Abstract

We review the field of fluid-filled solid-core photonic bandgap fibers (SC-PBGF): we present the mechanisms and models of light guidance in these fibers, and how the guidance properties are sensitive to the refractive index of the infiltrated fluid. We discuss how this sensitivity can be used for creating tunable devices such as filters, delay lines and tunable non-linear pulse propagation experiments. We review refractive index sensors based on SC-PBGFs, including band edge sensing, SC-PBGF based long period grating sensing and new results on selectively filled SC-PBGFs which are the most sensitive microstructured fiber based sensors to date. We also discuss practical aspects of fluid filling.

© 2009 IEEE

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2009 (4)

A. Shirakawa, H. Maruyama, K. Ueda, C. B. Olausson, J. K. Lyngsø, J. Broeng, "High-power yb-doped photonic bandgap fiber amplifier at 1150–1200 nm," Opt. Exp. 17, 447-454 (2009) http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-2-447.

J. M. Lázaro, B. T. Kuhlmey, J. C. Knight, J. M. Lopez-Higuera, E. B. J. , "Ultrasensitive UV-tunable grating in all-solid photonic bandgap fibers," Opt. Commun. 282, 2358-2361 (2009).

P. D. Rasmussen, F. H. Bennet, D. N. Neshev, A. A. Sukhorukov, C. R. Rosberg, W. Krolikowski, O. Bang, Y. S. Kivshar, "Observation of two-dimensional nonlocal gap solitons," Opt. Lett. 34, 295-297 (2009) http://ol.osa.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-34-3-295.

J. Hu, C. R. Menyuk, "Understanding leaky modes: Slab waveguide revisited," Adv. Opt. Photon. 1, 58-106 (2009) http://aop.osa.org/abstract.cfm?URI=aop-1-1-58.

2008 (17)

L. Rindorf, O. Bang, "Highly sensitive refractometer with a photonic-crystal-fiber long-period grating," Opt. Lett. 33, 563-565 (2008).

D. Noordegraaf, L. Scolari, J. Laegsgaard, T. T. Alkeskjold, G. Tartarini, E. Borelli, P. Bassi, J. Li, S.-T. Wu, "Avoided-crossing-based liquid-crystal photonic-bandgap notch filter," Opt. Lett. 33, 986-988 (2008).

S. V. Afshar, Y. L. Ruan, S. C. Warren-Smith, T. M. Monro, "Enhanced fluorescence sensing using microstructured optical fibers: A comparison of forward and backward collection modes," Opt. Lett. 33, 1473-1475 (2008).

J. Arismar, S. Cerqueira, C. M. B. Cordeiro, F. Biancalana, P. J. Roberts, H. E. Hernandez-Figueroa, C. H. B. Cruz, "Nonlinear interaction between two different photonic bandgaps of a hybrid photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Lett. 33, 2080-2082 (2008) http://ol.osa.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-33-18-2080.

A. Bétourné, Y. Quiquempois, G. Bouwmans, M. Douay, "Design of a photonic crystal fiber forphase-matched frequency doubling or tripling," Opt. Exp. 16, 14 255-14 262 (2008) http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-18-14255.

P. D. Rasmussen, J. Lægsgaard, O. Bang, "Degenerate four wave mixing in solidcore photonic bandgap fibers," Opt. Exp. 16, 4059-4068 (2008) http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-6-4059.

X. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, Y. Sun, "Sensitive optical biosensors for unlabeled targets: A review," Anal. Chim. Acta 620, 8-26 (2008).

L. Rindorf, O. Bang, "Sensitivity of photonic crystal fiber grating sensors: Biosensing, refractive index, strain, and temperature sensing," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B-Opt. Phys. 25, 310-324 (2008).

Y. Ruan, T. C. Foo, S. Warren-Smith, P. Hoffmann, R. C. Moore, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, T. M. Monro, "Antibody immobilization within glass microstructured fibers: A route to sensitive and selective biosensors," Opt. Exp. 16, 18 514-18 523 (2008).

I. M. White, X. Fan, "On the performance quantification of resonant refractive index sensors," Opt. Exp. 16, 1020-1028 (2008) http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-2-1020.

V. Pureur, L. Bigot, G. Bouwmans, Y. Quiquempois, M. Douay, Y. Jaouen, "Ytterbium-doped solid core photonic bandgap fiber for laser operation around 980 nm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 061113 (2008) http://link.aip.org/link/?APL/92/061113/1.

C. B. Olausson, C. I. Falk, J. K. Lyngsø, B. B. Jensen, K. T. Therkildsen, J. W. Thomsen, K. P. Hansen, A. Bjarklev, J. Broeng, "Amplification and ase suppression in a polarization-maintaining ytterbium-doped all-solid photonic bandgap fibre," Opt. Exp. 16, 13 657-13 662 (2008) http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-18-13657.

H. W. Lee, Y. Liu, K. S. Chiang, "Writing of long-period gratings in conventional and photonic-crystal polarization-maintaining fibers by CO$_2$-laser pulses," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 132-134 (2008).

