Abstract

The paper reports the design, fabrication and characterization of silicon-on-insulator (SOI) microring resonators using shallow etched rib waveguides. The variation of the $Q$-factor of microring resonators as a function of the ring diameter and coupling gap between the input waveguide and the ring is studied. Such structures are fabricated using e-beam lithography and reactive ion etching steps. Propagation loss of shallow etching rib waveguide has been evaluated to 0.8 dB/cm for wavelengths around 1550 nm. With a ring diameter of 100 $\mu{\rm m}$ and a coupling gap of 450 nm, the measured $Q$-factor is 35300. These results are matched by 3-D numerical optical modeling.

© 2009 IEEE

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  1. D. Marris, L. Vivien, D. Pascal, M. Rouvière, E. Cassan, A. Lupu, S. Laval, J. M. Fédéli, L. El Melhaoui, "Ultralow loss successive divisions using silicon-on-insulator microwaveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 211102 (2005).
  2. F. Y. Gardes, G. T. Reed, N. G. Emerson, C. E. Png, "A sub-micron depletion-type photonic modulator in silicon on insulator," Opt. Exp. 13, 8845-8854 (2005) http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?id=86050.
  3. Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, M. Lipson, "Micrometer-scale silicon electro-optic modulator," Nature 435, 325-327 (2005).
  4. L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, M. Morse, A. Liu, D. Hodge, D. Rubin, "High speed silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator," Opt. Express 13, 3129-3135 (2005) http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?id=83700.
  5. A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, H. Nguyen, B. Ciftcioglu, Y. Chetrit, N. Izhaky, M. Paniccia, "High-speed optical modulation based on carrier depletion in a silicon waveguide," Opt. Exp. 15, 660-668 (2007) http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?id=125498.
  6. D. Marris, A. Cordat, D. Pascal, A. Koster, E. Cassan, L. Vivien, S. Laval, "Design of a SiGe-Si quantum-well optical modulator," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 9, 747-754 (2003).
  7. S. Maine, D. Marris-Morini, L. Vivien, D. Pascal, E. Cassan, S. Laval, "Design optimization of SiGe/Si modulation-doped multiple quantum well modulator for high speed operation," Proc. SPIE 6183 (2006) pp. 618360D1-618360D6.
  8. D. Peyrade, E. Silberstein, P. Lalanne, A. Talneau, Y. Chen, "Short Bragg mirrors with adiabatic modal conversion," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 829-831 (2002).
  9. T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, C. Walker, A. Scherera, "High-Q ring resonators in thin silicon-on-insulator," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3346-3347 (2004).
  10. B. Miaoa, P. Yao, J. Murakowski, D. W. Prather, "Fabrication of silicon microring resonators with narrow coupling gaps," J. Microlithogr., Microfabric. Microsyst. 4, 023013(1)-023013(5) (2005).
  11. B. G. Lee, B. A. Small, K. Bergman, Q. Xu, M. Lipson, "Transmission of high-data-rate optical signals through a micrometer-scale silicon ring resonator," Opt. Lett. 31, 2701-2703 (2006).
  12. M. A. Webster, R. M. Pafchek, G. Sukumaran, T. L. Koch, "Low-loss quasi-planar ridge waveguides formed on thin silicon-on-insulator," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 231108 (2005).
  13. I. Kiyat, A. Aydinli, "High-Q silicon-on-insulator optical rib waveguide racetrack resonators," Opt. Exp. 13, 1900-1905 (2005) http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?id=82991.
  14. A. Yariv, "Universal relations for coupling of optical power between microresonators and dielectric waveguides," Electron. Lett. 36, 321-322 (2000).
  15. J. Niehusmann, A. Vörckel, P. Haring Bolivar, T. Wahlbrink, W. Henschel, H. Kurz, "Ultrahigh-quality-factor silicon-on-insulator microring resonator," Opt. Lett. 29, 2861-2863 (2004).
  16. Details are available at http://www.photond.com.

2007 (1)

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, H. Nguyen, B. Ciftcioglu, Y. Chetrit, N. Izhaky, M. Paniccia, "High-speed optical modulation based on carrier depletion in a silicon waveguide," Opt. Exp. 15, 660-668 (2007) http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?id=125498.

2006 (1)

B. G. Lee, B. A. Small, K. Bergman, Q. Xu, M. Lipson, "Transmission of high-data-rate optical signals through a micrometer-scale silicon ring resonator," Opt. Lett. 31, 2701-2703 (2006).

2005 (7)

M. A. Webster, R. M. Pafchek, G. Sukumaran, T. L. Koch, "Low-loss quasi-planar ridge waveguides formed on thin silicon-on-insulator," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 231108 (2005).

I. Kiyat, A. Aydinli, "High-Q silicon-on-insulator optical rib waveguide racetrack resonators," Opt. Exp. 13, 1900-1905 (2005) http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?id=82991.

B. Miaoa, P. Yao, J. Murakowski, D. W. Prather, "Fabrication of silicon microring resonators with narrow coupling gaps," J. Microlithogr., Microfabric. Microsyst. 4, 023013(1)-023013(5) (2005).

