Abstract

We have studied the effect of gamma-radiation on the small signal gain and on the noise figure of several EDFAs with similar characteristics and based on special highly Er-doped fibers. Those fibers were fabricated using direct nanoparticle deposition technology, with different Er$^{3 +}$ doping levels. The results show that the use of this technology allows improving the EDFA's radiation tolerance by increasing the concentration of Er$^{3 +}$ ions provided this is not accompanied with higher concentrations of other dopants, which influence the radiation sensitivity of the fiber.

© 2009 IEEE

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  1. R. B. J. Lewis, E. S. R. Sikora, J. V. Wright, R. H. West, S. Dowling, "Investigation of effects of gamma radiation on erbium-doped fibers," Electron. Lett. 28, 1589-1591 (1992).
  2. G. M. Williams, M. A. Putnam, C. G. Askins, M. E. Gingerich, E. J. Friebele, "Radiation effects in erbium-doped optical fibres," Electron. Lett. 28, 1816-1818 (1992).
  3. G. M. Williams, M. A. Putnam, C. G. Askins, M. E. Gingerich, E. J. Friebele, "Radiation-induced coloring of erbium-doped optical fibers," Proc. Optical Materials Reliability and Testing: Benign and Adverse Environments (1992) pp. 274-283.
  4. C. Fukada, Y. Chigusa, T. Kashiwada, M. Onishi, H. Kanamori, S. Okamoto, "Gamma-ray irradiation durability of erbium-doped fiber," Electron. Lett. 30, 1342-1344 (1994).
  5. G. M. Williams, M. A. Putnam, E. J. Friebele, "Space radiation effects on erbium-doped fibers," Proc. Photonics for Space Environments IV (1996) pp. 30-37.
  6. H. Henschel, O. Kohn, H. U. Schmidt, J. Kirchof, S. Unger, "Radiation-induced loss of rare earth doped silica fibres," IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 45, 1552-1557 (1998).
  7. M. van Uffelen, S. Girard, F. Goutaland, A. Gusarov, B. Brichard, F. Berghmans, "Gamma radiation effects in Er-doped silica fibres," IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 51, 2663-2669 (2004).
  8. B. Tortech, M. V. Uffelen, A. Gusarov, Y. Ouerdane, A. Boukenter, J.-P. Meunier, F. Berghmans, H. Thienpont, "Gamma radiation induced loss in erbium doped optical fibers," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 353, 477-480 (2007).
  9. O. Berne, M. Caussanel, O. Gilard, "A model for the prediction of EDFA gain in a space radiation environment," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2227-2229 (2004).
  10. E. W. Taylor, "Gamma-ray induced effects in erbium-doped fiber optic amplifiers," Proc. Photonics for Space Environments VI (1998) pp. 16-23.
  11. T. S. Rose, D. Gunn, G. C. Valley, "Gamma and proton radiation effects in erbium doped fiber amplifiers: Active and passive measurements," J. Lightw. Technol. 19, 1918-1923 (2001).
  12. S. Tammela, P. Kiiveri, S. Särkilahti, M. Hotoleanu, H. Valkonen, M. Rajala, J. Kurki, K. Janka, "Direct nanoparticle deposition pmrocess for manufacturing very short high gain Er-doped silica glass fibers," ECOC 4, (2002) pp. 9.4.2.
  13. H. J. Hoffmann, M. Söderlund, J. Koponen, D. Kliner, J. Koplow, "DND technology—A core platform for specialty mode guiding structures," SPRC Symp. (2006).
  14. M. Hotoleanu, P. Kiiveri, S. Tammela, S. Särkilahti, H. Valkonen, M. Rajala, J. Kurki, K. Janka, "Characteristics of highly doped Er$^{3 +}$-fibers manufactured by the new direct nanoparticle deposition process," NOC (2002).
  15. A. F. Fernandez, H. Ooms, B. Brichard, M. Coeck, S. Coenen, F. Berghmans, M. Decréton, "SCK-CEN gamma irradiation facilities for radiation tolerance assessment," Proc. Radiation Effects Data Workshop (2002) pp. 171-176.
  16. ECSS, European Cooperation for Space Standardization, ECSS-E-10-04A: Space environment. (2000) Noordwijk: ESA-ESTEC. pp. 112.
  17. Application Note: EDFA Testing With the Interpolation Technique (Agilent Technol., 2000).
  18. J. R. Armitage, "Spectral dependence of the small-signal gain around 1.5 mm in erbium doped silica fiber amplifiers," J. Quant. Electron. 26, 423-425 (1990).
  19. S. D. Jackson, "Direct evidence for laser reabsorption as initial cause for self-pulsing in three-level fiber lasers," Electron. Lett. 38, 1640-1642 (2002).
  20. A. Hideur, T. Chartier, C. Ozkul, F. Sanchez, "Dynamics and stabilization of a high power side-pumped Yb-doped double-clad fiber laser," Opt. Commun. 186, 311-317 (2000).

