Abstract

We report recent advances on the spectral control of continuous-wave-pumped supercontinuum sources. We show that the generated infrared SC spectrum can be tailored by using photonic crystal fibers with two zero-dispersion wavelengths. The dynamics of the spectral broadening is studied, and we show that slightly different nonlinear mechanisms occur as the zero-dispersion wavelengths are brought closer to each other. We also report the generation of a visible continuous-wave-pumped supercontinuum by using dispersion engineered photonic crystal fibers in which the zero-dispersion wavelength slightly decreases as a function of length over 200 m. The resulting supercontinuum source spans from 650 nm to 1380 nm with an average output power of 19.5 W. The nonlinear mechanisms producing this spectacular effect are carefully investigated with support of numerical simulations. We show that the generation of visible wavelengths is due to the trapping of dispersive waves by powerful red-shifting solitons.

© 2009 IEEE

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2009 (2)

J. C. Travers, J. R. Taylor, "Soliton trapping of dispersive waves in tapered optical fibers," Opt. Lett. 34, 115-117 (2009).

J. C. Travers, "Blue solitary waves from infrared continuous wave pumping of optical fibers," Opt. Exp. 17, 1502-1507 (2009).

2008 (8)

J. M. Stone, J. C. Knight, "Visibly “white” light generation in uniform photonic crystal fiber using a microchip laser," Opt. Exp. 16, 2870 (2008).

A. B. Rulkov, A. A. Ferin, J. C. Travers, S. V. Popov, J. R. Taylor, "Broadband, low intensity noise CW source for OCT at 1800 nm," Opt. Commun. 281, 154 (2008).

A. Kudlinski, Y. Quiquempoi, G. Bouwmans, A. Mussot, "Experimental demonstration of multi-watt CW supercontinuum tailoring in photonic crystal fibers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 141103 (2008).

S. Martin-Lopez, L. Abrardi, P. Corredera, M. Gonzalez-Herraez, A. Mussot, "Spectrally-bounded continuous-wave supercontinuum generation in a fiber with two zero-dispersion wavelengths," Opt. Exp. 16, 6745-6755 (2008).

B. A. Cumberland, J. C. Travers, S. V. Popov, J. R. Taylor, "Towards visible cw-pumped supercontinua," Opt. Lett. 33, 2122-2124 (2008).

J. C. Travers, A. B. Rulkov, B. A. Cumberland, S. V. Popov, J. R. Taylor, "Visible supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fibers with a 400 W continuous wave fiber laser," Opt. Exp. 16, 14435-14447 (2008).

A. Kudlinski, A. Mussot, "Visible CW-pumped supercontinuum," Opt. Lett. 33, 2407-2409 (2008).

B. A. Cumberland, J. C. Travers, S. V. Popov, J. R. Taylor, "29 W High power CW supercontinuum source," Opt. Exp. 16, 5954 (2008).

2007 (3)

A. Mussot, M. Beaugeois, M. Bouazaoui, T. Sylvestre, "Tailoring CW supercontinuum generation in microstructured fibers with two-zero dispersion wavelengths," Opt. Exp. 15, 11553 (2007).

A. V. Gorbach, D. V. Skryabin, "Light trapping in gravity-like potentials and expansion of supercontinuum spectra in photonic-crystal fibres," Nature Photon. 1, 653 (2007).

A. V. Gorbach, D. V. Skryabin, "Theory of radiation trapping by the accelerating solitons in optical fibers," Phys. Rev. A 76, 053803 (2007).

2006 (5)

M. L. V. Tse, P. Horak, F. Poletti, N. G. R. Broderick, J. H. V. Price, J. R. Hayes, D. J. Richardson, "Supercontinuum generation at 1.06 $\mu{\hbox {m}}$ in holey fibers with dispersion flattened profiles," Opt. Exp. 14, 4445-4451 (2006).

G. Humbert, W. Wadsworth, S. Leon-Saval, J. Knight, T. Birks, P. S. J. Russell, M. Lederer, D. Kopf, K. Wiesauer, E. Breuer, D. Stifter, "Supercontinuum generation system for optical coherence tomography based on tapered photonic crystal fibre," Opt. Exp. 14, 1596 (2006).

J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, S. Coen, "Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fiber," Rev. Mod. Phys. 78, 1135-1184 (2006).

A. Kudlinski, A. K. George, J. C. Knight, J. C. Travers, A. B. Rulkov, S. V. Popov, J. R. Taylor, " Zero-dispersion wavelength decreasing photonic crystal fibers for ultraviolet-extended supercontinuum generation," Opt. Exp. 14, 5715 (2006).

A. V. Gorbach, D. V. Skryabin, J. M. Stone, J. C. Knight, "Four-wave mixing of solitons with radiation and quasi-nondispersive wave packets at the short-wavelength edge of a supercontinuum," Opt. Exp. 14, 9854 (2006).