J. Hou, D. Bird, A. George, S. Maier, B. T. Kuhlmey, J. C. Knight, "Metallic mode confinement in microstructured fibres," Opt. Exp. 16, 5983-5990 (2008).

M. A. Schmidt, L. N. P. Sempere, H. K. Tyagi, C. G. Poulton, P. S. J. Russell, "Waveguiding and plasmon resonances in two-dimensional photonic lattices of gold and silver nanowires," Phys. Rev. B 77, (2008).

D. K. Wu, B. T. Kuhlmey, B. J. Eggleton, "Ultrasensitive photonic crystal fiber refractive index sensor," Opt. Lett. 34, (2008) p. In press.

B. T. Kuhlmey, F. Luan, L. Fu, D.-I. Yeom, B. J. Eggleton, A. Wang, J. C. Knight, "Experimental reconstruction of bands in solid core photonic bandgap fibres using acoustic gratings," Opt. Exp. 16, 13 845-13 856 (2008).

2007 (8)

C. R. Rosberg, F. H. Bennet, D. N. Neshev, P. D. Rasmussen, O. Bang, W. Krolikowski, A. Bjarklev, Y. S. Kivshar, "Tunable diffraction and self-defocusing in liquid-filled photonic crystal fibers," Opt. Exp. 15, 12 145-12 150 (2007) http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-19-12145.

B. T. Kuhlmey, R. C. McPhedran, "Photonic crystal fibres with resonant coatings," Physica B 394, 155-158 (2007).

D. I. Yeom, P. Steinvurzel, B. J. Eggleton, S. D. Lim, B. Y. Kim, "Tunable acoustic gratings in solid-core photonic bandgap fiber," Opt. Exp. 15, 3513-3518 (2007).

D. Noordegraaf, L. Scolari, J. Laegsgaard, L. Rindorf, T. T. Alkeskjold, "Electrically and mechanically induced long period gratings in liquid crystal photonic bandgap fibers," Opt. Exp. 15, 7901-7912 (2007).

T. Taru, J. Hou, J. Knight, "Raman gain suppression in all-solid photonic bandgap fiber," IET Seminar Digests 2007, 711-711 (2007) http://link.aip.org/link/abstract/IEESEM/v2007/i1/p711/s1.

A. Bétourné, G. Bouwmans, Y. Quiquempois, M. Perrin, M. Douay, "Improvements of solid-core photonic bandgap fibers by means of interstitial air holes," Opt. Lett. 32, 1719-1721 (2007).

X. Zhang, R. Wang, F. M. Cox, B. T. Kuhlmey, M. C. J. Large, "Selective coating of holes in microstructured optical fiber and its application to in-fiber absorptive polarizers," Opt. Exp. 15, 16 270-16 278 (2007).

C. G. Poulton, M. A. Schmidt, G. J. Pearce, G. Kakarantzas, P. S. J. Russell, "Numerical study of guided modes in arrays of metallic nanowires," Opt. Lett. 32, 1647-1649 (2007).

2006 (18)

P. Steinvurzel, E. D. Moore, E. C. Mägi, B. J. Eggleton, "Tuning properties of long period gratings in photonic bandgap fibers," Opt. Lett. 31, 2103-2105 (2006).

G. Brambilla, A. A. Fotiadi, S. A. Slattery, D. N. Nikogosyan, "Two-photon photochemical long-period grating fabrication in pure-fused-silica photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Lett. 31, 2675-2677 (2006).

A. Kudlinski, A. George, J. Knight, J. Travers, A. Rulkov, S. Popov, J. Taylor, "Zero-dispersion wavelength decreasing photonic crystal fibers for ultraviolet-extended supercontinuum generation," Opt. Exp. 14, 5715-5722 (2006).

A. Hassani, M. Skorobogatiy, "Design of the microstructured optical fiber-based surface plasmon resonance sensors with enhanced microfluidics," Opt. Exp. 14, 11 616-11 621 (2006).

A. Wang, G. J. Pearce, F. Luan, D. M. Bird, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, "All solid photonic bandgap fiber based on an array of oriented rectangular high index rods," Opt. Exp. 14, 10 844-10 850 (2006).

B. T. Kuhlmey, K. Pathmanandavel, R. C. McPhedran, "Multipole analysis of photonic crystal fibers with coated inclusions," Opt. Exp. 14, 10 851-10 864 (2006).

L. Scolari, T. T. Alkeskjold, A. Bjarklev, "Tunable Gaussian filter based on tapered liquid crystal photonic bandgap fibre," Electron. Lett. 42, 1270-1272 (2006).

A. Wang, A. K. George, J. C. Knight, "Three-level neodymium fiber laser incorporating photonic bandgap fiber," Opt. Lett. 31, 1388-1390 (2006) http://ol.osa.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-31-10-1388.

