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waveguides," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43, 78-84 (2007).

A. Locatelli, M. Conforti, D. Modotto, C. De Angelis, "Imaging
properties of multimode photonic crystal waveguides and waveguide arrays," J.
Lightw. Technol. 25, 402-409 (2007).

A. Theocharidis, T. Kamalakis, T. Sphicopoulos, "Accuracy of
coupled-mode theory and mode-matching method in the analysis of photonic crystal
waveguide perturbations," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 3193-3201
(2007).

T. Kamalakis, T. Sphicopoulos, "Numerical study of the
implications of size nonuniformities in the performance of photonic crystal
couplers using coupled mode theory," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 863-871
(2005).

A. Locatelli, M. Conforti, D. Modotto, C. De Angelis, "Diffraction
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(2005).

H. Kurt, D. S. Citrin, "Annular photonic crystals," Opt. Exp. 13,
10316-10326 (2005).

I. Park, H. -S. Lee, H. -J. Kim, K. -M. Moon, S. -G. Lee, B. -H.
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coupling," Opt. Exp. 12, 3599-3604 (2004).

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directional couplers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 694-696
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M. Thorhauge, L. H. Frandsen, P. I. Borel, "Efficient photonic
crystal directional couplers," Opt. Lett. 28, 1525-1527 (2003).

S. Kuchinsky, V. Y. Golyatin, A. Y. Kutikov, T. P. Pearsall, D.
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Electron. 38, 1349-1352 (2002).

S. G. Johnson, P. Bienstman, M. A. Skorobogatiy, M. Ibanescu, E.
Lidorikis, J. D. Joannopoulos, "Adiabatic theorem and continuous coupled-mode
theory for efficient taper transitions in photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. E 66,
066608 (1)-(15) (2002).

S. Boscolo, M. Midrio, C. G. Someda, "Coupling and decoupling of
electromagnetic waves in parallel 2-D photonic crystal waveguides," IEEE J.
Quantum Electron. 38, 47-53 (2002).

T. Pertsch, T. Zentgraf, U. Peschel, A. Brauer, F. Lederer,
"Anomalous refraction and diffraction in discrete optical systems," Phys. Rev.
Lett. 88, 093901 (2002).

A. Kaplan, S. Ruschin, "Optical switching and power control in
${\rm LiNbO}_{3}$ coupled waveguide arrays," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37,
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H. S. Eisenberg, Y. Silberberg, R. Morandotti, A: R. Boyd, J. S.
Aitchison, "Discrete spatial optical solitons in waveguide arrays," Phys. Rev.
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U. Peschel, T. Pertsch, F. Lederer, "Optical Bloch oscillations in
waveguide arrays," Opt. Lett. 23, 1701-1703 (1998).

D. Christodoulides, R. Joseph, "Discrete self-focusing in
nonlinear arrays of coupled waveguides," Opt. Lett. 13, 794-796
(1998).

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an optical phased array," IEE Electron. Lett. 24, 385-386 (1988).

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S. John, "Strong localization of photons in certain disordered
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A. Hardy, W. Streifer, "Coupled mode theory of parallel
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H. Haus, L. Molter-Orr, "Coupled multiple waveguide systems," IEEE
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R. V. Schmidt, H. Kogelnik, "Electro-optically switched coupler
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H. Kogelnik, C. V. Shank, "Coupled wave theory of distributed
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S. Somekh, E. Garmire, A. Yariv, H. L. Garvin, R. G. Hunsperger,
"Channel optical waveguide directional couplers," App. Phys. Lett. 22, 46-47
(1973).

R. V. Schmidt, H. Kogelnik, "Electro-optically switched coupler
with stepped Delta $\beta$ reversal using Ti-diffused ${\rm LiNbO}_{3}$
waveguides," App. Phys. Lett. 28, 503-506 (1976).

M. K. Smit, "New focusing and dispersive planar component based on
an optical phased array," IEE Electron. Lett. 24, 385-386 (1988).

H. Haus, L. Molter-Orr, "Coupled multiple waveguide systems," IEEE
J. Quantum Electron. 19, 840-844 (1983).

A. Kaplan, S. Ruschin, "Optical switching and power control in
${\rm LiNbO}_{3}$ coupled waveguide arrays," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37,
1562-1573 (2001).

H. Kurt, D. S. Citrin, "Photonic-crystal heterostructure
waveguides," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43, 78-84 (2007).

