Abstract

We show analytically that if the response of a signal-reshaping processor is slower than (or comparable to) the time scale of variations of the temporal profile of the input signal, then such a processor necessarily degrades the signal's bit error rate (BER). Here, the BER comparison is made for the cases where the receiver is placed immediately before and immediately after the processor. As primary examples of such processors, we consider all-optical 2R (reamplification and reshaping) regenerators, but also mention that the aforementioned BER degradation can occur in wavelength converters and electronic components of the receiver.

© 2009 IEEE

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  1. P. V. Mamyshev, "All-optical regeneration based on self-phase modulation effect," Proc. 24th Eur. Conf. Optical Communications (1998) pp. 475-476.
  2. M. Matsumoto, "Analysis of optical regeneration utilizing self-phase modulation in a highly nonlinear fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 319-321 (2002).
  3. F. Öhman, S. Bischoff, B. Tromborg, J. Mørk, "Noise and regeneration in semiconductor waveguides with saturable gain and absorption," IEEE J. Quant. Electron. 40, 245-255 (2004).
  4. J. Yu, P. Jeppesen, "80-Gb/s wavelength conversion based on cross-phase modulation in high-nonlinearity dispersion-shifted fiber and optical filtering," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 833-835 (2001).
  5. N. Chi, L. Xu, K. S. Berg, T. Tokle, P. Jeppesen, "All-optical wavelength conversion and multichannel 2R regeneration based on highly nonlinear dispersion-imbalanced loop mirror," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1581-1583 (2002).
  6. W. Mao, P. A. Andrekson, J. Toulouse, "All-optical wavelength conversion based on sinusoidal cross-phase modulation in optical fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 420-422 (2005).
  7. J. Ma, J. Yu, C. Yu, Z. Jia, X. Sang, Z. Zhou, T. Wang, G. K. Chang, "Wavelength conversion based on four-wave mixing in high-nonlinear dispersion-shifted fiber using a dual-pump configuration," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 2851-2858 (2006).
  8. B. Charbonnier, N. El Dahdah, M. Joindot, "OSNR margin brought about by nonlinear regenerators in optical communication links," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 475-477 (2006).
  9. M. Rochette, L. Fu, V. Ta'eed, D. J. Moss, B. J. Eggleton, "2R optical regeneration: An all-optical solution for BER improvement," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quant. Electron. 12, 736-744 (2006).
  10. T. I. Lakoba, "Multicanonical Monte Carlo study of the BER of an all-optically 2R regenerated signal," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quant. Electron. 14, 599-609 (2008).
  11. S. Bischoff, B. Lading, J. Mørk, "BER estimation for all-optical regenerators influenced by pattern effects," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 33-35 (2002).
  12. M. Karlsson, H. Sunnerud, B.-E. Olsson, "PMD compensation using 2R and 3R regenerators," 30th Eur. Conf. Optical Communications (2004) Paper WE1.4.2.
  13. M. Rochette, J. N. Kutz, J. L. Blows, D. Moss, T. J. Mok, B. J. Eggleton, "Bit-error-ratio improvement with 2R optical regenerators," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 908-910 (2005).
  14. T. N. Nguyen, M. Gay, L. Bramerie, T. Chartier, J.-C. Simon, M. Joindot, "Noise reduction in 2R-regeneration technique utilizing self-phase modulation and filtering," Opt. Exp. 14, 1737-1747 (2006).
  15. P. Öhlén, E. Berglind, "Noise accumulation and BER estimates in concatenated nonlinear optoelectronic repeaters," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1011-1013 (1997).
  16. M. R. G. Leiria, A. V. T. Cartaxo, "Impact of the signal and nonlinearity extinction ratios on the design of nonideal 2R all-optical regenerators," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 276-285 (2008).
  17. L. F. Mollenauer, C. Xu, "Time-lens timing jitter compensator in ultra-long haul DWDM dispersion-managed soliton transmissions," Conf. Lasers and Electro-Optics Long BeachCA (2002) paper CPDB1.
  18. I. O. Nasieva, S. Boscolo, S. K. Turitsyn, "Bit error rate improvement by nonlinear optical decision element," Opt. Lett. 31, 1205-1207 (2006).
  19. X. Liu, X. Wei, R. Slusher, C. J. McKinstrie, "Improving transmission performance in differential phase-shift-keyed systems by used of lumped nonlinear phase shift compensation," Opt. Lett. 27, 1616-1618 (2002).
  20. C. Xu, X. Liu, "Postnonlinearity compensation with data-driven phase modulators in phase-shift-keying transmission," Opt. Lett. 27, 1619-1621 (2002).
  21. G. Zhu, L. Mollenauer, C. Xu, "Experimental demonstration of postnonlinearity compensation in a multispan DPSK transmission," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1007-1009 (2006).