P. Steinvurzel, E. D. Moore, E. C. Magi, B. T. Kuhlmey, B. J. Eggleton, "Long period grating resonances in photonic bandgap fiber," Opt. Exp. 14, 3007-3014 (2006).

T. B. Iredale, P. Steinvurzel, B. J. Eggleton, "Electric-arc-induced long-period gratings in fluid-filled photonic bandgap fibre," Electron. Lett. 42, 739-740 (2006).

L. Rindorf, J. B. Jensen, M. Dufva, L. H. Pedersen, P. E. Hoiby, O. Bang, "Photonic crystal fiber long-period gratings for biochemical sensing," Opt. Exp. 14, 8224-8231 (2006).

P. Steinvurzel, C. M. De Sterke, B. J. Eggleton, B. T. Kuhlmey, M. J. Steel, "Mode field distributions in solid core photonic bandgap fibers," Opt. Commun. 263, 207-213 (2006).

T. A. Birks, F. Luan, G. J. Pearce, A. Wang, J. C. Knight, D. M. Bird, "Bend loss in all-solid bandgap fibres," Opt. Exp. 14, 5688-5698 (2006).

G. Ren, P. Shum, L. Zhang, M. Yan, X. Yu, W. Tong, J. Luo, "Design of all-solid bandgap fiber with improved confinement and bend losses," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2560-2562 (2006).

J. M. Stone, G. J. Pearce, F. Luan, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, A. K. George, D. M. Bird, "An improved photonic bandgap fiber based on an array of rings," Opt. Exp. 14, 6291-6296 (2006).

J. C. Knight, F. Luan, G. J. Pearce, A. Wang, T. A. Birks, D. M. Bird, "Solid photonic bandgap fibres and applications," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1—Regular Papers Brief Communications & Review Papers 45, 6059-6063 (2006).

G. Renversez, P. Boyer, A. Sagrini, "Antiresonant reflecting optical waveguide microstructured fibers revisited: A new analysis based on leaky mode coupling," Opt. Exp. 14, 5682-5687 (2006).

P. Steinvurzel, C. M. De Sterke, M. J. Steel, B. T. Kuhlmey, B. J. Eggleton, "Single scatterer fano resonances in solid core photonic band gap fibers," Opt. Exp. 14, 8797-8811 (2006) http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-19-8797.

2005 (11)

A. Argyros, T. A. Birks, S. G. Leon-Saval, C. M. B. Cordeiro, F. Luan, P. S. J. Russell, "Photonic bandgap with an index step of one percent," Opt. Exp. 13, 309-314 (2005).

N. M. Litchinitser, E. Poliakov, "Antiresonant guiding microstructured optical fibers for sensing applications," Appl. Phys. B-Lasers and Optics 81, 347-351 (2005).

K. Nielsen, D. Noordegraaf, T. Sorensen, A. Bjarklev, T. Hansen, "Selective filling of photonic crystal fibres," J. Opt. A-Pure Appl. Opt. 7, L13-L20 (2005).

P. Domachuk, C. Grillet, V. Ta'eed, E. Magi, J. Bolger, B. Eggleton, L. Rodd, J. Cooper-White, "Microfluidic interferometer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, (2005).

M. Haakestad, T. Alkeskjold, M. Nielsen, L. Scolari, J. Riishede, H. Engan, A. Bjarklev, "Electrically tunable photonic bandgap guidance in a liquid-crystal-filled photonic crystal fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 819-821 (2005).

L. Scolari, T. Alkeskjold, J. Riishede, A. Bjarklev, "Continuously tunable devices based on electrical control of dual-frequency liquid crystal filled photonic bandgap fibers," Opt. Exp. 13, 7483-7496 (2005).

M. Haakestad, J. Skaar, "Causality and Kramers-Kronig relations for waveguides," Opt. Exp. 13, 9922-9934 (2005) http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-24-9922.

A. Fuerbach, P. Steinvurzel, J. A. Bolger, B. J. Eggleton, "Nonlinear pulse propagation at zero dispersion wavelength in anti-resonant photonic crystal fibers," Opt. Exp. 13, 2977-2987 (2005).

P. Steinvurzel, B. J. Eggleton, C. M. De Sterke, M. J. Steel, "Continuously tunable bandpass filtering using high-index inclusion microstructured optical fibre," Electron. Lett. 41, 463-464 (2005).

A. Fuerbach, P. Steinvurzel, J. A. Bolger, A. Nulsen, B. J. Eggleton, "Nonlinear propagation effects in antiresonant high-index inclusion photonic crystal fibers," Opt. Lett. 30, 830-832 (2005).

J. Travers, S. Popov, J. Taylor, "Extended blue supercontinuum generation in cascaded holey fibers," Opt. Lett. 30, 3132-3134 (2005).

2004 (5)

F. Luan, A. George, T. Hedley, G. Pearce, D. Bird, J. Knight, P. Russell, "All-solid photonic bandgap fiber," Opt. Lett. 29, 2369-2371 (2004).