2007 (1)

B. Tortech, M. V. Uffelen, A. Gusarov, Y. Ouerdane, A. Boukenter, J.-P. Meunier, F. Berghmans, H. Thienpont, "Gamma radiation induced loss in erbium doped optical fibers," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 353, 477-480 (2007).

2004 (2)

O. Berne, M. Caussanel, O. Gilard, "A model for the prediction of EDFA gain in a space radiation environment," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2227-2229 (2004).

M. van Uffelen, S. Girard, F. Goutaland, A. Gusarov, B. Brichard, F. Berghmans, "Gamma radiation effects in Er-doped silica fibres," IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 51, 2663-2669 (2004).

2002 (3)

S. D. Jackson, "Direct evidence for laser reabsorption as initial cause for self-pulsing in three-level fiber lasers," Electron. Lett. 38, 1640-1642 (2002).

S. Tammela, P. Kiiveri, S. Särkilahti, M. Hotoleanu, H. Valkonen, M. Rajala, J. Kurki, K. Janka, "Direct nanoparticle deposition pmrocess for manufacturing very short high gain Er-doped silica glass fibers," ECOC 4, (2002) pp. 9.4.2.

M. Hotoleanu, P. Kiiveri, S. Tammela, S. Särkilahti, H. Valkonen, M. Rajala, J. Kurki, K. Janka, "Characteristics of highly doped Er$^{3 +}$-fibers manufactured by the new direct nanoparticle deposition process," NOC (2002).

2001 (1)

T. S. Rose, D. Gunn, G. C. Valley, "Gamma and proton radiation effects in erbium doped fiber amplifiers: Active and passive measurements," J. Lightw. Technol. 19, 1918-1923 (2001).

2000 (1)

A. Hideur, T. Chartier, C. Ozkul, F. Sanchez, "Dynamics and stabilization of a high power side-pumped Yb-doped double-clad fiber laser," Opt. Commun. 186, 311-317 (2000).

1998 (1)

H. Henschel, O. Kohn, H. U. Schmidt, J. Kirchof, S. Unger, "Radiation-induced loss of rare earth doped silica fibres," IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 45, 1552-1557 (1998).

1994 (1)

C. Fukada, Y. Chigusa, T. Kashiwada, M. Onishi, H. Kanamori, S. Okamoto, "Gamma-ray irradiation durability of erbium-doped fiber," Electron. Lett. 30, 1342-1344 (1994).

1992 (2)

R. B. J. Lewis, E. S. R. Sikora, J. V. Wright, R. H. West, S. Dowling, "Investigation of effects of gamma radiation on erbium-doped fibers," Electron. Lett. 28, 1589-1591 (1992).

G. M. Williams, M. A. Putnam, C. G. Askins, M. E. Gingerich, E. J. Friebele, "Radiation effects in erbium-doped optical fibres," Electron. Lett. 28, 1816-1818 (1992).

1990 (1)

J. R. Armitage, "Spectral dependence of the small-signal gain around 1.5 mm in erbium doped silica fiber amplifiers," J. Quant. Electron. 26, 423-425 (1990).

ECOC (1)

S. Tammela, P. Kiiveri, S. Särkilahti, M. Hotoleanu, H. Valkonen, M. Rajala, J. Kurki, K. Janka, "Direct nanoparticle deposition pmrocess for manufacturing very short high gain Er-doped silica glass fibers," ECOC 4, (2002) pp. 9.4.2.

