Abstract

Physical impairments in optical fiber transmission necessitate the use of regeneration at certain intermediate nodes, at least for certain lengthy lightpaths. We design and implement impairment-aware algorithms for routing and wavelength assignment (IA-RWA) in translucent optical networks. We focus on the offline version of the problem, where we are given a network topology, the number of available wavelengths and a traffic matrix. The proposed algorithm selects the 3R regeneration sites and the number of regenerators that need to be deployed on these sites, solving the regenerator placement problem for the given set of requested connections. The problem can be also posed in a slightly different setting, where a (sparse) placement of regenerators in the network is given as input and the algorithm selects which of the available regenerators to use, solving the regenerator assignment problem. We formulate the problem of regenerator placement and regenerator assignment, as a virtual topology design problem, and address it using various algorithms, ranging from a series of integer linear programming (ILP) formulations to simple greedy heuristic algorithms. Once the sequence of regenerators to be used by the non-transparent connections has been determined, we transform the initial traffic matrix by replacing non-transparent connections with a sequence of transparent connections that terminate and begin at the specified 3R intermediate nodes. Using the transformed matrix we then apply an IA-RWA algorithm designed for transparent (as opposed to translucent) networks to route the traffic. Blocked connections are re-routed using any remaining regenerator(s) in the last phase of the algorithm.

© 2009 IEEE

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References

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  1. T. E. Stern, K. Bala, Multiwavelength Optical Networks: A Layered Approach (Prentice Hall, 1999).
  2. B. Mukherjee, Optical WDM Networks (Springer-Verlag, 2006).
  3. G. P. Agawal, Fiber-Optic Communication Systems (Wiley, 2002).
  4. B. Ramamurthy, D. Datta, H. Feng, J. P. Heritage, B. Mukherjee, "Transparent vs. opaque vs. translucent wavelength-routed optical networks," Proc. .OFC (1999) pp. 59-61.
  5. A. M. Saleh, "Transparent optical networking in backbone networks," Proc. OFC (2000) pp. 62-64.
  6. G. Shen, W. D. Grover, T. H. Cheng, S. K. Bose, "Sparse placement of electronic switching nodes for low-blocking in translucent optical networks," OSA J. Opt. Netw. 1, 424-441 (2002).
  7. Y. Ye, T. Y. Chai, T. H. Cheng, C. Lu, "Novel algorithm for upgrading of translucent optical networks," Opt. Express 11, 3022-3033 (2003).
  8. X. Yang, B. Ramamurthy, "Dynamic routing in translucent WDM optical networks: The intra-domain case," IEEE/OSA J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 955-971 (2005).
  9. Y. Ye, T. Y. Chai, C. Lu, "Routing and wavelength assignment algorithms for translucent optical networks," Opt. Commun. 233-239 (2004).
  10. S. Pachnicke, T. Paschenda, P. Krummrich, "Assessment of a constraint-based routing algorithm for translucent 10 Gbits/s DWDM networks considering fiber nonlinearities," OSA J. Opt. Netw. 7, 365-377 (2008).
  11. Y. Ye, T. Y. Chai, T. H. Cheng, C. Lu, "Algorithms for the design of WDM translucent optical networks," Opt. Express 11, 2917-2926 (2003).
  12. B. Ramamurthy, S. Yaragorla, X. Yang, "Translucent optical WDM networks for the next-generation backbone networks," Proc. Globecom (2001) pp. 60-64.
  13. X. Yang, B. Ramamurthy, "Sparse regeneration in translucent wavelength-routed optical networks: Architecture, network design and wavelength routing," Photon. Netw. Commun. 10, (2005).
  14. M. A. Ezzahdi, S. A. Zahr, M. Koubaa, N. Puech, M. Gagnaire, "LERP: A Quality of transmission dependent heuristic for routing and wavelength assignment in hybrid WDM networks," Proc. ICCCN (2006) pp. 125-136.
  15. K. Christodoulopoulos, K. Manousakis, E. Varvarigos, "Comparison of routing and wavelength assignment algorithms in WDM networks," Proc. Globecom 2008 pp. 1-6.
  16. K. Manousakis, K. Christodoulopoulos, E. Varvarigos, "Impairment-Aware offline RWA for transparent optical networks," Proc. Infocom 2009 .
  17. K. Christodoulopoulos, K. Manousakis, E. A. Varvarigos, "Cross layer optimization of static lightpath demands in transparent WDM optical networks," Proc. IEEE ITW Netw. Inf. Theory (2009).
  18. B. Ramamurthy, D. Datta, H. Feng, J. P. Heritage, B. Mukherjee, "Impact of transmission impairments on the teletraffic performance of wavelength-routed networks," IEEE/OSA J. Lightw. Technol. 17, 1713-1723 (1999).
  19. Dynamic Impairment Constraint Network for Transparent Mesh Optical Networks (DICONET) http://www.diconet.eu/.
  20. LINDO API http://www.lindo.com/.