T. Alkeskjold, J. Laegsgaard, A. Bjarklev, D. Hermann, Anawati, J. Broeng, J. Li, S. Wu, "All-optical modulation in dye-doped nematic liquid crystal photonic bandgap fibers," Opt. Exp. 12, 5857-5871 (2004).

Y. Huang, Y. Xu, A. Yariv, "Fabrication of functional microstructured optical fibers through a selective-filling technique," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5182-5184 (2004).

N. M. Litchinitser, S. C. Dunn, P. E. Steinvurzel, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, R. C. McPhedran, C. M. De Sterke, "Application of an arrow model for designing tunable photonic devices," Opt. Exp. 12, 1540-1550 (2004).

J. Laegsgaard, "Gap formation and guided modes in photonic bandgap fibres with high-index rods," J. Optics A-Pure Appl. Opt. 6, 798-804 (2004).

2003 (6)

J. Pottage, D. Bird, T. Hedley, J. Knight, T. Birks, P. Russell, P. Roberts, "Robust photonic band gaps for hollow core guidance in PCF made from high index glass," Opt. Exp. 11, 2854-2861 (2003) http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-11-22-2854.

T. Larsen, J. Broeng, D. Hermann, A. Bjarklev, "Thermo-optic switching in liquid crystal infiltrated photonic bandgap fibres," Electron. Lett. 39, 1719-1720 (2003).

T. Larsen, A. Bjarklev, D. Hermann, J. Broeng, "Optical devices based on liquid crystal photonic bandgap fibres," Opt. Exp. 11, 2589-2596 (2003).

N. M. Litchinitser, S. C. Dunn, B. Usner, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, R. C. McPhedran, C. M. De Sterke, "Resonances in microstructured optical waveguides," Opt. Exp. 11, 1243-1251 (2003).

J. Jasapara, T. H. Her, R. Bise, R. Windeler, D. J. DiGiovanni, "Group-velocity dispersion measurements in a photonic crystal fiber," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 8, 1611-1615 (2003).

G. Humbert, A. Malki, S. Fevrier, P. Roy, D. Pagnoux, "Electric arc-induced long-period gratings in ge-free air-silica microstructure fibres," Electron. Lett. 39, 349-350 (2003).

2002 (6)

C. Kerbage, P. Steinvurzel, P. Reyes, P. Westbrook, R. Windeler, A. Hale, B. Eggleton, "Highly tunable birefringent microstructured optical fiber," Opt. Lett. 27, 842-844 (2002).

N. M. Litchinitser, A. K. Abeeluck, C. Headley, B. J. Eggleton, "Antiresonant reflecting photonic crystal optical waveguides," Opt. Lett. 27, 1592-1594 (2002).

T. P. White, R. C. McPhedran, C. M. de Sterke, N. M. Litchinitser, B. J. Eggleton, "Resonance and scattering in microstructured optical fibers," Opt. Lett. 27, 1977-1979 (2002).

A. K. Abeeluck, N. M. Litchinitser, C. Headley, B. J. Eggleton, "Analysis of spectral characteristics of photonic bandgap waveguides," Opt. Exp. 10, 1320-1333 (2002).

T. White, B. Kuhlmey, R. McPhedran, D. Maystre, G. Renversez, C. De Sterke, L. C. Botten, "Multipole method for microstructured optical fibers. I. Formulation," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 19, 2322-2330 (2002).

B. Kuhlmey, T. White, G. Renversez, D. Maystre, L. C. Botten, C. De Sterke, R. McPhedran, "Multipole method for microstructured optical fibers. II. Implementation and results," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 2331-2340 (2002).

2001 (1)

H. Liu, G. Peng, P. Chu, Y. Koike, Y. Watanabe, "Photosensitivity in low-loss perfluoropolymer (CYTOP) fibre material," Electron. Lett. 37, 347-348 (2001).

1999 (1)

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. S. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, D. C. Allan, "Single-mode photonic band gap guidance of light in air," Science 285, 1537-1539 (1999).

1998 (2)

J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, S. J. Russell, "Properties of photonic crystal fiber and the effective index model," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A 15, 746-750 (1998).

J. Knight, J. Broeng, T. Birks, P. Russel, "Photonic band gap guidance in optical fibers," Science 282, 1476-1478 (1998).

1997 (1)

1996 (2)

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, J. E. Sipe, "Long period fiber gratings as band rejection filters," J. Lightw. Technol. 14, 58-65 (1996).

J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. S. J. Russell, D. M. Atkin, "All silica single-mode optical fiber with photonic crystal cladding," Opt. Lett. 21, 1547-1549 (1996).

1995 (1)

T. A. Birks, P. J. Roberts, P. S. J. Russell, D. M. Atkin, T. J. Shepherd, "Full 2-d photonic bandgaps in silica/air structures," Electron. Lett. 31, 1941-1943 (1995).

1986 (1)

M. Duguay, Y. Kokubun, T. Koch, L. Pfeiffer, "Antiresonant reflecting optical wave-guides in SiO$_2$-Si multilayer structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 13-15 (1986).

