Abstract

A simultaneous interrogation technique of a hybrid fiber Bragg grating (FBG) and long-period grating (LPG) sensor pair is proposed and demonstrated using a monolithically integrated echelle diffractive grating (EDG). The operation principle that is based on the monotonic temperature dependence of the EDG transmission wavelengths is presented. Initial results show that a 1-pm resolution and 24-nm interrogation range are achieved by using the proposed interrogation technique, which can effectively be implemented to interrogate hybrid FBG/LPG-based sensor pairs for the discrimination of refractive index (RI)/temperature in RI measurement. The specially designed EDG-based interrogator has the added features of low cost and compact size.

© 2009 IEEE

PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |

  1. V. Bhatia, A. M. Vengsarkar, "Optical fiber long-period grating sensors," Opt. Lett. 21, 692-694 (1996).
  2. H. J. Patrick, A. D. Kersey, F. Bucholtz, "Analysis of the response of long period fiber gratings to external index of refraction," J. Lightw. Technol. 16, 1606-1612 (1998).
  3. B. A. L. Gwandu, X. Shu, T. D. P. Allsop, W. Zhang, L. Zhang, D. J. Webb, I. Bennion, "Simultaneous refractive index and temperature measurement using a cascaded long-period grating device," Proc. IEEE 2, 1032-1035 (2002).
  4. J. H. Yan, A. P. Zhang, L. Y. Shao, J. F. Ding, S. He, "Simultaneous measurement of refractive index and temperature by using dual long-period gratings with an etching process," IEEE Sensors J. 7, 1360-1361 (2007).
  5. T. Allsop, R. Neal, D. Giannone, D. J. Webb, D. J. Mapps, I. Bennion, "Sensing characteristics of a novel two-section long-period grating," Appl. Opt. 42, 3766-3771 (2003).
  6. A. P. Zhang, L. Y. Shao, J. F. Ding, S. He, "Sandwiched long-period gratings for simultaneous measurement of refractive index and temperature," Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2397-2399 (2005).
  7. X. W. Shu, B. A. L. Gwandu, Y. Liu, L. Zhang, I. Bennion, "Sampled fiber Bragg grating for simultaneous refractive index and temperature measurement," Opt. Lett. 26, 774-776 (2001).
  8. X. F. Chen, K. M. Zhou, L. Zhang, I. Bennion, "Simultaneous measurement of temperature and external refractive index by use of a hybrid grating in D fiber with enhanced sensitivity by HF etching," Appl. Opt. 44, 178-182 (2005).
  9. T. Allsop, L. Zhang, I. Benion, "Detection of organic aromatic compounds by a long period fibre grating optical sensor with optimized sensitivity," Opt. Commun. 191, 181-190 (2001).
  10. H. J. Patrick, G. M. Williams, A. D. Kersey, J. R. Pedrazzani, A. M. Vengsarkar, "Hybrid fiber Bragg grating/long period fiber grating sensor for strain/temperature discrimination," Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1223-1225 (1996).
  11. G. Z. Xiao, P. Zhao, F. G. Sun, Z. G. Lu, Z. Y. Zhang, C. P. Grover, "Interrogating fiber Bragg grating sensors by thermally scanning a demultiplexer based on arrayed waveguide gratings," Opt. Lett. 29, 2222-2224 (2004).
  12. J. J. He, B. Lamontagne, A. Delage, L. Erickson, M. Davies, E. S. Koteles, "Monolithic integrated wavelength demultiplexer based on a waveguide Rowland circle grating in InGaAsP/InP," J. Lightw. Technol. 16, 631-638 (1998).
  13. T. Erdogan, "Fiber grating spectra," J. Lightw. Technol. 15, 1277-1294 (1997).
  14. Y. Sano, T. Yoshino, "Fast optical wavelength interrogator employing arrayed waveguide grating for distributed fiber Bragg grating sensors," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 132-139 (2003).
  15. G. Z. Xiao, N. Mrad, F. Wu, Z. Zhang, F. Sun, "Miniaturized optical fiber sensor interrogation system employing echelle diffractive gratings demultiplexer for potential aerospace applications," IEEE Sensors J. 8, 1202-1207 (2008).
  16. A. B. L. Ribeiro, L. A. Ferreira, J. L. Santos, D. A. Jackson, "Analysis of the reflective-matched fiber Bragg grating sensing interrogation scheme," Appl. Opt. 36, 934-939 (1997).
  17. F. G. Sun, G. Z. Xiao, Z. Y. Zhang, Z. G. Lu, "Modeling of arrayed gratings for wavelength interrogation application," Opt. Commun. 271, 105-108 (2007).