2008

T. I. Lakoba, "Multicanonical Monte Carlo study of the BER of an all-optically 2R regenerated signal," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quant. Electron. 14, 599-609 (2008).

M. R. G. Leiria, A. V. T. Cartaxo, "Impact of the signal and nonlinearity extinction ratios on the design of nonideal 2R all-optical regenerators," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 276-285 (2008).

2006

I. O. Nasieva, S. Boscolo, S. K. Turitsyn, "Bit error rate improvement by nonlinear optical decision element," Opt. Lett. 31, 1205-1207 (2006).

G. Zhu, L. Mollenauer, C. Xu, "Experimental demonstration of postnonlinearity compensation in a multispan DPSK transmission," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1007-1009 (2006).

T. N. Nguyen, M. Gay, L. Bramerie, T. Chartier, J.-C. Simon, M. Joindot, "Noise reduction in 2R-regeneration technique utilizing self-phase modulation and filtering," Opt. Exp. 14, 1737-1747 (2006).

J. Ma, J. Yu, C. Yu, Z. Jia, X. Sang, Z. Zhou, T. Wang, G. K. Chang, "Wavelength conversion based on four-wave mixing in high-nonlinear dispersion-shifted fiber using a dual-pump configuration," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 2851-2858 (2006).

B. Charbonnier, N. El Dahdah, M. Joindot, "OSNR margin brought about by nonlinear regenerators in optical communication links," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 475-477 (2006).

M. Rochette, L. Fu, V. Ta'eed, D. J. Moss, B. J. Eggleton, "2R optical regeneration: An all-optical solution for BER improvement," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quant. Electron. 12, 736-744 (2006).

2005

W. Mao, P. A. Andrekson, J. Toulouse, "All-optical wavelength conversion based on sinusoidal cross-phase modulation in optical fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 420-422 (2005).

M. Rochette, J. N. Kutz, J. L. Blows, D. Moss, T. J. Mok, B. J. Eggleton, "Bit-error-ratio improvement with 2R optical regenerators," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 908-910 (2005).

2004

F. Öhman, S. Bischoff, B. Tromborg, J. Mørk, "Noise and regeneration in semiconductor waveguides with saturable gain and absorption," IEEE J. Quant. Electron. 40, 245-255 (2004).

2002

M. Matsumoto, "Analysis of optical regeneration utilizing self-phase modulation in a highly nonlinear fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 319-321 (2002).

N. Chi, L. Xu, K. S. Berg, T. Tokle, P. Jeppesen, "All-optical wavelength conversion and multichannel 2R regeneration based on highly nonlinear dispersion-imbalanced loop mirror," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1581-1583 (2002).

S. Bischoff, B. Lading, J. Mørk, "BER estimation for all-optical regenerators influenced by pattern effects," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 33-35 (2002).

X. Liu, X. Wei, R. Slusher, C. J. McKinstrie, "Improving transmission performance in differential phase-shift-keyed systems by used of lumped nonlinear phase shift compensation," Opt. Lett. 27, 1616-1618 (2002).

C. Xu, X. Liu, "Postnonlinearity compensation with data-driven phase modulators in phase-shift-keying transmission," Opt. Lett. 27, 1619-1621 (2002).

2001

J. Yu, P. Jeppesen, "80-Gb/s wavelength conversion based on cross-phase modulation in high-nonlinearity dispersion-shifted fiber and optical filtering," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 833-835 (2001).

1997

P. Öhlén, E. Berglind, "Noise accumulation and BER estimates in concatenated nonlinear optoelectronic repeaters," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1011-1013 (1997).