Adv. Opt. Photon. (1)

Anal. Chim. Acta (1)

X. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, Y. Sun, "Sensitive optical biosensors for unlabeled targets: A review," Anal. Chim. Acta 620, 8-26 (2008).

Appl. Phys. B-Lasers and Optics (1)

N. M. Litchinitser, E. Poliakov, "Antiresonant guiding microstructured optical fibers for sensing applications," Appl. Phys. B-Lasers and Optics 81, 347-351 (2005).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

P. Domachuk, C. Grillet, V. Ta'eed, E. Magi, J. Bolger, B. Eggleton, L. Rodd, J. Cooper-White, "Microfluidic interferometer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, (2005).

Y. Huang, Y. Xu, A. Yariv, "Fabrication of functional microstructured optical fibers through a selective-filling technique," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5182-5184 (2004).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

V. Pureur, L. Bigot, G. Bouwmans, Y. Quiquempois, M. Douay, Y. Jaouen, "Ytterbium-doped solid core photonic bandgap fiber for laser operation around 980 nm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 061113 (2008) http://link.aip.org/link/?APL/92/061113/1.

M. Duguay, Y. Kokubun, T. Koch, L. Pfeiffer, "Antiresonant reflecting optical wave-guides in SiO$_2$-Si multilayer structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 13-15 (1986).

Electron. Lett. (4)

T. Larsen, J. Broeng, D. Hermann, A. Bjarklev, "Thermo-optic switching in liquid crystal infiltrated photonic bandgap fibres," Electron. Lett. 39, 1719-1720 (2003).

T. B. Iredale, P. Steinvurzel, B. J. Eggleton, "Electric-arc-induced long-period gratings in fluid-filled photonic bandgap fibre," Electron. Lett. 42, 739-740 (2006).

L. Scolari, T. T. Alkeskjold, A. Bjarklev, "Tunable Gaussian filter based on tapered liquid crystal photonic bandgap fibre," Electron. Lett. 42, 1270-1272 (2006).

H. Liu, G. Peng, P. Chu, Y. Koike, Y. Watanabe, "Photosensitivity in low-loss perfluoropolymer (CYTOP) fibre material," Electron. Lett. 37, 347-348 (2001).

Electron. Lett. (3)

P. Steinvurzel, B. J. Eggleton, C. M. De Sterke, M. J. Steel, "Continuously tunable bandpass filtering using high-index inclusion microstructured optical fibre," Electron. Lett. 41, 463-464 (2005).

G. Humbert, A. Malki, S. Fevrier, P. Roy, D. Pagnoux, "Electric arc-induced long-period gratings in ge-free air-silica microstructure fibres," Electron. Lett. 39, 349-350 (2003).

T. A. Birks, P. J. Roberts, P. S. J. Russell, D. M. Atkin, T. J. Shepherd, "Full 2-d photonic bandgaps in silica/air structures," Electron. Lett. 31, 1941-1943 (1995).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

M. Haakestad, T. Alkeskjold, M. Nielsen, L. Scolari, J. Riishede, H. Engan, A. Bjarklev, "Electrically tunable photonic bandgap guidance in a liquid-crystal-filled photonic crystal fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 819-821 (2005).

H. W. Lee, Y. Liu, K. S. Chiang, "Writing of long-period gratings in conventional and photonic-crystal polarization-maintaining fibers by CO$_2$-laser pulses," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 132-134 (2008).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

G. Ren, P. Shum, L. Zhang, M. Yan, X. Yu, W. Tong, J. Luo, "Design of all-solid bandgap fiber with improved confinement and bend losses," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2560-2562 (2006).

IET Seminar Digests (1)

T. Taru, J. Hou, J. Knight, "Raman gain suppression in all-solid photonic bandgap fiber," IET Seminar Digests 2007, 711-711 (2007) http://link.aip.org/link/abstract/IEESEM/v2007/i1/p711/s1.

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

B. Kuhlmey, T. White, G. Renversez, D. Maystre, L. C. Botten, C. De Sterke, R. McPhedran, "Multipole method for microstructured optical fibers. II. Implementation and results," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 2331-2340 (2002).

J. Optics A-Pure Appl. Opt. (1)

J. Laegsgaard, "Gap formation and guided modes in photonic bandgap fibres with high-index rods," J. Optics A-Pure Appl. Opt. 6, 798-804 (2004).

J. Lightw. Technol. (1)

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, J. E. Sipe, "Long period fiber gratings as band rejection filters," J. Lightw. Technol. 14, 58-65 (1996).

J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A (1)

J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, S. J. Russell, "Properties of photonic crystal fiber and the effective index model," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A 15, 746-750 (1998).

J. Opt. A-Pure Appl. Opt. (1)

K. Nielsen, D. Noordegraaf, T. Sorensen, A. Bjarklev, T. Hansen, "Selective filling of photonic crystal fibres," J. Opt. A-Pure Appl. Opt. 7, L13-L20 (2005).