2008 (1)

G. Z. Xiao, N. Mrad, F. Wu, Z. Zhang, F. Sun, "Miniaturized optical fiber sensor interrogation system employing echelle diffractive gratings demultiplexer for potential aerospace applications," IEEE Sensors J. 8, 1202-1207 (2008).

2007 (2)

F. G. Sun, G. Z. Xiao, Z. Y. Zhang, Z. G. Lu, "Modeling of arrayed gratings for wavelength interrogation application," Opt. Commun. 271, 105-108 (2007).

J. H. Yan, A. P. Zhang, L. Y. Shao, J. F. Ding, S. He, "Simultaneous measurement of refractive index and temperature by using dual long-period gratings with an etching process," IEEE Sensors J. 7, 1360-1361 (2007).

2005 (2)

A. P. Zhang, L. Y. Shao, J. F. Ding, S. He, "Sandwiched long-period gratings for simultaneous measurement of refractive index and temperature," Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2397-2399 (2005).

X. F. Chen, K. M. Zhou, L. Zhang, I. Bennion, "Simultaneous measurement of temperature and external refractive index by use of a hybrid grating in D fiber with enhanced sensitivity by HF etching," Appl. Opt. 44, 178-182 (2005).

2004 (1)

G. Z. Xiao, P. Zhao, F. G. Sun, Z. G. Lu, Z. Y. Zhang, C. P. Grover, "Interrogating fiber Bragg grating sensors by thermally scanning a demultiplexer based on arrayed waveguide gratings," Opt. Lett. 29, 2222-2224 (2004).

2003 (2)

Y. Sano, T. Yoshino, "Fast optical wavelength interrogator employing arrayed waveguide grating for distributed fiber Bragg grating sensors," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 132-139 (2003).

T. Allsop, R. Neal, D. Giannone, D. J. Webb, D. J. Mapps, I. Bennion, "Sensing characteristics of a novel two-section long-period grating," Appl. Opt. 42, 3766-3771 (2003).

2002 (1)

B. A. L. Gwandu, X. Shu, T. D. P. Allsop, W. Zhang, L. Zhang, D. J. Webb, I. Bennion, "Simultaneous refractive index and temperature measurement using a cascaded long-period grating device," Proc. IEEE 2, 1032-1035 (2002).

2001 (2)

T. Allsop, L. Zhang, I. Benion, "Detection of organic aromatic compounds by a long period fibre grating optical sensor with optimized sensitivity," Opt. Commun. 191, 181-190 (2001).

X. W. Shu, B. A. L. Gwandu, Y. Liu, L. Zhang, I. Bennion, "Sampled fiber Bragg grating for simultaneous refractive index and temperature measurement," Opt. Lett. 26, 774-776 (2001).

1998 (2)

H. J. Patrick, A. D. Kersey, F. Bucholtz, "Analysis of the response of long period fiber gratings to external index of refraction," J. Lightw. Technol. 16, 1606-1612 (1998).

J. J. He, B. Lamontagne, A. Delage, L. Erickson, M. Davies, E. S. Koteles, "Monolithic integrated wavelength demultiplexer based on a waveguide Rowland circle grating in InGaAsP/InP," J. Lightw. Technol. 16, 631-638 (1998).