IEEE J. Quant. Electron.

F. Öhman, S. Bischoff, B. Tromborg, J. Mørk, "Noise and regeneration in semiconductor waveguides with saturable gain and absorption," IEEE J. Quant. Electron. 40, 245-255 (2004).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

B. Charbonnier, N. El Dahdah, M. Joindot, "OSNR margin brought about by nonlinear regenerators in optical communication links," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 475-477 (2006).

S. Bischoff, B. Lading, J. Mørk, "BER estimation for all-optical regenerators influenced by pattern effects," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 33-35 (2002).

G. Zhu, L. Mollenauer, C. Xu, "Experimental demonstration of postnonlinearity compensation in a multispan DPSK transmission," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1007-1009 (2006).

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quant. Electron.

M. Rochette, L. Fu, V. Ta'eed, D. J. Moss, B. J. Eggleton, "2R optical regeneration: An all-optical solution for BER improvement," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quant. Electron. 12, 736-744 (2006).

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quant. Electron.

T. I. Lakoba, "Multicanonical Monte Carlo study of the BER of an all-optically 2R regenerated signal," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quant. Electron. 14, 599-609 (2008).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

J. Yu, P. Jeppesen, "80-Gb/s wavelength conversion based on cross-phase modulation in high-nonlinearity dispersion-shifted fiber and optical filtering," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 833-835 (2001).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

N. Chi, L. Xu, K. S. Berg, T. Tokle, P. Jeppesen, "All-optical wavelength conversion and multichannel 2R regeneration based on highly nonlinear dispersion-imbalanced loop mirror," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1581-1583 (2002).

W. Mao, P. A. Andrekson, J. Toulouse, "All-optical wavelength conversion based on sinusoidal cross-phase modulation in optical fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 420-422 (2005).

M. Matsumoto, "Analysis of optical regeneration utilizing self-phase modulation in a highly nonlinear fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 319-321 (2002).

M. Rochette, J. N. Kutz, J. L. Blows, D. Moss, T. J. Mok, B. J. Eggleton, "Bit-error-ratio improvement with 2R optical regenerators," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 908-910 (2005).

P. Öhlén, E. Berglind, "Noise accumulation and BER estimates in concatenated nonlinear optoelectronic repeaters," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1011-1013 (1997).

J. Lightw. Technol.

M. R. G. Leiria, A. V. T. Cartaxo, "Impact of the signal and nonlinearity extinction ratios on the design of nonideal 2R all-optical regenerators," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 276-285 (2008).

J. Ma, J. Yu, C. Yu, Z. Jia, X. Sang, Z. Zhou, T. Wang, G. K. Chang, "Wavelength conversion based on four-wave mixing in high-nonlinear dispersion-shifted fiber using a dual-pump configuration," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 2851-2858 (2006).

Opt. Exp.

T. N. Nguyen, M. Gay, L. Bramerie, T. Chartier, J.-C. Simon, M. Joindot, "Noise reduction in 2R-regeneration technique utilizing self-phase modulation and filtering," Opt. Exp. 14, 1737-1747 (2006).

Opt. Lett.

I. O. Nasieva, S. Boscolo, S. K. Turitsyn, "Bit error rate improvement by nonlinear optical decision element," Opt. Lett. 31, 1205-1207 (2006).

C. Xu, X. Liu, "Postnonlinearity compensation with data-driven phase modulators in phase-shift-keying transmission," Opt. Lett. 27, 1619-1621 (2002).

Opt. Lett.

Other

L. F. Mollenauer, C. Xu, "Time-lens timing jitter compensator in ultra-long haul DWDM dispersion-managed soliton transmissions," Conf. Lasers and Electro-Optics Long BeachCA (2002) paper CPDB1.

M. Karlsson, H. Sunnerud, B.-E. Olsson, "PMD compensation using 2R and 3R regenerators," 30th Eur. Conf. Optical Communications (2004) Paper WE1.4.2.

P. V. Mamyshev, "All-optical regeneration based on self-phase modulation effect," Proc. 24th Eur. Conf. Optical Communications (1998) pp. 475-476.

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