J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B (1)

T. White, B. Kuhlmey, R. McPhedran, D. Maystre, G. Renversez, C. De Sterke, L. C. Botten, "Multipole method for microstructured optical fibers. I. Formulation," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 19, 2322-2330 (2002).

J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B (1)

J. Jasapara, T. H. Her, R. Bise, R. Windeler, D. J. DiGiovanni, "Group-velocity dispersion measurements in a photonic crystal fiber," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 8, 1611-1615 (2003).

J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B-Opt. Phys. (1)

L. Rindorf, O. Bang, "Sensitivity of photonic crystal fiber grating sensors: Biosensing, refractive index, strain, and temperature sensing," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B-Opt. Phys. 25, 310-324 (2008).

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1—Regular Papers Brief Communications & Review Papers (1)

J. C. Knight, F. Luan, G. J. Pearce, A. Wang, T. A. Birks, D. M. Bird, "Solid photonic bandgap fibres and applications," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1—Regular Papers Brief Communications & Review Papers 45, 6059-6063 (2006).

Opt. Exp. (6)

N. M. Litchinitser, S. C. Dunn, P. E. Steinvurzel, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, R. C. McPhedran, C. M. De Sterke, "Application of an arrow model for designing tunable photonic devices," Opt. Exp. 12, 1540-1550 (2004).

P. Steinvurzel, C. M. De Sterke, M. J. Steel, B. T. Kuhlmey, B. J. Eggleton, "Single scatterer fano resonances in solid core photonic band gap fibers," Opt. Exp. 14, 8797-8811 (2006) http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-19-8797.

A. Wang, G. J. Pearce, F. Luan, D. M. Bird, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, "All solid photonic bandgap fiber based on an array of oriented rectangular high index rods," Opt. Exp. 14, 10 844-10 850 (2006).

B. T. Kuhlmey, K. Pathmanandavel, R. C. McPhedran, "Multipole analysis of photonic crystal fibers with coated inclusions," Opt. Exp. 14, 10 851-10 864 (2006).

C. R. Rosberg, F. H. Bennet, D. N. Neshev, P. D. Rasmussen, O. Bang, W. Krolikowski, A. Bjarklev, Y. S. Kivshar, "Tunable diffraction and self-defocusing in liquid-filled photonic crystal fibers," Opt. Exp. 15, 12 145-12 150 (2007) http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-19-12145.

P. D. Rasmussen, J. Lægsgaard, O. Bang, "Degenerate four wave mixing in solidcore photonic bandgap fibers," Opt. Exp. 16, 4059-4068 (2008) http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-6-4059.

Opt. Lett. (3)

A. Bétourné, G. Bouwmans, Y. Quiquempois, M. Perrin, M. Douay, "Improvements of solid-core photonic bandgap fibers by means of interstitial air holes," Opt. Lett. 32, 1719-1721 (2007).

A. Wang, A. K. George, J. C. Knight, "Three-level neodymium fiber laser incorporating photonic bandgap fiber," Opt. Lett. 31, 1388-1390 (2006) http://ol.osa.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-31-10-1388.

J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. S. J. Russell, D. M. Atkin, "All silica single-mode optical fiber with photonic crystal cladding," Opt. Lett. 21, 1547-1549 (1996).

Opt. Commun. (2)

P. Steinvurzel, C. M. De Sterke, B. J. Eggleton, B. T. Kuhlmey, M. J. Steel, "Mode field distributions in solid core photonic bandgap fibers," Opt. Commun. 263, 207-213 (2006).

J. M. Lázaro, B. T. Kuhlmey, J. C. Knight, J. M. Lopez-Higuera, E. B. J. , "Ultrasensitive UV-tunable grating in all-solid photonic bandgap fibers," Opt. Commun. 282, 2358-2361 (2009).

Opt. Exp. (26)

A. Kudlinski, A. George, J. Knight, J. Travers, A. Rulkov, S. Popov, J. Taylor, "Zero-dispersion wavelength decreasing photonic crystal fibers for ultraviolet-extended supercontinuum generation," Opt. Exp. 14, 5715-5722 (2006).

D. I. Yeom, P. Steinvurzel, B. J. Eggleton, S. D. Lim, B. Y. Kim, "Tunable acoustic gratings in solid-core photonic bandgap fiber," Opt. Exp. 15, 3513-3518 (2007).

D. Noordegraaf, L. Scolari, J. Laegsgaard, L. Rindorf, T. T. Alkeskjold, "Electrically and mechanically induced long period gratings in liquid crystal photonic bandgap fibers," Opt. Exp. 15, 7901-7912 (2007).

Y. Ruan, T. C. Foo, S. Warren-Smith, P. Hoffmann, R. C. Moore, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, T. M. Monro, "Antibody immobilization within glass microstructured fibers: A route to sensitive and selective biosensors," Opt. Exp. 16, 18 514-18 523 (2008).

