Abstract

In this paper, a new technique is developed to improve high index contrast multimode interference (MMI) coupler performance. The technique is based on removing modal phase errors by introducing a perturbation in the lateral refractive index of the MMI section. Simulation results for several MMI devices show that this technique is able to provide extremely low excess losses and imbalance for all situations.

© 2009 IEEE

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  1. L. B. Soldano, E. C. M. Pennings, "Optical multi-mode interference devices based on self-imaging: Principles and applications," J. Lightw. Technol. 13, 615-627 (1995).
  2. M. Rajarajan, B. M. A. Rahman, K. T. V. Grattan, "A rigorous comparison of the performance of directional couplers with multimode interference devices," J. Lightw. Technol. 17, 243-248 (1999).
  3. R. Ulrich, T. Kamiya, "Resolution of self-images in planar optical waveguides," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 68, 583-592 (1978).
  4. J. Z. Huang, R. Scarmozzino, R. M. Osgood, "A new design approach to large input/output-number multimode interference couplers and its application to low-crosstalk WDM routers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1292-1294 (1998).
  5. R. Yin, J. Yang, X. Jiang, J. Li, M. Wang, "Improved approach to low-loss and high-uniformity MMI devices," Opt. Commun. 181, 317-321 (2000).
  6. R. Halir, I. Molina-Fernández, A. Ortega-Moñux, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, D.-X. Xu, P. Cheben, S. Janz, "A design procedure for high performance rib waveguide based multimode interference couplers in silicon on insulator," J. Lightw. Technol 26, 2928-2936 (2008).
  7. P. J. Bock, P. Cheben, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, T. J. Hall, "Mirror cavity MMI coupled photonic wire resonator in SOI," Opt. Exp. 15, 13907-13912 (2007).
  8. R. Yin, X. Jiang, J. Yang, M. Wang, "Structure with improved self-imaging in its graded-index multimode interference region," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 19, 1301-1303 (2002).
  9. M. T. Hill, X. J. M. Leijtens, G. D. Khoe, M. K. Smit, "Optimizing imbalance and loss in 2 $\times$ 2 3-dB multimode interference couplers via access waveguide width," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 2305-2313 (2003).
  10. P. Lalanne, E. Silberstein, "Fourier-modal methods applied to waveguide computational problems," Opt. Lett. 25, 1092-1094 (2000).
  11. A. R. Gupta, "Optimization of access waveguide width of multimode interference (MMI) couplers," Optics Commun. 221, 99-103 (2003).
  12. P. Cheben, S. Janz, D.-X. Xu, B. Lamontagne, A. Delâge, S. Tanev, "A broad-band waveguide grating coupler with a subwavelength grating mirror," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 13-15 (2006).
  13. J. H. Schmid, P. Cheben, S. Janz, J. Lapointe, E. Post, A. Delâge, A. Densmore, B. Lamontagne, P. Waldron, D.-X. Xu, "Subwavelength grating structures in silicon-on-insulator waveguides," Adv. Opt. Technol. 2008, (2008) Article ID 685489.
  14. C. Vassallo, Optical Waveguide Concepts (Elsevier, 1991).

2008

R. Halir, I. Molina-Fernández, A. Ortega-Moñux, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, D.-X. Xu, P. Cheben, S. Janz, "A design procedure for high performance rib waveguide based multimode interference couplers in silicon on insulator," J. Lightw. Technol 26, 2928-2936 (2008).

J. H. Schmid, P. Cheben, S. Janz, J. Lapointe, E. Post, A. Delâge, A. Densmore, B. Lamontagne, P. Waldron, D.-X. Xu, "Subwavelength grating structures in silicon-on-insulator waveguides," Adv. Opt. Technol. 2008, (2008) Article ID 685489.

2007

P. J. Bock, P. Cheben, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, T. J. Hall, "Mirror cavity MMI coupled photonic wire resonator in SOI," Opt. Exp. 15, 13907-13912 (2007).

2006

P. Cheben, S. Janz, D.-X. Xu, B. Lamontagne, A. Delâge, S. Tanev, "A broad-band waveguide grating coupler with a subwavelength grating mirror," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 13-15 (2006).

2003

A. R. Gupta, "Optimization of access waveguide width of multimode interference (MMI) couplers," Optics Commun. 221, 99-103 (2003).

