. A. Rusch, S. LaRochelle, "Experimental verification and capacity prediction of FE-OCDMA using superimposed FBG," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 724-731 (2005).

J. Lightw. Technol. (5)

C. Skoufis, S. Sygletos, N. Leligou, C. Matrakidis, I. Pountourakis, A. Stavdas, "Data-centric networking using multiwavelength headers/labels in packet-over-WDM networks: A comparative study," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 2110-2122 (2003).

Q. Yang, K. Bergman, F. G. Johnson, G. D. Hughes, "WDM packet routing for high capacity data networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 19, 1420-1426 (2001).

Q. Yang, K. Bergman, "Performance of the data vortex switch architecture under nonuniform and bursty traffic," J. Lightw. Technol. 20, 1242-1247 (2002).

B. Hoanca, S. Dubovitsky, X. Zhu, A. A. Sawchuk, W. H. Steier, P. D. Dapkus, "All-optical routing using wavelength recognizing switches," J. Lightw. Technol. 16, 2243-2254 (1998).

G. Cincotti, N. Wada, K. Kitayama, "Characterization of a full encoder/decoder in the AWG configuration for code-based photonic routers-part I: Modeling and design," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 103-112 (2006).

J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (1)

J. B. Rosas-Fernández, S. Ayotte, L. A. Rusch, S. LaRochelle, "A simple ultrafast forwarding architecture using a single optical processor for multiple SAC-label recognition based on FWM," J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (2007).

Photon. Netw. Commun. (1)

A. Stavdas, C. Skoufis, I. Angelopoulos, G. Stassinopoulos, I. Pountourakis, "On multi-$\lambda$ packet labeling for metropolitan and wide-area optical networks," Photon. Netw. Commun. 3, 131-145 (2001).

Proc. IEEE (1)

D. J. Blumenthal, P. R. Prucnal, J. R. Sauer, "Photonic packet switches: Architectures and experimental implementations," Proc. IEEE 82, 1650-1667 (1994).

Other (12)

P. Seddighian, J. B. Rosas–Fernández, S. Ayotte, L. A. Rusch, S. LaRochelle, A. Leon-Garcia, "Low-cost, scalable optical packet switching networks with multi-wavelength labels," Proc. Optical Fiber Communications Conf. (OFC 2007) ().

N. Wada, H. Harai, W. Chujo, "Multi-hop, 40 Gbit/s variable length photonic packet routing based on multi-wavelength label switching, waveband routing and label swapping," Proc. Optical Fiber Communications Conf. (OFC 2002) (2002) pp. 216-217.

J. W. Goodman, Statistical Optics (Wiley, 2000).

N. Wada, H. Harai, W. Chujo, F. Kubota, "80 G to 10 Gbit/s variable rate photonic packet routing based on multi-wavelength label switch," Proc. 27th Eur. Conf. Optical Communications (ECOC 2001) () pp. 308-309.

J. B. Rosas-Fernández, W. Mathlouthi, M. Presi, S. LaRochelle, L. A. Rusch, I. White, "All optical recognition of 36 SAC-labels with 12.5 GHz minimum bin separation using a single correlator for optical label switching," 24th European Conf. Optical Communications (ECOC 2007) BerlinGermany ().

G. Cincotti, M. S. Moreolo, G. Manzacca, X. Wang, N. Wada, K. Kitayama, "Multi-dimensional optical code processing in MPLS photonic routers," Proc. Optical Fiber Communications Conf. (OFC 2006) ().

P. Seddighian, Y. BenM'Sallem, A. Leon-Garcia, L. A. Rusch, "Time-stacked optical labels: An alternative to label-swapping," Optical Fiber Communications Conf. (OFC 2008) San Diego ().

C. S. Reed, Multiple level minimum logic network U.S. Patent 5 996 020 (1999).

U. Black, MPLS and Label Switching Networks (Prentice Hall, 2002).

A. S. Tanenbaum, Computer Networks (Prentice Hall, 1996).

J. Kurumida, Y. Tatara, H. Uenohara, K. Kobayashi, "All-optical header recognition sub-system based on SOA-MZI switches," Proc. Pacific Rim Conf. Lasers Electro-Optics (CLEO 2005) () pp. 1790-1791.

P. Seddighian, V. Baby, C. Habib, L. R. Chen, L. A. Rusch, S. LaRochelle, "All-optical swapping of spectral amplitude code labels for packet switching," IEEE/LEOS Photonics in Switching Conf. San FranciscoCA (2007).

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