I. M. White, X. Fan, "On the performance quantification of resonant refractive index sensors," Opt. Exp. 16, 1020-1028 (2008) http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-2-1020.

A. Bétourné, Y. Quiquempois, G. Bouwmans, M. Douay, "Design of a photonic crystal fiber forphase-matched frequency doubling or tripling," Opt. Exp. 16, 14 255-14 262 (2008) http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-18-14255.

A. Hassani, M. Skorobogatiy, "Design of the microstructured optical fiber-based surface plasmon resonance sensors with enhanced microfluidics," Opt. Exp. 14, 11 616-11 621 (2006).

M. Haakestad, J. Skaar, "Causality and Kramers-Kronig relations for waveguides," Opt. Exp. 13, 9922-9934 (2005) http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-24-9922.

A. Fuerbach, P. Steinvurzel, J. A. Bolger, B. J. Eggleton, "Nonlinear pulse propagation at zero dispersion wavelength in anti-resonant photonic crystal fibers," Opt. Exp. 13, 2977-2987 (2005).

X. Zhang, R. Wang, F. M. Cox, B. T. Kuhlmey, M. C. J. Large, "Selective coating of holes in microstructured optical fiber and its application to in-fiber absorptive polarizers," Opt. Exp. 15, 16 270-16 278 (2007).

P. Steinvurzel, E. D. Moore, E. C. Magi, B. T. Kuhlmey, B. J. Eggleton, "Long period grating resonances in photonic bandgap fiber," Opt. Exp. 14, 3007-3014 (2006).

L. Rindorf, J. B. Jensen, M. Dufva, L. H. Pedersen, P. E. Hoiby, O. Bang, "Photonic crystal fiber long-period gratings for biochemical sensing," Opt. Exp. 14, 8224-8231 (2006).

B. T. Kuhlmey, F. Luan, L. Fu, D.-I. Yeom, B. J. Eggleton, A. Wang, J. C. Knight, "Experimental reconstruction of bands in solid core photonic bandgap fibres using acoustic gratings," Opt. Exp. 16, 13 845-13 856 (2008).

L. Scolari, T. Alkeskjold, J. Riishede, A. Bjarklev, "Continuously tunable devices based on electrical control of dual-frequency liquid crystal filled photonic bandgap fibers," Opt. Exp. 13, 7483-7496 (2005).

T. Alkeskjold, J. Laegsgaard, A. Bjarklev, D. Hermann, Anawati, J. Broeng, J. Li, S. Wu, "All-optical modulation in dye-doped nematic liquid crystal photonic bandgap fibers," Opt. Exp. 12, 5857-5871 (2004).

C. B. Olausson, C. I. Falk, J. K. Lyngsø, B. B. Jensen, K. T. Therkildsen, J. W. Thomsen, K. P. Hansen, A. Bjarklev, J. Broeng, "Amplification and ase suppression in a polarization-maintaining ytterbium-doped all-solid photonic bandgap fibre," Opt. Exp. 16, 13 657-13 662 (2008) http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-18-13657.

A. Shirakawa, H. Maruyama, K. Ueda, C. B. Olausson, J. K. Lyngsø, J. Broeng, "High-power yb-doped photonic bandgap fiber amplifier at 1150–1200 nm," Opt. Exp. 17, 447-454 (2009) http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-2-447.

T. Larsen, A. Bjarklev, D. Hermann, J. Broeng, "Optical devices based on liquid crystal photonic bandgap fibres," Opt. Exp. 11, 2589-2596 (2003).

N. M. Litchinitser, S. C. Dunn, B. Usner, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, R. C. McPhedran, C. M. De Sterke, "Resonances in microstructured optical waveguides," Opt. Exp. 11, 1243-1251 (2003).

A. Argyros, T. A. Birks, S. G. Leon-Saval, C. M. B. Cordeiro, F. Luan, P. S. J. Russell, "Photonic bandgap with an index step of one percent," Opt. Exp. 13, 309-314 (2005).

J. Hou, D. Bird, A. George, S. Maier, B. T. Kuhlmey, J. C. Knight, "Metallic mode confinement in microstructured fibres," Opt. Exp. 16, 5983-5990 (2008).

J. Pottage, D. Bird, T. Hedley, J. Knight, T. Birks, P. Russell, P. Roberts, "Robust photonic band gaps for hollow core guidance in PCF made from high index glass," Opt. Exp. 11, 2854-2861 (2003) http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-11-22-2854.

T. A. Birks, F. Luan, G. J. Pearce, A. Wang, J. C. Knight, D. M. Bird, "Bend loss in all-solid bandgap fibres," Opt. Exp. 14, 5688-5698 (2006).

J. M. Stone, G. J. Pearce, F. Luan, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, A. K. George, D. M. Bird, "An improved photonic bandgap fiber based on an array of rings," Opt. Exp. 14, 6291-6296 (2006).