M. T. Hill, X. J. M. Leijtens, G. D. Khoe, M. K. Smit, "Optimizing imbalance and loss in 2 $\times$ 2 3-dB multimode interference couplers via access waveguide width," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 2305-2313 (2003).

2002

R. Yin, X. Jiang, J. Yang, M. Wang, "Structure with improved self-imaging in its graded-index multimode interference region," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 19, 1301-1303 (2002).

2000

P. Lalanne, E. Silberstein, "Fourier-modal methods applied to waveguide computational problems," Opt. Lett. 25, 1092-1094 (2000).

R. Yin, J. Yang, X. Jiang, J. Li, M. Wang, "Improved approach to low-loss and high-uniformity MMI devices," Opt. Commun. 181, 317-321 (2000).

1999

M. Rajarajan, B. M. A. Rahman, K. T. V. Grattan, "A rigorous comparison of the performance of directional couplers with multimode interference devices," J. Lightw. Technol. 17, 243-248 (1999).

1998

J. Z. Huang, R. Scarmozzino, R. M. Osgood, "A new design approach to large input/output-number multimode interference couplers and its application to low-crosstalk WDM routers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1292-1294 (1998).

1995

L. B. Soldano, E. C. M. Pennings, "Optical multi-mode interference devices based on self-imaging: Principles and applications," J. Lightw. Technol. 13, 615-627 (1995).

1978

R. Ulrich, T. Kamiya, "Resolution of self-images in planar optical waveguides," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 68, 583-592 (1978).

Adv. Opt. Technol.

J. H. Schmid, P. Cheben, S. Janz, J. Lapointe, E. Post, A. Delâge, A. Densmore, B. Lamontagne, P. Waldron, D.-X. Xu, "Subwavelength grating structures in silicon-on-insulator waveguides," Adv. Opt. Technol. 2008, (2008) Article ID 685489.

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

J. Z. Huang, R. Scarmozzino, R. M. Osgood, "A new design approach to large input/output-number multimode interference couplers and its application to low-crosstalk WDM routers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1292-1294 (1998).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

P. Cheben, S. Janz, D.-X. Xu, B. Lamontagne, A. Delâge, S. Tanev, "A broad-band waveguide grating coupler with a subwavelength grating mirror," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 13-15 (2006).

J. Lightw. Technol

R. Halir, I. Molina-Fernández, A. Ortega-Moñux, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, D.-X. Xu, P. Cheben, S. Janz, "A design procedure for high performance rib waveguide based multimode interference couplers in silicon on insulator," J. Lightw. Technol 26, 2928-2936 (2008).

J. Lightw. Technol.

M. T. Hill, X. J. M. Leijtens, G. D. Khoe, M. K. Smit, "Optimizing imbalance and loss in 2 $\times$ 2 3-dB multimode interference couplers via access waveguide width," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 2305-2313 (2003).

L. B. Soldano, E. C. M. Pennings, "Optical multi-mode interference devices based on self-imaging: Principles and applications," J. Lightw. Technol. 13, 615-627 (1995).

M. Rajarajan, B. M. A. Rahman, K. T. V. Grattan, "A rigorous comparison of the performance of directional couplers with multimode interference devices," J. Lightw. Technol. 17, 243-248 (1999).

J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B

R. Yin, X. Jiang, J. Yang, M. Wang, "Structure with improved self-imaging in its graded-index multimode interference region," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 19, 1301-1303 (2002).

J. Opt. Soc. Amer.

R. Ulrich, T. Kamiya, "Resolution of self-images in planar optical waveguides," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 68, 583-592 (1978).

Opt. Commun.

R. Yin, J. Yang, X. Jiang, J. Li, M. Wang, "Improved approach to low-loss and high-uniformity MMI devices," Opt. Commun. 181, 317-321 (2000).

Opt. Exp.

P. J. Bock, P. Cheben, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, T. J. Hall, "Mirror cavity MMI coupled photonic wire resonator in SOI," Opt. Exp. 15, 13907-13912 (2007).

Opt. Lett.

Optics Commun.

A. R. Gupta, "Optimization of access waveguide width of multimode interference (MMI) couplers," Optics Commun. 221, 99-103 (2003).

Other

C. Vassallo, Optical Waveguide Concepts (Elsevier, 1991).

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