Abstract

In this paper, we present an analysis of semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA)-based differential Mach–Zehnder wavelength converters with a specific focus on optimizing performance through intentional asymmetries in optical power splitting, SOA bias, and interferometer phase bias. By introducing a simple conceptual framework for understanding the amplifier pulse dynamics, two simple yet effective design rules are derived. These design rules are validated using pseudorandom code in a comprehensive computer model, demonstrating the performance penalties that result when attempting optimization using only unequal SOA biasing or phase biasing. This work illustrates that dramatic improvements in extinction and eye margin can be achieved with optimized splitter asymmetries, and have significant implications for improved network performance and converter cascadability.

© 2009 IEEE

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  1. S. J. B. Yoo, "Wavelength conversion technologies for WDM network applications," J. Lightw. Technol. 14, 955-966 (1996).
  2. T. Durhuus, B. Mikkelsen, C. Joergensen, S. L. Danielsen, K. E. Stubkjaer, "All-optical wavelength conversion by semiconductor opticalamplifiers," J. Lightw. Technol. 14, 942-954 (1996).
  3. Y. Liu, E. Tangdiongga, Z. Li, H. de Waardt, A. M. J. Koonen, G. D. Khoe, X. Shu, I. Bennion, H. J. S. Dorren, "Error-free 320-Gb/s all-optical wavelength conversion using a single semiconductor optical amplifier," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 103-108 (2007).
  4. J. Leuthold, C. H. Joyner, B. Mikkelsen, G. Raybon, J. L. Pleumeekers, B. I. Miller, K. Dreyer, C. A Burrus, "100 Gbit/s all-optical wavelength conversion with integrated SOA delayed-interference configuration," Electron. Lett. 36, 1129-1130 (2000).
  5. C. Joergensen, S. L. Danielsen, T. Durhuus, B. Mikkelsen, K. E. Stubkjaer, N. Vodjdani, F. Ratovelomanana, A. Enard, G. Glastre, D. Rondi, "Wavelength conversion by optimized monolithic integrated Mach-Zehnder interferometer," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 521-523 (1996).
  6. P. Bernasconi, L. Zhang, W. Yang, L. Buhl, N. Sauer, A. Bhardwaj, J. Gripp, J. E. Simsarian, D. T. Neilson, "Monolithically integrated differential Mach-Zehnder filter for 40 Gb/s wavelength conversion in high-confinement butt-joint SOAs," Proc. Int. Conf. Indium Phosphide Related Materials Conf. (2006) pp. 241-243.
  7. M. L. Masanovic, V. Lal, J. A. Summers, J. S. Barton, E. J. Skogen, L. G. Rau, L. A. Coldren, D. J. Blumenthal, "Widely tunable monolithically integrated all-optical wavelength converters in InP," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 1350-1362 (2005).
  8. F. Ratovelomanana, N. Vodjdani, A. Enard, G. Glastre, D. Rondi, R. Blondeau, C. Joergensen, T. Durhuus, B. Mikkelsen, K.E. Stubkjaer, "An all-optical wavelength-converter with semiconductor optical amplifiers monolithically integrated in an asymmetric passive Mach-Zehnder interferometer," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 992-994 (1995).
  9. S. Nakamura, S. Nakamura, Y. Ueno, K. Tajima, "Error-free all-optical demultiplexing at 336 Gb/s with a hybrid-integrated symmetric-Mach-Zehnder switch," Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Exhibit. (2002) pp. FD3-1-FD3-3.
  10. J. M. Dailey, T. L. Koch, "Impact of carrier heating on SOA transmission dynamics for wavelength conversion," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1078-1080 (2007).
  11. J. Sakaguchi, M. L. Nielsen, T. Ohira, R. Suzuki, Y. Ueno, "Observation of small sub-pulses out of the delayed-interference signal-wavelength converter," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, L1358-L1360 (2005).
  12. J. Leuthold, D. M. Marom, S. Cabot, J. J. Jaques, R. Ryf, C. R. Giles, "All-optical wavelength conversion using a pulse reformatting optical filter," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 186-192 (2004).
  13. M. L. Nielsen, B. Lavigne, B. Dagens, "Polarity-preserving SOA-based wavelength conversion at 40 Gbit/s using bandpass filtering," Electron. Lett. 39, 1334-1335 (2003).
  14. M. L. Nielsen, J. Mørk, "Increasing the modulation bandwidth of semiconductor-optical-amplifier-based switches by using optical filtering," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 21, 1606-1619 (2004).
  15. Y. Ueno, "Theoretically predicted nonlinear phase imbalance requirement for delayed-interference signal-wavelength convertors (DISC)," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, L665-L668 (2004).
  16. S. Kumar, B. Zhang, A. E. Willner, "Impact of operational parameters on optimum performance of SOA-based differential-mode wavelength converters," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1538-1540 (2007).
  17. J. Leuthold, P. A. Besse, J. Eckner, E. Gamper, M. Dulk, H. Melchior, "All-optical space switches with gain and principally ideal extinction ratios," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 622-633 (1998).
  18. N. S. Lagali, M. R. Paiam, R. I. MacDonald, K. A. W. K. Worhoff, A. A. D. A. Driessen, "Analysis of generalized Mach-Zehnder interferometers for variable-ratio power splitting and optimized switching," J. Lightw. Technol. 17, 2542-2550 (1999).
  19. K. L. Hall, G. Lenz, A. M. Darwish, E. P. Ippen, "Subpicosecond gain and index nonlinearities in InGaAsP diode lasers," Opt. Commun. 111, 589-612 (1994).
  20. M. J. Connelly, "Wideband semiconductor optical amplifier steady-state numerical model," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 439-447 (2001).
  21. B. R. Bennett, R. A. Soref, J. A. Del Alamo, "Carrier-induced change in refractive index of InP, GaAs and InGaAsP," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 113-122 (1990).
  22. L. A. Coldren, S. W. Corzine, Diode Lasers and Photonic Integrated Circuits (Wiley, 1995).

