Abstract

The extension of optical add/drop multiplexing (OADM) systems to metro-core and metro-access networks has led to the need for economical and compact OADM devices. In this paper, we demonstrate a 1-in.<sup>2</sup> 100 GHz spacing 40-channel (ch) single-chip variable attenuator multiplexer/demultiplexer based on a monolithic 2.5%-Δ silica planar lightwave circuit (PLC) and stacked photodiode arrays. We also investigate the particular issues raised by monolithic integration with such high Δ waveguides. One is the loss increase caused by high index contrast of the waveguides. Performance fluctuation and thermal interference between the integrated circuits are also inherent issues. By utilizing effective solutions, we have successfully overcome such problems and confirmed that a 2.5%-Δ silica PLC is effective for use in monolithic integration.

© 2009 US

PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |

  1. A. Kaneko, Y. Doi, Y. Hashizume, S. Kamei, Y. Tamura, I. Ogawa, T. Kominato, S. Suzuki, "Ultra small 16-ch variable optical attenuator multiplexer (V-AWG) using multi-chip PLC integration technology for ROADM," Proc. ECOC 2005 pp. 987-990.
  2. M. P. Earnshaw, M. Cappuzzo, E. Chen, L. Gomez, A. Griffin, E. Laskowski, A. Wong-Foy, "High performance variable optical attenuator multiplexer filter (VMUX)," OFC 2005, Anaheim, CA OTuD2.
  3. J. Lam, A. Liu, M. Yan, "Multi-function integrated AWG devices," OFC 2005, Anaheim, CA OTuD1.
  4. J. B. D. Soole, R. Pafchek, C. Narayanan, G. Bogert, L. Jampanaboyana, N. Chand, J. Yu, M. Fischer, M. Ling, M. P. Earnshaw, K. Kojima, V. Swaminathan, "DWDM performance of a packaged reconfigurable optical add-drop multiplexer subsystem supporting modular systems growth," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1600-1602 (Nov. 2003).
  5. I. Ogawa, M. Abe, Y. Hashizume, S. Kamei, S. Suzuki, "Single-chip 16-ch variable attenuator multiplexer (V-AWG) with stacked PD-array using integrated micro-mirrors on PLC," Proc. LEOS 2006 pp. 285-286.
  6. C. R. Doerr, L. W. Stulz, D. S. Levy, L. Gomez, M. Cappuzzo, J. Bailey, R. Long, A. Wong-Foy, E. Laskowski, E. Chen, S. Patel, T. Murphy, "Eight-wavelength add-drop filter with true reconfigurability," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 138-140 (Jan. 2003).
  7. Y. Hashizume, K. Watanabe, Y. Nasu, M. Kohtoku, S. Kamei, T. Kitoh, Y. Inoue, "Silica PLC-VOA using suspended narrow ridge structures and its application to V-AWG," OFC 2007, Anaheim, CA OWO4.
  8. B. J. Offrein, F. Horst, G. L. Bona, R. Germann, H. W. M. Salemink, R. Beyeler, "Adaptive gain equalizer in high-index-contrast SiON technology," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 504-506 (2000).
  9. U. Fisher, T. Zinke, J. R. Kropp, F. Amdt, K. Petermann, "0.1 &/cm waveguide losses in single-mode SO1 rib waveguides," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 647-648 (May 1996).
  10. T. Mizuno, T. Kitoh, M. Itoh, T. Saida, T. Shibata, Y. Hibino, "Optical spotsize converter using narrow laterally tapered waveguide for planar lightwave circuits," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 833-839 (Mar. 2004).
  11. K. Okamoto, A. Sugita, "Flat spectral response arrayed-waveguide grating multiplexer with parabolic waveguide horns," Electron. Lett. 32, 1661 (1996).
  12. Y. Hashizume, Y. Inoue, T. Kominato, T. Shibata, M. Okuno, "Low-PDL 16-channel variable optical attenuator array using silica-based PLC," OFC 2004, Anaheim, CA WC4.
  13. S. Sohma, T. Goh, H. Okazaki, M. Okuno, A. A. Sugita, "Low switching power silica-based super high delta thermo-optic switch with heat insulating grooves," Electron. Lett. 38, 127 (2002).
  14. A. Sugita, A. Kaneko, K. Okamoto, M. Itoh, A. Himeno, Y. Ohmori, "Very low insertion loss arrayed-waveguide grating with vertically tapered waveguides," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1180-1182 (Sep. 2002).
  15. T. Goh, M. Ishii, T. Mizuno, S. Kamei, I. Ogawa, H. Hirota, Y. Tamura, M. Kobayashi, M. M. Yanagisawa, S. Sohma, A. Kaneko, "Four-degree hub switch module using multi-chip planar lightwave circuit integration technology for transparent ROADM ring interconnection," OFC 2006, Anaheim, CA OTuF3.
  16. M. Abe, Y. Hibino, T. Tanaka, M. Itoh, A. Himeno, Y. Ohmori, "Mach-Zehnder interferometer and arrayed waveguide-grating integrated multi/demultiplexer with photosensitive wavelength tuning," Electron. Lett. 37, 376-377 (2001).
  17. H. Yamazaki, K. Watanabe, M. Yanagisawa, M. Itoh, I. Ogawa, A. Kaneko, "Improvement of in-line power monitor integration technology for a compact multifunctional silica PLC," Proc. LEOS 2007 pp. 175-176.

