Abstract

Frozen-in mechanical stresses can significantly influence the optical and mechanical properties of optical fibers, especially in laser fibers for high-power operation. In the following, we will report on the polarimetric measurement of stresses induced by the spatially varying doping composition in fiber preforms. We investigated the effect of rare-earth laser ions and found that the dopant ytterbium generates higher stresses than other common dopants in lightwave technology such as phosphorus or aluminum. The stress-induced index change relevant for the guiding properties is derived from the stress data. Especially in large-mode-area laser fibers with low numerical apertures, such stresses can significantly modify the index profile and thereby influence the propagation behavior.

© 2009 IEEE

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  2. F. Hanawa, Y. Hibino, M. Horiguchi, "Drawing condition dependence of pure-silica-core single-mode fibers," Electron. Commun. Jpn. 72, (1989).
  3. G. W. Scherer, "Thermal stresses in a cylinder: Application to optical waveguide blanks," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 34, 223-238 (1979).
  4. H. G. Limberger, C. Ban, R. P. Salathé, S. A. Slattery, D. N. Nikogosyan, "Absence of UV-induced stress in Bragg gratings recorded by high-intensity 264 nm laser pulses in a hydrogenated standard telecom fiber," Opt. Exp. 15, 5610-5615 (2007).
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  6. J. J. Koponen, M. J. Söderlund, H. J. Hoffman, S. K. T. Tammela, "Measuring photodarkening from single-mode ytterbium doped silica fibers," Opt. Exp. 14, 11539 (2006).
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2008 (1)

O. Schmidt, J. Rothhardt, T. Eidam, F. Röser, J. Limpert, A. Tünnermann, K. P. Hansen, C. Jacobsen, J. Broeng, "Single-polarization ultra-large-mode-area Yb-doped photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Exp. 16, 3918-3923 (2008).

2007 (2)

H. G. Limberger, C. Ban, R. P. Salathé, S. A. Slattery, D. N. Nikogosyan, "Absence of UV-induced stress in Bragg gratings recorded by high-intensity 264 nm laser pulses in a hydrogenated standard telecom fiber," Opt. Exp. 15, 5610-5615 (2007).

S. Unger, A. Schwuchow, J. Dellith, J. Kirchhof, "Codoped materials for high power fiber lasers – Diffusion behaviour and optical properties," Proc. SPIE 6469, 646913 (2007).

2006 (2)

J. J. Koponen, M. J. Söderlund, H. J. Hoffman, S. K. T. Tammela, "Measuring photodarkening from single-mode ytterbium doped silica fibers," Opt. Exp. 14, 11539 (2006).

T. Schreiber, H. Schultz, F. Röser, O. Schmidt, J. Limpert, R. Iliew, A. Petersson, S. Jacobsen, K. P. Hansen, J. Broeng, A. Tünnermann, "Design and high power operation of a stress-induced single-polarization single transverse mode LMA Yb-doped photonic crystal fiber," Proc. SPIE 6102, 61020C.1-61020C.9 (2006).

2004 (3)

A. D. Yablon, "Optical and mechanical effects of frozen-in stresses and strains in optical fibers," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 300-311 (2004).

Y. Huo, P. K. Cheo, "Thermomechanical properties of high-power and high-energy Yb-doped silica fiber lasers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 759-761 (2004).

Y. Park, U. Paek, S. Han, B. Kim, C. Kim, D. Kim, "Inelastic frozen-in stresses in optical fibers," Opt. Commun. 242, 431-436 (2004).

2001 (1)

D. W. Brown, H. J. Hoffman, "Thermal, stress, and thermo-optic effects in high average power double-clad silica fiber lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 207-217 (2001).

1999 (1)

Y. Park, K. Oh, U. C. Paek, D. Y. Kim, C. R. Kurkjian, "Residual stresses in a doubly clad fiber with depressed inner cladding (DIC)," J. Lightw. Technol. 17, 1823-1843 (1999).

1989 (2)

D. J. DiGiovanni, J. B. MacChesney, T. Y. Kometani, "Structure and properties of silca containing aluminium and phosphorus near the $\hbox{AlPO}_{4}$ join," J. Non-Cryst. Sol. 13, 58-64 (1989).

F. Hanawa, Y. Hibino, M. Horiguchi, "Drawing condition dependence of pure-silica-core single-mode fibers," Electron. Commun. Jpn. 72, (1989).

1986 (1)

1982 (2)

P. L. Chu, T. Whitbread, "Measurement of stresses in optical fiber and preform," Appl. Opt. 21, 4241-4245 (1982).

G. W. Scherer, "Thermal stresses in optical fibers: Fluid core assumption," J. Non-Cryst. Sol. 51, 323-332 (1982).

1980 (1)

1979 (3)

N. Shibata, K. Jinguji, M. Kawachi, T. Edahiro, "Nondestructive structure measurement of optical fiber preforms with photoelastic effect," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 18, 1267-1273 (1979).