2007 (3)

Y. Liu, E. Tangdiongga, Z. Li, H. de Waardt, A. M. J. Koonen, G. D. Khoe, X. Shu, I. Bennion, H. J. S. Dorren, "Error-free 320-Gb/s all-optical wavelength conversion using a single semiconductor optical amplifier," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 103-108 (2007).

J. M. Dailey, T. L. Koch, "Impact of carrier heating on SOA transmission dynamics for wavelength conversion," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1078-1080 (2007).

S. Kumar, B. Zhang, A. E. Willner, "Impact of operational parameters on optimum performance of SOA-based differential-mode wavelength converters," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1538-1540 (2007).

2005 (2)

M. L. Masanovic, V. Lal, J. A. Summers, J. S. Barton, E. J. Skogen, L. G. Rau, L. A. Coldren, D. J. Blumenthal, "Widely tunable monolithically integrated all-optical wavelength converters in InP," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 1350-1362 (2005).

J. Sakaguchi, M. L. Nielsen, T. Ohira, R. Suzuki, Y. Ueno, "Observation of small sub-pulses out of the delayed-interference signal-wavelength converter," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, L1358-L1360 (2005).

2004 (3)

J. Leuthold, D. M. Marom, S. Cabot, J. J. Jaques, R. Ryf, C. R. Giles, "All-optical wavelength conversion using a pulse reformatting optical filter," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 186-192 (2004).

M. L. Nielsen, J. Mørk, "Increasing the modulation bandwidth of semiconductor-optical-amplifier-based switches by using optical filtering," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 21, 1606-1619 (2004).

Y. Ueno, "Theoretically predicted nonlinear phase imbalance requirement for delayed-interference signal-wavelength convertors (DISC)," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, L665-L668 (2004).

2003 (1)

M. L. Nielsen, B. Lavigne, B. Dagens, "Polarity-preserving SOA-based wavelength conversion at 40 Gbit/s using bandpass filtering," Electron. Lett. 39, 1334-1335 (2003).