2002 (1)

S. Sohma, T. Goh, H. Okazaki, M. Okuno, A. A. Sugita, "Low switching power silica-based super high delta thermo-optic switch with heat insulating grooves," Electron. Lett. 38, 127 (2002).

2001 (1)

M. Abe, Y. Hibino, T. Tanaka, M. Itoh, A. Himeno, Y. Ohmori, "Mach-Zehnder interferometer and arrayed waveguide-grating integrated multi/demultiplexer with photosensitive wavelength tuning," Electron. Lett. 37, 376-377 (2001).

2000 (1)

B. J. Offrein, F. Horst, G. L. Bona, R. Germann, H. W. M. Salemink, R. Beyeler, "Adaptive gain equalizer in high-index-contrast SiON technology," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 504-506 (2000).

1996 (1)

K. Okamoto, A. Sugita, "Flat spectral response arrayed-waveguide grating multiplexer with parabolic waveguide horns," Electron. Lett. 32, 1661 (1996).

Electron. Lett. (2)

K. Okamoto, A. Sugita, "Flat spectral response arrayed-waveguide grating multiplexer with parabolic waveguide horns," Electron. Lett. 32, 1661 (1996).

S. Sohma, T. Goh, H. Okazaki, M. Okuno, A. A. Sugita, "Low switching power silica-based super high delta thermo-optic switch with heat insulating grooves," Electron. Lett. 38, 127 (2002).

Electron. Lett. (1)

M. Abe, Y. Hibino, T. Tanaka, M. Itoh, A. Himeno, Y. Ohmori, "Mach-Zehnder interferometer and arrayed waveguide-grating integrated multi/demultiplexer with photosensitive wavelength tuning," Electron. Lett. 37, 376-377 (2001).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

A. Sugita, A. Kaneko, K. Okamoto, M. Itoh, A. Himeno, Y. Ohmori, "Very low insertion loss arrayed-waveguide grating with vertically tapered waveguides," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1180-1182 (Sep. 2002).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

J. B. D. Soole, R. Pafchek, C. Narayanan, G. Bogert, L. Jampanaboyana, N. Chand, J. Yu, M. Fischer, M. Ling, M. P. Earnshaw, K. Kojima, V. Swaminathan, "DWDM performance of a packaged reconfigurable optical add-drop multiplexer subsystem supporting modular systems growth," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1600-1602 (Nov. 2003).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

C. R. Doerr, L. W. Stulz, D. S. Levy, L. Gomez, M. Cappuzzo, J. Bailey, R. Long, A. Wong-Foy, E. Laskowski, E. Chen, S. Patel, T. Murphy, "Eight-wavelength add-drop filter with true reconfigurability," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 138-140 (Jan. 2003).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

B. J. Offrein, F. Horst, G. L. Bona, R. Germann, H. W. M. Salemink, R. Beyeler, "Adaptive gain equalizer in high-index-contrast SiON technology," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 504-506 (2000).

U. Fisher, T. Zinke, J. R. Kropp, F. Amdt, K. Petermann, "0.1 &/cm waveguide losses in single-mode SO1 rib waveguides," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 647-648 (May 1996).

J. Lightw. Technol. (1)

T. Mizuno, T. Kitoh, M. Itoh, T. Saida, T. Shibata, Y. Hibino, "Optical spotsize converter using narrow laterally tapered waveguide for planar lightwave circuits," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 833-839 (Mar. 2004).

Other (8)

Y. Hashizume, K. Watanabe, Y. Nasu, M. Kohtoku, S. Kamei, T. Kitoh, Y. Inoue, "Silica PLC-VOA using suspended narrow ridge structures and its application to V-AWG," OFC 2007, Anaheim, CA OWO4.

I. Ogawa, M. Abe, Y. Hashizume, S. Kamei, S. Suzuki, "Single-chip 16-ch variable attenuator multiplexer (V-AWG) with stacked PD-array using integrated micro-mirrors on PLC," Proc. LEOS 2006 pp. 285-286.

A. Kaneko, Y. Doi, Y. Hashizume, S. Kamei, Y. Tamura, I. Ogawa, T. Kominato, S. Suzuki, "Ultra small 16-ch variable optical attenuator multiplexer (V-AWG) using multi-chip PLC integration technology for ROADM," Proc. ECOC 2005 pp. 987-990.

M. P. Earnshaw, M. Cappuzzo, E. Chen, L. Gomez, A. Griffin, E. Laskowski, A. Wong-Foy, "High performance variable optical attenuator multiplexer filter (VMUX)," OFC 2005, Anaheim, CA OTuD2.

J. Lam, A. Liu, M. Yan, "Multi-function integrated AWG devices," OFC 2005, Anaheim, CA OTuD1.

T. Goh, M. Ishii, T. Mizuno, S. Kamei, I. Ogawa, H. Hirota, Y. Tamura, M. Kobayashi, M. M. Yanagisawa, S. Sohma, A. Kaneko, "Four-degree hub switch module using multi-chip planar lightwave circuit integration technology for transparent ROADM ring interconnection," OFC 2006, Anaheim, CA OTuF3.

Y. Hashizume, Y. Inoue, T. Kominato, T. Shibata, M. Okuno, "Low-PDL 16-channel variable optical attenuator array using silica-based PLC," OFC 2004, Anaheim, CA WC4.

H. Yamazaki, K. Watanabe, M. Yanagisawa, M. Itoh, I. Ogawa, A. Kaneko, "Improvement of in-line power monitor integration technology for a compact multifunctional silica PLC," Proc. LEOS 2007 pp. 175-176.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.