2005 (5)

F. Vanholsbeeck, S. Martin-Lopez, M. González-Herráez, S. Coen, "The role of pump incoherence in continuous-wave supercontinuum generation," Opt. Exp. 13, 6615-6625 (2005).

S. M. Kobtsev, S. V. Smirnov, "Modelling of high-power supercontinuum generation in highly nonlinear, dispersion shifted fibers at CW pump," Opt. Exp. 13, 6912-6918 (2005).

G. Genty, M. Lehtonen, H. Ludvigsen, "Route to broadband blue-light generation in microstructured fibers," Opt. Lett. 30, 756-758 (2005).

D. V. Skryabin, A. V. Yulin, "Theory of generation of new frequencies by mixing of solitons and dispersive waves in optical fibers," Phys. Rev. E 72, 016619 (2005).

J. C. Travers, R. E. Kennedy, S. V. Popov, J. R. Taylor, H. Sabert, B. Mangan, "Extended continuous-wave supercontinuum generation in a low-water-loss holey fiber," Opt. Lett. 30, 1938-1940 (2005).

2004 (3)

G. Genty, M. Lehtonen, H. Ludvigsen, "Effect of cross-phase modulation on supercontinuum generated in microstructured fibers with sub-30 fs pulses," Opt. Exp. 12, 4614-4624 (2004).

A. Mussot, E. Lantz, H. Maillotte, T. Sylvestre, "Spectral broadening of a partially coherent CW laser beam in single-mode optical fibers," Opt. Exp. 12, 2838-3843 (2004).

C. Fukai, K. Nakajima, J. Zhou, K. Tajima, K. Kurokawa, I. Sankawa, "Effective Raman gain characteristics in germanium- and fluorine-doped optical fibers," Opt. Lett. 29, 545 (2004).

2003 (4)

A. Efimov, A. J. Taylor, F. G. Omenetto, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, P. S. J. Russell, "Phase-matched third harmonic generation in microstructured fibers," Opt. Exp. 11, 2567 (2003).

D. V. Skryabin, F. Luan, J. C. Knight, P. S. J. Russell, "Soliton self-frequency shift cancellation in photonic crystal fibers," Science 301, 1705 (2003).

M. González-Herráez, S. Martin-Lopez, P. Corredera, M. L. Hernanz, P. R. Horche, "Supercontinuum generation using a continuous-wave Raman fiber laser," Opt. Commun. 226, 323-328 (2003).

A. V. Avdokhin, S. V. Popov, J. R. Taylor, "Continuous-wave, high-power, Raman continuum generation in holey fibers," Opt. Lett. 28, 1353-1355 (2003).

2002 (3)

W. J. Wadsworth, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, T.-P. Martin Man, P. S. J. Russell, "Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fibers and optical fiber tapers: A novel source of light," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 19, 753-764 (2002).

B. T. Kuhlmey, T. P. White, G. Renversez, D. Maystre, L. C. Botten, C. Martin de Sterke, R. C. McPhedran, "Multipole method for microstructured optical fibers. II. Implementation and results," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 19, 2331-2340 (2002).

N. Nishizawa, T. Goto, "Pulse trapping by ultrashort soliton pulses in optical fibers across zero-dispersion wavelength," Opt. Lett. 27, 152 (2002).

2001 (2)

2000 (3)

J. C. Knight, J. Arriaga, T. A. Birks, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, W. J. Wadsworth, P. S. J. Russell, "Anomalous dispersion in photonic crystal fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 807-809 (2000).

W. H. Reeves, J. C. Knight, P. S. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, "Demonstration of ultra-flattened dispersion in photonic crystal fibers," Opt. Exp. 10, 609-613 (2000).

M. Prabhu, N. S. Kim, K. Ueda, "Ultra-broadband CW supercontinuum generation centered at 1483.4 nm from Brillouin/Raman fiber laser," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39, L291 (2000).

1998 (1)

1996 (2)

P. Persephonis, S. V. Chernikov, J. R. Taylor, "Cascaded CW fibre Raman laser source 1.6–1.9 $\mu{\hbox {m}}$," Electron. Lett. 32, 1486-1487 (1996).

J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. S. J. Russell, D. M. Atkin, "All-silica single-mode optical fiber with photonic crystal cladding," Opt. Lett. 21, 1547-1549 (1996).

1995 (1)

N. Akhmediev, M. Karlsson, "Cherenkov radiation emitted by solitons in optical fibers," Phys. Rev. A 51, 2602 (1995).

1984 (1)

J. T. Manassah, P. P. Ho, A. Katz, R. R. Alfano, "Ultrafast supercontinuum laser source," Photon. Spectra 18, 53-59 (1984).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

A. Kudlinski, Y. Quiquempoi, G. Bouwmans, A. Mussot, "Experimental demonstration of multi-watt CW supercontinuum tailoring in photonic crystal fibers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 141103 (2008).