2001 (1)

M. J. Connelly, "Wideband semiconductor optical amplifier steady-state numerical model," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 439-447 (2001).

2000 (1)

J. Leuthold, C. H. Joyner, B. Mikkelsen, G. Raybon, J. L. Pleumeekers, B. I. Miller, K. Dreyer, C. A Burrus, "100 Gbit/s all-optical wavelength conversion with integrated SOA delayed-interference configuration," Electron. Lett. 36, 1129-1130 (2000).

1999 (1)

N. S. Lagali, M. R. Paiam, R. I. MacDonald, K. A. W. K. Worhoff, A. A. D. A. Driessen, "Analysis of generalized Mach-Zehnder interferometers for variable-ratio power splitting and optimized switching," J. Lightw. Technol. 17, 2542-2550 (1999).

1998 (1)

J. Leuthold, P. A. Besse, J. Eckner, E. Gamper, M. Dulk, H. Melchior, "All-optical space switches with gain and principally ideal extinction ratios," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 622-633 (1998).

1996 (3)

C. Joergensen, S. L. Danielsen, T. Durhuus, B. Mikkelsen, K. E. Stubkjaer, N. Vodjdani, F. Ratovelomanana, A. Enard, G. Glastre, D. Rondi, "Wavelength conversion by optimized monolithic integrated Mach-Zehnder interferometer," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 521-523 (1996).

S. J. B. Yoo, "Wavelength conversion technologies for WDM network applications," J. Lightw. Technol. 14, 955-966 (1996).

T. Durhuus, B. Mikkelsen, C. Joergensen, S. L. Danielsen, K. E. Stubkjaer, "All-optical wavelength conversion by semiconductor opticalamplifiers," J. Lightw. Technol. 14, 942-954 (1996).

1995 (1)

F. Ratovelomanana, N. Vodjdani, A. Enard, G. Glastre, D. Rondi, R. Blondeau, C. Joergensen, T. Durhuus, B. Mikkelsen, K.E. Stubkjaer, "An all-optical wavelength-converter with semiconductor optical amplifiers monolithically integrated in an asymmetric passive Mach-Zehnder interferometer," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 992-994 (1995).

1994 (1)

K. L. Hall, G. Lenz, A. M. Darwish, E. P. Ippen, "Subpicosecond gain and index nonlinearities in InGaAsP diode lasers," Opt. Commun. 111, 589-612 (1994).

1990 (1)

B. R. Bennett, R. A. Soref, J. A. Del Alamo, "Carrier-induced change in refractive index of InP, GaAs and InGaAsP," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 113-122 (1990).

Electron. Lett. (2)

J. Leuthold, C. H. Joyner, B. Mikkelsen, G. Raybon, J. L. Pleumeekers, B. I. Miller, K. Dreyer, C. A Burrus, "100 Gbit/s all-optical wavelength conversion with integrated SOA delayed-interference configuration," Electron. Lett. 36, 1129-1130 (2000).

M. L. Nielsen, B. Lavigne, B. Dagens, "Polarity-preserving SOA-based wavelength conversion at 40 Gbit/s using bandpass filtering," Electron. Lett. 39, 1334-1335 (2003).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. J. Connelly, "Wideband semiconductor optical amplifier steady-state numerical model," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 439-447 (2001).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

J. M. Dailey, T. L. Koch, "Impact of carrier heating on SOA transmission dynamics for wavelength conversion," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1078-1080 (2007).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

J. Leuthold, P. A. Besse, J. Eckner, E. Gamper, M. Dulk, H. Melchior, "All-optical space switches with gain and principally ideal extinction ratios," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 622-633 (1998).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

B. R. Bennett, R. A. Soref, J. A. Del Alamo, "Carrier-induced change in refractive index of InP, GaAs and InGaAsP," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 113-122 (1990).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

C. Joergensen, S. L. Danielsen, T. Durhuus, B. Mikkelsen, K. E. Stubkjaer, N. Vodjdani, F. Ratovelomanana, A. Enard, G. Glastre, D. Rondi, "Wavelength conversion by optimized monolithic integrated Mach-Zehnder interferometer," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 521-523 (1996).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

F. Ratovelomanana, N. Vodjdani, A. Enard, G. Glastre, D. Rondi, R. Blondeau, C. Joergensen, T. Durhuus, B. Mikkelsen, K.E. Stubkjaer, "An all-optical wavelength-converter with semiconductor optical amplifiers monolithically integrated in an asymmetric passive Mach-Zehnder interferometer," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 992-994 (1995).