2008 (1)

S. Pachnicke, T. Paschenda, P. Krummrich, "Assessment of a constraint-based routing algorithm for translucent 10 Gbits/s DWDM networks considering fiber nonlinearities," OSA J. Opt. Netw. 7, 365-377 (2008).

2005 (2)

X. Yang, B. Ramamurthy, "Dynamic routing in translucent WDM optical networks: The intra-domain case," IEEE/OSA J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 955-971 (2005).

X. Yang, B. Ramamurthy, "Sparse regeneration in translucent wavelength-routed optical networks: Architecture, network design and wavelength routing," Photon. Netw. Commun. 10, (2005).

2004 (1)

Y. Ye, T. Y. Chai, C. Lu, "Routing and wavelength assignment algorithms for translucent optical networks," Opt. Commun. 233-239 (2004).

2003 (2)

2002 (1)

G. Shen, W. D. Grover, T. H. Cheng, S. K. Bose, "Sparse placement of electronic switching nodes for low-blocking in translucent optical networks," OSA J. Opt. Netw. 1, 424-441 (2002).

1999 (1)

B. Ramamurthy, D. Datta, H. Feng, J. P. Heritage, B. Mukherjee, "Impact of transmission impairments on the teletraffic performance of wavelength-routed networks," IEEE/OSA J. Lightw. Technol. 17, 1713-1723 (1999).

IEEE/OSA J. Lightw. Technol. (1)

X. Yang, B. Ramamurthy, "Dynamic routing in translucent WDM optical networks: The intra-domain case," IEEE/OSA J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 955-971 (2005).

IEEE/OSA J. Lightw. Technol. (1)

B. Ramamurthy, D. Datta, H. Feng, J. P. Heritage, B. Mukherjee, "Impact of transmission impairments on the teletraffic performance of wavelength-routed networks," IEEE/OSA J. Lightw. Technol. 17, 1713-1723 (1999).

Opt. Commun. (1)

Y. Ye, T. Y. Chai, C. Lu, "Routing and wavelength assignment algorithms for translucent optical networks," Opt. Commun. 233-239 (2004).

Opt. Express (2)

OSA J. Opt. Netw. (2)

S. Pachnicke, T. Paschenda, P. Krummrich, "Assessment of a constraint-based routing algorithm for translucent 10 Gbits/s DWDM networks considering fiber nonlinearities," OSA J. Opt. Netw. 7, 365-377 (2008).

G. Shen, W. D. Grover, T. H. Cheng, S. K. Bose, "Sparse placement of electronic switching nodes for low-blocking in translucent optical networks," OSA J. Opt. Netw. 1, 424-441 (2002).

Photon. Netw. Commun. (1)

X. Yang, B. Ramamurthy, "Sparse regeneration in translucent wavelength-routed optical networks: Architecture, network design and wavelength routing," Photon. Netw. Commun. 10, (2005).

Other (12)

M. A. Ezzahdi, S. A. Zahr, M. Koubaa, N. Puech, M. Gagnaire, "LERP: A Quality of transmission dependent heuristic for routing and wavelength assignment in hybrid WDM networks," Proc. ICCCN (2006) pp. 125-136.

K. Christodoulopoulos, K. Manousakis, E. Varvarigos, "Comparison of routing and wavelength assignment algorithms in WDM networks," Proc. Globecom 2008 pp. 1-6.

K. Manousakis, K. Christodoulopoulos, E. Varvarigos, "Impairment-Aware offline RWA for transparent optical networks," Proc. Infocom 2009 .

K. Christodoulopoulos, K. Manousakis, E. A. Varvarigos, "Cross layer optimization of static lightpath demands in transparent WDM optical networks," Proc. IEEE ITW Netw. Inf. Theory (2009).

Dynamic Impairment Constraint Network for Transparent Mesh Optical Networks (DICONET) http://www.diconet.eu/.

LINDO API http://www.lindo.com/.

B. Ramamurthy, S. Yaragorla, X. Yang, "Translucent optical WDM networks for the next-generation backbone networks," Proc. Globecom (2001) pp. 60-64.

T. E. Stern, K. Bala, Multiwavelength Optical Networks: A Layered Approach (Prentice Hall, 1999).

B. Mukherjee, Optical WDM Networks (Springer-Verlag, 2006).

G. P. Agawal, Fiber-Optic Communication Systems (Wiley, 2002).

B. Ramamurthy, D. Datta, H. Feng, J. P. Heritage, B. Mukherjee, "Transparent vs. opaque vs. translucent wavelength-routed optical networks," Proc. .OFC (1999) pp. 59-61.

A. M. Saleh, "Transparent optical networking in backbone networks," Proc. OFC (2000) pp. 62-64.

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