D. Marris, L. Vivien, D. Pascal, M. Rouvière, E. Cassan, A. Lupu, S. Laval, J. M. Fédéli, L. El Melhaoui, "Ultralow loss successive divisions using silicon-on-insulator microwaveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 211102 (2005).

F. Y. Gardes, G. T. Reed, N. G. Emerson, C. E. Png, "A sub-micron depletion-type photonic modulator in silicon on insulator," Opt. Exp. 13, 8845-8854 (2005) http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?id=86050.

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, M. Lipson, "Micrometer-scale silicon electro-optic modulator," Nature 435, 325-327 (2005).

L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, M. Morse, A. Liu, D. Hodge, D. Rubin, "High speed silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator," Opt. Express 13, 3129-3135 (2005) http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?id=83700.

2004 (2)

T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, C. Walker, A. Scherera, "High-Q ring resonators in thin silicon-on-insulator," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3346-3347 (2004).

J. Niehusmann, A. Vörckel, P. Haring Bolivar, T. Wahlbrink, W. Henschel, H. Kurz, "Ultrahigh-quality-factor silicon-on-insulator microring resonator," Opt. Lett. 29, 2861-2863 (2004).

2003 (1)

D. Marris, A. Cordat, D. Pascal, A. Koster, E. Cassan, L. Vivien, S. Laval, "Design of a SiGe-Si quantum-well optical modulator," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 9, 747-754 (2003).

2002 (1)

D. Peyrade, E. Silberstein, P. Lalanne, A. Talneau, Y. Chen, "Short Bragg mirrors with adiabatic modal conversion," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 829-831 (2002).

2000 (1)

A. Yariv, "Universal relations for coupling of optical power between microresonators and dielectric waveguides," Electron. Lett. 36, 321-322 (2000).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

D. Marris, L. Vivien, D. Pascal, M. Rouvière, E. Cassan, A. Lupu, S. Laval, J. M. Fédéli, L. El Melhaoui, "Ultralow loss successive divisions using silicon-on-insulator microwaveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 211102 (2005).

M. A. Webster, R. M. Pafchek, G. Sukumaran, T. L. Koch, "Low-loss quasi-planar ridge waveguides formed on thin silicon-on-insulator," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 231108 (2005).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

D. Peyrade, E. Silberstein, P. Lalanne, A. Talneau, Y. Chen, "Short Bragg mirrors with adiabatic modal conversion," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 829-831 (2002).

T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, C. Walker, A. Scherera, "High-Q ring resonators in thin silicon-on-insulator," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3346-3347 (2004).

Electron. Lett. (1)

A. Yariv, "Universal relations for coupling of optical power between microresonators and dielectric waveguides," Electron. Lett. 36, 321-322 (2000).

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (1)

D. Marris, A. Cordat, D. Pascal, A. Koster, E. Cassan, L. Vivien, S. Laval, "Design of a SiGe-Si quantum-well optical modulator," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 9, 747-754 (2003).

J. Microlithogr., Microfabric. Microsyst. (1)

B. Miaoa, P. Yao, J. Murakowski, D. W. Prather, "Fabrication of silicon microring resonators with narrow coupling gaps," J. Microlithogr., Microfabric. Microsyst. 4, 023013(1)-023013(5) (2005).

Nature (1)

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, M. Lipson, "Micrometer-scale silicon electro-optic modulator," Nature 435, 325-327 (2005).

Opt. Exp. (2)

F. Y. Gardes, G. T. Reed, N. G. Emerson, C. E. Png, "A sub-micron depletion-type photonic modulator in silicon on insulator," Opt. Exp. 13, 8845-8854 (2005) http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?id=86050.

I. Kiyat, A. Aydinli, "High-Q silicon-on-insulator optical rib waveguide racetrack resonators," Opt. Exp. 13, 1900-1905 (2005) http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?id=82991.

Opt. Express (1)

L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, M. Morse, A. Liu, D. Hodge, D. Rubin, "High speed silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator," Opt. Express 13, 3129-3135 (2005) http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?id=83700.

Opt. Lett. (1)

B. G. Lee, B. A. Small, K. Bergman, Q. Xu, M. Lipson, "Transmission of high-data-rate optical signals through a micrometer-scale silicon ring resonator," Opt. Lett. 31, 2701-2703 (2006).

Opt. Exp. (1)

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, H. Nguyen, B. Ciftcioglu, Y. Chetrit, N. Izhaky, M. Paniccia, "High-speed optical modulation based on carrier depletion in a silicon waveguide," Opt. Exp. 15, 660-668 (2007) http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?id=125498.

Opt. Lett. (1)

Other (2)

Details are available at http://www.photond.com.

S. Maine, D. Marris-Morini, L. Vivien, D. Pascal, E. Cassan, S. Laval, "Design optimization of SiGe/Si modulation-doped multiple quantum well modulator for high speed operation," Proc. SPIE 6183 (2006) pp. 618360D1-618360D6.

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