S. Kumar, B. Zhang, A. E. Willner, "Impact of operational parameters on optimum performance of SOA-based differential-mode wavelength converters," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1538-1540 (2007).

J. Lightw. Technol. (1)

M. L. Masanovic, V. Lal, J. A. Summers, J. S. Barton, E. J. Skogen, L. G. Rau, L. A. Coldren, D. J. Blumenthal, "Widely tunable monolithically integrated all-optical wavelength converters in InP," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 1350-1362 (2005).

J. Lightw. Technol. (1)

T. Durhuus, B. Mikkelsen, C. Joergensen, S. L. Danielsen, K. E. Stubkjaer, "All-optical wavelength conversion by semiconductor opticalamplifiers," J. Lightw. Technol. 14, 942-954 (1996).

J. Lightw. Technol. (4)

Y. Liu, E. Tangdiongga, Z. Li, H. de Waardt, A. M. J. Koonen, G. D. Khoe, X. Shu, I. Bennion, H. J. S. Dorren, "Error-free 320-Gb/s all-optical wavelength conversion using a single semiconductor optical amplifier," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 103-108 (2007).

S. J. B. Yoo, "Wavelength conversion technologies for WDM network applications," J. Lightw. Technol. 14, 955-966 (1996).

J. Leuthold, D. M. Marom, S. Cabot, J. J. Jaques, R. Ryf, C. R. Giles, "All-optical wavelength conversion using a pulse reformatting optical filter," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 186-192 (2004).

N. S. Lagali, M. R. Paiam, R. I. MacDonald, K. A. W. K. Worhoff, A. A. D. A. Driessen, "Analysis of generalized Mach-Zehnder interferometers for variable-ratio power splitting and optimized switching," J. Lightw. Technol. 17, 2542-2550 (1999).

J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B (1)

M. L. Nielsen, J. Mørk, "Increasing the modulation bandwidth of semiconductor-optical-amplifier-based switches by using optical filtering," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 21, 1606-1619 (2004).

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

J. Sakaguchi, M. L. Nielsen, T. Ohira, R. Suzuki, Y. Ueno, "Observation of small sub-pulses out of the delayed-interference signal-wavelength converter," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, L1358-L1360 (2005).

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

Y. Ueno, "Theoretically predicted nonlinear phase imbalance requirement for delayed-interference signal-wavelength convertors (DISC)," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, L665-L668 (2004).

Opt. Commun. (1)

K. L. Hall, G. Lenz, A. M. Darwish, E. P. Ippen, "Subpicosecond gain and index nonlinearities in InGaAsP diode lasers," Opt. Commun. 111, 589-612 (1994).

Other (3)

S. Nakamura, S. Nakamura, Y. Ueno, K. Tajima, "Error-free all-optical demultiplexing at 336 Gb/s with a hybrid-integrated symmetric-Mach-Zehnder switch," Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Exhibit. (2002) pp. FD3-1-FD3-3.

P. Bernasconi, L. Zhang, W. Yang, L. Buhl, N. Sauer, A. Bhardwaj, J. Gripp, J. E. Simsarian, D. T. Neilson, "Monolithically integrated differential Mach-Zehnder filter for 40 Gb/s wavelength conversion in high-confinement butt-joint SOAs," Proc. Int. Conf. Indium Phosphide Related Materials Conf. (2006) pp. 241-243.

L. A. Coldren, S. W. Corzine, Diode Lasers and Photonic Integrated Circuits (Wiley, 1995).

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