Electron. Lett. (1)

P. Persephonis, S. V. Chernikov, J. R. Taylor, "Cascaded CW fibre Raman laser source 1.6–1.9 $\mu{\hbox {m}}$," Electron. Lett. 32, 1486-1487 (1996).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

J. C. Knight, J. Arriaga, T. A. Birks, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, W. J. Wadsworth, P. S. J. Russell, "Anomalous dispersion in photonic crystal fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 807-809 (2000).

J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B (1)

B. T. Kuhlmey, T. P. White, G. Renversez, D. Maystre, L. C. Botten, C. Martin de Sterke, R. C. McPhedran, "Multipole method for microstructured optical fibers. II. Implementation and results," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 19, 2331-2340 (2002).

J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B (1)

W. J. Wadsworth, A. Ortigosa-Blanch, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, T.-P. Martin Man, P. S. J. Russell, "Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fibers and optical fiber tapers: A novel source of light," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 19, 753-764 (2002).

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

M. Prabhu, N. S. Kim, K. Ueda, "Ultra-broadband CW supercontinuum generation centered at 1483.4 nm from Brillouin/Raman fiber laser," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39, L291 (2000).

Nature Photon. (1)

A. V. Gorbach, D. V. Skryabin, "Light trapping in gravity-like potentials and expansion of supercontinuum spectra in photonic-crystal fibres," Nature Photon. 1, 653 (2007).

Opt. Exp. (5)

J. C. Travers, "Blue solitary waves from infrared continuous wave pumping of optical fibers," Opt. Exp. 17, 1502-1507 (2009).

A. Efimov, A. J. Taylor, F. G. Omenetto, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, P. S. J. Russell, "Phase-matched third harmonic generation in microstructured fibers," Opt. Exp. 11, 2567 (2003).

G. Humbert, W. Wadsworth, S. Leon-Saval, J. Knight, T. Birks, P. S. J. Russell, M. Lederer, D. Kopf, K. Wiesauer, E. Breuer, D. Stifter, "Supercontinuum generation system for optical coherence tomography based on tapered photonic crystal fibre," Opt. Exp. 14, 1596 (2006).

W. H. Reeves, J. C. Knight, P. S. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, "Demonstration of ultra-flattened dispersion in photonic crystal fibers," Opt. Exp. 10, 609-613 (2000).

A. Mussot, E. Lantz, H. Maillotte, T. Sylvestre, "Spectral broadening of a partially coherent CW laser beam in single-mode optical fibers," Opt. Exp. 12, 2838-3843 (2004).

Opt. Lett. (6)

J. C. Travers, R. E. Kennedy, S. V. Popov, J. R. Taylor, H. Sabert, B. Mangan, "Extended continuous-wave supercontinuum generation in a low-water-loss holey fiber," Opt. Lett. 30, 1938-1940 (2005).

N. Nishizawa, T. Goto, "Pulse trapping by ultrashort soliton pulses in optical fibers across zero-dispersion wavelength," Opt. Lett. 27, 152 (2002).

G. Genty, M. Lehtonen, H. Ludvigsen, "Route to broadband blue-light generation in microstructured fibers," Opt. Lett. 30, 756-758 (2005).

J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. S. J. Russell, D. M. Atkin, "All-silica single-mode optical fiber with photonic crystal cladding," Opt. Lett. 21, 1547-1549 (1996).

A. V. Avdokhin, S. V. Popov, J. R. Taylor, "Continuous-wave, high-power, Raman continuum generation in holey fibers," Opt. Lett. 28, 1353-1355 (2003).

C. Fukai, K. Nakajima, J. Zhou, K. Tajima, K. Kurokawa, I. Sankawa, "Effective Raman gain characteristics in germanium- and fluorine-doped optical fibers," Opt. Lett. 29, 545 (2004).

Opt. Commun. (2)

M. González-Herráez, S. Martin-Lopez, P. Corredera, M. L. Hernanz, P. R. Horche, "Supercontinuum generation using a continuous-wave Raman fiber laser," Opt. Commun. 226, 323-328 (2003).

A. B. Rulkov, A. A. Ferin, J. C. Travers, S. V. Popov, J. R. Taylor, "Broadband, low intensity noise CW source for OCT at 1800 nm," Opt. Commun. 281, 154 (2008).

Opt. Exp. (11)

B. A. Cumberland, J. C. Travers, S. V. Popov, J. R. Taylor, "29 W High power CW supercontinuum source," Opt. Exp. 16, 5954 (2008).

A. Mussot, M. Beaugeois, M. Bouazaoui, T. Sylvestre, "Tailoring CW supercontinuum generation in microstructured fibers with two-zero dispersion wavelengths," Opt. Exp. 15, 11553 (2007).