S. Boscolo, M. Midrio, C. G. Someda, "Coupling and decoupling of
electromagnetic waves in parallel 2-D photonic crystal waveguides," IEEE J.
Quantum Electron. 38, 47-53 (2002).

S. Kuchinsky, V. Y. Golyatin, A. Y. Kutikov, T. P. Pearsall, D.
Nedeljkovic, "Coupling between photonic crystal waveguides," IEEE J. Quantum
Electron. 38, 1349-1352 (2002).

T. Kamalakis, T. Sphicopoulos, "Numerical study of the
implications of size nonuniformities in the performance of photonic crystal
couplers using coupled mode theory," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 863-871
(2005).

A. Martinez, F. Cuesta, J. Marti, "Ultrashort 2-D photonic crystal
directional couplers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 694-696
(2003).

H. Kogelnik, C. V. Shank, "Coupled wave theory of distributed
feedback lasers," J. Appl. Phys. 43, 2327-2335 (1972).

A. Hardy, W. Streifer, "Coupled mode theory of parallel
waveguides," J. Lightw. Technol. 3, 1135-1146 (1985).

A. Theocharidis, T. Kamalakis, T. Sphicopoulos, "Accuracy of
coupled-mode theory and mode-matching method in the analysis of photonic crystal
waveguide perturbations," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 3193-3201
(2007).

A. Locatelli, M. Conforti, D. Modotto, C. De Angelis, "Imaging
properties of multimode photonic crystal waveguides and waveguide arrays," J.
Lightw. Technol. 25, 402-409 (2007).

I. Park, H. -S. Lee, H. -J. Kim, K. -M. Moon, S. -G. Lee, B. -H.
O, S. -G. Park, E. -H. Lee, "Photonic crystal power-splitter based on directional
coupling," Opt. Exp. 12, 3599-3604 (2004).

H. Kurt, D. S. Citrin, "Annular photonic crystals," Opt. Exp. 13,
10316-10326 (2005).

A. Locatelli, M. Conforti, D. Modotto, C. De Angelis, "Discrete
negative refraction in photonic crystal waveguide arrays," Opt. Lett. 31,
1343-1345 (2006).

A. Locatelli, M. Conforti, D. Modotto, C. De Angelis, "Diffraction
engineering in arrays of photonic crystal waveguides," Opt. Lett. 30, 2894-2896
(2005).

M. Thorhauge, L. H. Frandsen, P. I. Borel, "Efficient photonic
crystal directional couplers," Opt. Lett. 28, 1525-1527 (2003).

D. Christodoulides, R. Joseph, "Discrete self-focusing in
nonlinear arrays of coupled waveguides," Opt. Lett. 13, 794-796
(1998).

E. Kapon, J. Katz, A. Yariv, "Supermode analysis of phase-locked
arrays of semiconductor lasers," Opt. Lett. 9, 125-127 (1984).

U. Peschel, T. Pertsch, F. Lederer, "Optical Bloch oscillations in
waveguide arrays," Opt. Lett. 23, 1701-1703 (1998).

M. Plihal, A. A. Maradudin, "Photonic band structure of 2-D
systems: The triangular lattice," Phys. Rev. B 44, 8565-8571
(1991).

S. G. Johnson, P. Bienstman, M. A. Skorobogatiy, M. Ibanescu, E.
Lidorikis, J. D. Joannopoulos, "Adiabatic theorem and continuous coupled-mode
theory for efficient taper transitions in photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. E 66,
066608 (1)-(15) (2002).

H. S. Eisenberg, Y. Silberberg, R. Morandotti, A: R. Boyd, J. S.
Aitchison, "Discrete spatial optical solitons in waveguide arrays," Phys. Rev.
Lett. 81, 3383-3386 (1998).

T. Pertsch, T. Zentgraf, U. Peschel, A. Brauer, F. Lederer,
"Anomalous refraction and diffraction in discrete optical systems," Phys. Rev.
Lett. 88, 093901 (2002).

E. Yablonovitch, "Inhibited spontaneous emission in solid-state
physics and electronics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2059-2062 (1987).

S. John, "Strong localization of photons in certain disordered
dielectric superlattices," Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2486-2489 (1987).

J. D. Joannopoulos, R. D. Meade, J. N. Winn, Photonic Crystals:
Molding the Flow of Light (Princeton Univ. Press, 1995).

A. Taflove, Computational Electrodynamics – The Finite-Difference
Time-Domain Method (Artech House, 2000).