1997 (2)

T. Erdogan, "Fiber grating spectra," J. Lightw. Technol. 15, 1277-1294 (1997).

A. B. L. Ribeiro, L. A. Ferreira, J. L. Santos, D. A. Jackson, "Analysis of the reflective-matched fiber Bragg grating sensing interrogation scheme," Appl. Opt. 36, 934-939 (1997).

1996 (2)

V. Bhatia, A. M. Vengsarkar, "Optical fiber long-period grating sensors," Opt. Lett. 21, 692-694 (1996).

H. J. Patrick, G. M. Williams, A. D. Kersey, J. R. Pedrazzani, A. M. Vengsarkar, "Hybrid fiber Bragg grating/long period fiber grating sensor for strain/temperature discrimination," Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1223-1225 (1996).

Appl. Opt. (1)

A. B. L. Ribeiro, L. A. Ferreira, J. L. Santos, D. A. Jackson, "Analysis of the reflective-matched fiber Bragg grating sensing interrogation scheme," Appl. Opt. 36, 934-939 (1997).

Appl. Opt. (2)

IEEE Sensors J. (1)

G. Z. Xiao, N. Mrad, F. Wu, Z. Zhang, F. Sun, "Miniaturized optical fiber sensor interrogation system employing echelle diffractive gratings demultiplexer for potential aerospace applications," IEEE Sensors J. 8, 1202-1207 (2008).

IEEE Sensors J. (1)

J. H. Yan, A. P. Zhang, L. Y. Shao, J. F. Ding, S. He, "Simultaneous measurement of refractive index and temperature by using dual long-period gratings with an etching process," IEEE Sensors J. 7, 1360-1361 (2007).

J. Lightw. Technol. (4)

H. J. Patrick, A. D. Kersey, F. Bucholtz, "Analysis of the response of long period fiber gratings to external index of refraction," J. Lightw. Technol. 16, 1606-1612 (1998).

J. J. He, B. Lamontagne, A. Delage, L. Erickson, M. Davies, E. S. Koteles, "Monolithic integrated wavelength demultiplexer based on a waveguide Rowland circle grating in InGaAsP/InP," J. Lightw. Technol. 16, 631-638 (1998).

T. Erdogan, "Fiber grating spectra," J. Lightw. Technol. 15, 1277-1294 (1997).

Y. Sano, T. Yoshino, "Fast optical wavelength interrogator employing arrayed waveguide grating for distributed fiber Bragg grating sensors," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 132-139 (2003).

Opt. Lett. (1)

G. Z. Xiao, P. Zhao, F. G. Sun, Z. G. Lu, Z. Y. Zhang, C. P. Grover, "Interrogating fiber Bragg grating sensors by thermally scanning a demultiplexer based on arrayed waveguide gratings," Opt. Lett. 29, 2222-2224 (2004).

Opt. Commun. (2)

F. G. Sun, G. Z. Xiao, Z. Y. Zhang, Z. G. Lu, "Modeling of arrayed gratings for wavelength interrogation application," Opt. Commun. 271, 105-108 (2007).

T. Allsop, L. Zhang, I. Benion, "Detection of organic aromatic compounds by a long period fibre grating optical sensor with optimized sensitivity," Opt. Commun. 191, 181-190 (2001).

Opt. Lett. (2)

Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

A. P. Zhang, L. Y. Shao, J. F. Ding, S. He, "Sandwiched long-period gratings for simultaneous measurement of refractive index and temperature," Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2397-2399 (2005).

Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

H. J. Patrick, G. M. Williams, A. D. Kersey, J. R. Pedrazzani, A. M. Vengsarkar, "Hybrid fiber Bragg grating/long period fiber grating sensor for strain/temperature discrimination," Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1223-1225 (1996).

Proc. IEEE (1)

B. A. L. Gwandu, X. Shu, T. D. P. Allsop, W. Zhang, L. Zhang, D. J. Webb, I. Bennion, "Simultaneous refractive index and temperature measurement using a cascaded long-period grating device," Proc. IEEE 2, 1032-1035 (2002).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.