G. Renversez, P. Boyer, A. Sagrini, "Antiresonant reflecting optical waveguide microstructured fibers revisited: A new analysis based on leaky mode coupling," Opt. Exp. 14, 5682-5687 (2006).

A. K. Abeeluck, N. M. Litchinitser, C. Headley, B. J. Eggleton, "Analysis of spectral characteristics of photonic bandgap waveguides," Opt. Exp. 10, 1320-1333 (2002).

Opt. Lett. (16)

N. M. Litchinitser, A. K. Abeeluck, C. Headley, B. J. Eggleton, "Antiresonant reflecting photonic crystal optical waveguides," Opt. Lett. 27, 1592-1594 (2002).

T. P. White, R. C. McPhedran, C. M. de Sterke, N. M. Litchinitser, B. J. Eggleton, "Resonance and scattering in microstructured optical fibers," Opt. Lett. 27, 1977-1979 (2002).

F. Luan, A. George, T. Hedley, G. Pearce, D. Bird, J. Knight, P. Russell, "All-solid photonic bandgap fiber," Opt. Lett. 29, 2369-2371 (2004).

T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, S. J. Russell, "Endlessly single-mode photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Lett. 22, 961-963 (1997).

D. Noordegraaf, L. Scolari, J. Laegsgaard, T. T. Alkeskjold, G. Tartarini, E. Borelli, P. Bassi, J. Li, S.-T. Wu, "Avoided-crossing-based liquid-crystal photonic-bandgap notch filter," Opt. Lett. 33, 986-988 (2008).

P. Steinvurzel, E. D. Moore, E. C. Mägi, B. J. Eggleton, "Tuning properties of long period gratings in photonic bandgap fibers," Opt. Lett. 31, 2103-2105 (2006).

D. K. Wu, B. T. Kuhlmey, B. J. Eggleton, "Ultrasensitive photonic crystal fiber refractive index sensor," Opt. Lett. 34, (2008) p. In press.

P. D. Rasmussen, F. H. Bennet, D. N. Neshev, A. A. Sukhorukov, C. R. Rosberg, W. Krolikowski, O. Bang, Y. S. Kivshar, "Observation of two-dimensional nonlocal gap solitons," Opt. Lett. 34, 295-297 (2009) http://ol.osa.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-34-3-295.

A. Fuerbach, P. Steinvurzel, J. A. Bolger, A. Nulsen, B. J. Eggleton, "Nonlinear propagation effects in antiresonant high-index inclusion photonic crystal fibers," Opt. Lett. 30, 830-832 (2005).

C. G. Poulton, M. A. Schmidt, G. J. Pearce, G. Kakarantzas, P. S. J. Russell, "Numerical study of guided modes in arrays of metallic nanowires," Opt. Lett. 32, 1647-1649 (2007).

C. Kerbage, P. Steinvurzel, P. Reyes, P. Westbrook, R. Windeler, A. Hale, B. Eggleton, "Highly tunable birefringent microstructured optical fiber," Opt. Lett. 27, 842-844 (2002).

S. V. Afshar, Y. L. Ruan, S. C. Warren-Smith, T. M. Monro, "Enhanced fluorescence sensing using microstructured optical fibers: A comparison of forward and backward collection modes," Opt. Lett. 33, 1473-1475 (2008).

J. Arismar, S. Cerqueira, C. M. B. Cordeiro, F. Biancalana, P. J. Roberts, H. E. Hernandez-Figueroa, C. H. B. Cruz, "Nonlinear interaction between two different photonic bandgaps of a hybrid photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Lett. 33, 2080-2082 (2008) http://ol.osa.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-33-18-2080.

L. Rindorf, O. Bang, "Highly sensitive refractometer with a photonic-crystal-fiber long-period grating," Opt. Lett. 33, 563-565 (2008).

G. Brambilla, A. A. Fotiadi, S. A. Slattery, D. N. Nikogosyan, "Two-photon photochemical long-period grating fabrication in pure-fused-silica photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Lett. 31, 2675-2677 (2006).

J. Travers, S. Popov, J. Taylor, "Extended blue supercontinuum generation in cascaded holey fibers," Opt. Lett. 30, 3132-3134 (2005).

Phys. Rev. B (1)

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Physica B (1)

B. T. Kuhlmey, R. C. McPhedran, "Photonic crystal fibres with resonant coatings," Physica B 394, 155-158 (2007).

Science (2)

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R. T. Bise, J. Jasapara, P. Steinvruzel, D. J. DiGiovanni, "Temperature tuning of dispersion in a photonic band gap fiber," Proc. Conf. Lasers Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science (CLEO/Qels) (2002) pp. JThA1.

Cytop http://www.agc.co.jp/english/chemicals/shinsei/cytop/cytop.htm Asahi Glass Co..

B. T. Kuhlmey, Theoretical and numerical investigation of the physics of microstructured optical fibres Ph.D. dissertation Univ. Sydney Université Aix-Marseille IIISydney (2003) http://hdl.handle.net/2123/560.

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