Electron. Lett. (1)

R. B. J. Lewis, E. S. R. Sikora, J. V. Wright, R. H. West, S. Dowling, "Investigation of effects of gamma radiation on erbium-doped fibers," Electron. Lett. 28, 1589-1591 (1992).

Electron. Lett. (3)

G. M. Williams, M. A. Putnam, C. G. Askins, M. E. Gingerich, E. J. Friebele, "Radiation effects in erbium-doped optical fibres," Electron. Lett. 28, 1816-1818 (1992).

C. Fukada, Y. Chigusa, T. Kashiwada, M. Onishi, H. Kanamori, S. Okamoto, "Gamma-ray irradiation durability of erbium-doped fiber," Electron. Lett. 30, 1342-1344 (1994).

S. D. Jackson, "Direct evidence for laser reabsorption as initial cause for self-pulsing in three-level fiber lasers," Electron. Lett. 38, 1640-1642 (2002).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

O. Berne, M. Caussanel, O. Gilard, "A model for the prediction of EDFA gain in a space radiation environment," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2227-2229 (2004).

IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. (2)

H. Henschel, O. Kohn, H. U. Schmidt, J. Kirchof, S. Unger, "Radiation-induced loss of rare earth doped silica fibres," IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 45, 1552-1557 (1998).

M. van Uffelen, S. Girard, F. Goutaland, A. Gusarov, B. Brichard, F. Berghmans, "Gamma radiation effects in Er-doped silica fibres," IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 51, 2663-2669 (2004).

J. Lightw. Technol. (1)

T. S. Rose, D. Gunn, G. C. Valley, "Gamma and proton radiation effects in erbium doped fiber amplifiers: Active and passive measurements," J. Lightw. Technol. 19, 1918-1923 (2001).

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (1)

B. Tortech, M. V. Uffelen, A. Gusarov, Y. Ouerdane, A. Boukenter, J.-P. Meunier, F. Berghmans, H. Thienpont, "Gamma radiation induced loss in erbium doped optical fibers," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 353, 477-480 (2007).

J. Quant. Electron. (1)

J. R. Armitage, "Spectral dependence of the small-signal gain around 1.5 mm in erbium doped silica fiber amplifiers," J. Quant. Electron. 26, 423-425 (1990).

NOC (1)

M. Hotoleanu, P. Kiiveri, S. Tammela, S. Särkilahti, H. Valkonen, M. Rajala, J. Kurki, K. Janka, "Characteristics of highly doped Er$^{3 +}$-fibers manufactured by the new direct nanoparticle deposition process," NOC (2002).

Opt. Commun. (1)

A. Hideur, T. Chartier, C. Ozkul, F. Sanchez, "Dynamics and stabilization of a high power side-pumped Yb-doped double-clad fiber laser," Opt. Commun. 186, 311-317 (2000).

Other (7)

A. F. Fernandez, H. Ooms, B. Brichard, M. Coeck, S. Coenen, F. Berghmans, M. Decréton, "SCK-CEN gamma irradiation facilities for radiation tolerance assessment," Proc. Radiation Effects Data Workshop (2002) pp. 171-176.

ECSS, European Cooperation for Space Standardization, ECSS-E-10-04A: Space environment. (2000) Noordwijk: ESA-ESTEC. pp. 112.

Application Note: EDFA Testing With the Interpolation Technique (Agilent Technol., 2000).

H. J. Hoffmann, M. Söderlund, J. Koponen, D. Kliner, J. Koplow, "DND technology—A core platform for specialty mode guiding structures," SPRC Symp. (2006).

E. W. Taylor, "Gamma-ray induced effects in erbium-doped fiber optic amplifiers," Proc. Photonics for Space Environments VI (1998) pp. 16-23.

G. M. Williams, M. A. Putnam, E. J. Friebele, "Space radiation effects on erbium-doped fibers," Proc. Photonics for Space Environments IV (1996) pp. 30-37.

G. M. Williams, M. A. Putnam, C. G. Askins, M. E. Gingerich, E. J. Friebele, "Radiation-induced coloring of erbium-doped optical fibers," Proc. Optical Materials Reliability and Testing: Benign and Adverse Environments (1992) pp. 274-283.

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