S. Martin-Lopez, L. Abrardi, P. Corredera, M. Gonzalez-Herraez, A. Mussot, "Spectrally-bounded continuous-wave supercontinuum generation in a fiber with two zero-dispersion wavelengths," Opt. Exp. 16, 6745-6755 (2008).

M. L. V. Tse, P. Horak, F. Poletti, N. G. R. Broderick, J. H. V. Price, J. R. Hayes, D. J. Richardson, "Supercontinuum generation at 1.06 $\mu{\hbox {m}}$ in holey fibers with dispersion flattened profiles," Opt. Exp. 14, 4445-4451 (2006).

G. Genty, M. Lehtonen, H. Ludvigsen, "Effect of cross-phase modulation on supercontinuum generated in microstructured fibers with sub-30 fs pulses," Opt. Exp. 12, 4614-4624 (2004).

J. C. Travers, A. B. Rulkov, B. A. Cumberland, S. V. Popov, J. R. Taylor, "Visible supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fibers with a 400 W continuous wave fiber laser," Opt. Exp. 16, 14435-14447 (2008).

F. Vanholsbeeck, S. Martin-Lopez, M. González-Herráez, S. Coen, "The role of pump incoherence in continuous-wave supercontinuum generation," Opt. Exp. 13, 6615-6625 (2005).

S. M. Kobtsev, S. V. Smirnov, "Modelling of high-power supercontinuum generation in highly nonlinear, dispersion shifted fibers at CW pump," Opt. Exp. 13, 6912-6918 (2005).

J. M. Stone, J. C. Knight, "Visibly “white” light generation in uniform photonic crystal fiber using a microchip laser," Opt. Exp. 16, 2870 (2008).

A. Kudlinski, A. K. George, J. C. Knight, J. C. Travers, A. B. Rulkov, S. V. Popov, J. R. Taylor, " Zero-dispersion wavelength decreasing photonic crystal fibers for ultraviolet-extended supercontinuum generation," Opt. Exp. 14, 5715 (2006).

A. V. Gorbach, D. V. Skryabin, J. M. Stone, J. C. Knight, "Four-wave mixing of solitons with radiation and quasi-nondispersive wave packets at the short-wavelength edge of a supercontinuum," Opt. Exp. 14, 9854 (2006).

Opt. Lett. (6)

Photon. Spectra (1)

J. T. Manassah, P. P. Ho, A. Katz, R. R. Alfano, "Ultrafast supercontinuum laser source," Photon. Spectra 18, 53-59 (1984).

Phys. Rev. A (1)

A. V. Gorbach, D. V. Skryabin, "Theory of radiation trapping by the accelerating solitons in optical fibers," Phys. Rev. A 76, 053803 (2007).

Phys. Rev. A (1)

N. Akhmediev, M. Karlsson, "Cherenkov radiation emitted by solitons in optical fibers," Phys. Rev. A 51, 2602 (1995).

Phys. Rev. E (1)

D. V. Skryabin, A. V. Yulin, "Theory of generation of new frequencies by mixing of solitons and dispersive waves in optical fibers," Phys. Rev. E 72, 016619 (2005).

Rev. Mod. Phys. (1)

J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, S. Coen, "Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fiber," Rev. Mod. Phys. 78, 1135-1184 (2006).

Science (1)

D. V. Skryabin, F. Luan, J. C. Knight, P. S. J. Russell, "Soliton self-frequency shift cancellation in photonic crystal fibers," Science 301, 1705 (2003).

Other (5)

A. Kudlinski, B. A. Cumberland, J. C. Travers, G. Bouwmans, Y. Quiquempois, A. Mussot, "Dynamics of CW supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fibres with two zero-dispersion wavelengths," Eur. Opt. Soc. Ann. Meeting ParisFrance (2008).

A. Kudlinski, B. A. Cumberland, J. C. Travers, G. Bouwmans, Y. Quiquempois, A. Mussot, "CW supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fibres with two zero-Dispersion wavelengths," 1st Workshop on Specialty Optical Fibers and Their Applications (WSOF 2008) São PedroBrazil (2008).

J. C. Travers, S. V. Popov, J. R. Taylor, Optical Society of America"Trapping of dispersive waves by solitons in long lengths of tapered PCF," Conf. Lasers Electro-Optics San JoseCA (2008) Paper CthGG2.

A. Kudlinski, A. Mussot, "19.5 W visible CW-pumped supercontinuum source," Eur. Opt. Soc. Ann. Meeting (2008).

A. Monteville, D. Landais, O. LeGoffic, D. Tregoat, N. J. Traynor, T. N. Nguyen, S. Lobo, T. Chartier, J.-C. Simon, "Low loss, low OH, highly non-linear holey fiber for Raman amplification," Conf. Lasers Electro-Optics (2006) Paper CMC1.

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