I. P. Kaminow, V. Ramaswamy, "Single-polarization optical fibers: Slab model," Appl. Phys. Lett. 34, 268-270 (1979).

G. W. Scherer, "Thermal stresses in a cylinder: Application to optical waveguide blanks," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 34, 223-238 (1979).

Appl. Opt. (3)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

I. P. Kaminow, V. Ramaswamy, "Single-polarization optical fibers: Slab model," Appl. Phys. Lett. 34, 268-270 (1979).

Electron. Commun. Jpn. (1)

F. Hanawa, Y. Hibino, M. Horiguchi, "Drawing condition dependence of pure-silica-core single-mode fibers," Electron. Commun. Jpn. 72, (1989).

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

A. D. Yablon, "Optical and mechanical effects of frozen-in stresses and strains in optical fibers," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 300-311 (2004).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

D. W. Brown, H. J. Hoffman, "Thermal, stress, and thermo-optic effects in high average power double-clad silica fiber lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 207-217 (2001).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

Y. Huo, P. K. Cheo, "Thermomechanical properties of high-power and high-energy Yb-doped silica fiber lasers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 759-761 (2004).

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (1)

G. W. Scherer, "Thermal stresses in a cylinder: Application to optical waveguide blanks," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 34, 223-238 (1979).

J. Lightw. Technol. (1)

Y. Park, K. Oh, U. C. Paek, D. Y. Kim, C. R. Kurkjian, "Residual stresses in a doubly clad fiber with depressed inner cladding (DIC)," J. Lightw. Technol. 17, 1823-1843 (1999).

J. Non-Cryst. Sol. (1)

G. W. Scherer, "Thermal stresses in optical fibers: Fluid core assumption," J. Non-Cryst. Sol. 51, 323-332 (1982).

J. Non-Cryst. Sol. (1)

D. J. DiGiovanni, J. B. MacChesney, T. Y. Kometani, "Structure and properties of silca containing aluminium and phosphorus near the $\hbox{AlPO}_{4}$ join," J. Non-Cryst. Sol. 13, 58-64 (1989).

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

N. Shibata, K. Jinguji, M. Kawachi, T. Edahiro, "Nondestructive structure measurement of optical fiber preforms with photoelastic effect," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 18, 1267-1273 (1979).

Opt. Exp. (1)

J. J. Koponen, M. J. Söderlund, H. J. Hoffman, S. K. T. Tammela, "Measuring photodarkening from single-mode ytterbium doped silica fibers," Opt. Exp. 14, 11539 (2006).

Opt. Commun. (1)

Y. Park, U. Paek, S. Han, B. Kim, C. Kim, D. Kim, "Inelastic frozen-in stresses in optical fibers," Opt. Commun. 242, 431-436 (2004).

Opt. Exp. (2)

H. G. Limberger, C. Ban, R. P. Salathé, S. A. Slattery, D. N. Nikogosyan, "Absence of UV-induced stress in Bragg gratings recorded by high-intensity 264 nm laser pulses in a hydrogenated standard telecom fiber," Opt. Exp. 15, 5610-5615 (2007).

O. Schmidt, J. Rothhardt, T. Eidam, F. Röser, J. Limpert, A. Tünnermann, K. P. Hansen, C. Jacobsen, J. Broeng, "Single-polarization ultra-large-mode-area Yb-doped photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Exp. 16, 3918-3923 (2008).

Proc. SPIE (2)

T. Schreiber, H. Schultz, F. Röser, O. Schmidt, J. Limpert, R. Iliew, A. Petersson, S. Jacobsen, K. P. Hansen, J. Broeng, A. Tünnermann, "Design and high power operation of a stress-induced single-polarization single transverse mode LMA Yb-doped photonic crystal fiber," Proc. SPIE 6102, 61020C.1-61020C.9 (2006).

S. Unger, A. Schwuchow, J. Dellith, J. Kirchhof, "Codoped materials for high power fiber lasers – Diffusion behaviour and optical properties," Proc. SPIE 6469, 646913 (2007).

Other (4)

J. Kirchhof, S. Unger, A. Schwuchow, "Properties of Yb-doped materials for solid and microstructured high power fiber laser," Proc. ICMAT 2007, Symp. on Microstructured and Nanostructured Materials (2007) pp. 142.

N. P. Bansal, R. H. Doremus, Handbook of Glass Properties (Academic Press, 1986).

East GranbyNufern (Nufern, 2008) http://www.nufern.com/fiber_detail.php/71.

S. P. Timoshenko, J. N. Goodier, Theorie of Elasticity (McGraw-Hill, 1970).

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