Abstract

In this paper, we report the experimental demonstration of an amplified optical fiber double-ring network for the multiplexing of sensors. The network is designed to be inherently resilient to fiber failures because it enables simultaneous interrogation of all the optical fiber sensors using both rings. We demonstrate the feasibility of so-called “dedicated protection” for fiber optic intensity sensors. Raman amplification is used to overcome the losses of the couplers used in the rings, providing power transparency. In this novel configuration, Raman pumping is activated only when a fiber failure occurs. We demonstrate how the topology allows the received powers from the sensors to be equalized.

© 2009 IEEE

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  1. I. F. Akyildiz, W. Su, Y. Sankarasubramaniam, E. Cayirci, "A survey on sensor networks," IEEE Commun. Mag. 80, 102-114 (2002).
  2. J. M. Lopez-Higuera, Ed., Handbook of Fibre Optic Sensing Technology (Wiley, 2002).
  3. G. A. Cranch, P. J. Nash, "Large-scale multiplexing of interferometric fiber-optic sensors using TDM and DWDM," J. Lightw. Technol. 19, 687-699 (2001).
  4. M. Lopez-Amo, S. Abad, "Amplified fiber-optic networks for sensor multiplexing," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 6626-6631 (2006).
  5. S. Abad, M. Lopez-Amo, J. L. López-Higuera, D. Benito, A. Unanua, E. Achaerandio, "Single and double distributed optical amplifier fiber bus networks with wavelength division multiplexing for photonic sensors," Opt. Lett. 24, 805-807 (1999).
  6. S. Diaz, G. Lasheras, M. Lopez-Amo, "WDM Bi-directional transmission over 35 km amplified fiber-optic bus network using Raman amplification for optical sensors," Opt. Exp. 13, 9666-9671 (2005).
  7. P. Peng-Chun, C. Sieni, "A reliable architecture for FBG sensor systems," Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 39, 479-482 (2003).
  8. P. Peng-Chun, H.-Y. Tseng, S. Chi, "Fiber-ring laser-based fiber grating sensor system using self-healing architecture," Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 35, 441-444 (2002).
  9. E. L. Izquierdo, P. Urquhart, M. López-Amo, "Optical fibre bus protection architecture for the networking of sensors," Proc. IEEE Int. Symp. Intell. Signal Process. (2007) pp. 531-536.
  10. E. L. Izquierdo, P. Urquhart, M. L. Amo, "Protection architectures for WDM optical fibre bus sensor arrays," J. Eng. Sci. J. Int. 1, 1-18 (2007).
  11. O. G. López, K. Schires, P. Urquhart, N. Gueyne, B. Duhamel, "Optical fibre bus protection network to multiplex sensors: Amplification by remotely pumped EDFAs," IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. (2009).
  12. T. E. Stern, K. Bala, Multiwavelength Optical Networks: A Layered Approach (Addison-Wesley, 1999).
  13. T.-H. Wu, Fiber Network Service Survivability (Artech House, 1992).
  14. J.-P. Vasseur, M. Pickavet, P. Demeester, Network Recovery: Protection and Restoration of Optical, Sonet-SDH, IP and MPLS (Morgan Kaufmann, 2004).
  15. R. A. Perez-Herrera, S. Diaz, P. Urquhart, M. Lopez-Amo, "A resilient raman-amplified double ring network for multiplexing fiber bragg grating sensors," Proc. SPIE 3rd Eur. Workshop Opt. Fibre Sens. (2007) pp. 66193E-1-66193E-4.
  16. C. Bariain, I. R. Matias, I. Romero, J. Garrido, M. Laguna, "Detection of volatile organic compound vapors by using a vapochromic material on a tapered optical fiber," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 2274-2276 (2000).
  17. I. R. Matias, C. Fernandez-Valdevieso, F. J. Arregui, C. Bariain, M. Lopez-Amo, "Transmitted optical power through a tapered single-mode fiber under dynamic bending effects," Fiber Integr. Opt. 22, 173-187 (2003).
  18. M. N. Islam, C. DeWilde, A. Kuditcher, Raman Amplifiers for Telecommunications 2: Sub-Systems and Systems (Springer-Verlag, 2004).
  19. T. Amano, K. Okamoto, T. Tsuzaki, M. Kakui, M. Shigematsu, "Hybrid dispersion compensating raman amplifier module employing highly nonlinear fiber," Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. AtlantaGA (2003) paper WB3.
  20. N. Miki, K. Kumozaki, Passive Optical Networks: Principles and Practice (Elsevier, 2007).
  21. P. Datta, I. R. Matias, C. Aramburu, A. Bakas, M. Lopez-Amo, J. M. Oton, "Tapered optical-fiber temperature sensor," Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 11, 93-95 (1996).
  22. J. D. Love, W. N. Henry, W. J. Stewart, R. J. Black, S. Lacroix, F. Gonthier, "Tapered single-mode fibres and devices, Part 1: Adiabatic criteria," IEE Proc. J 38, 343-354 (1991).
  23. C. Elosua, R. A. Perez-Herrera, M. Lopez-Amo, C. Bariain, R. Garcia-Olcina, S. Sales, J. Capmany, "An amplified coarse wavelength division multiplexing self-referencing sensor network based on phase-shifted FBGs in transmissive configuration," Meas. Sci. Technol. 20, (2009) 034017.
  24. S. Diaz, S. Abad, M. Lopez-Amo, "Fiber optic sensor active networking with distributed erbium doped fiber and Raman amplification," Laser Photon. Rev. 2, 480-497 (2008).

2009

O. G. López, K. Schires, P. Urquhart, N. Gueyne, B. Duhamel, "Optical fibre bus protection network to multiplex sensors: Amplification by remotely pumped EDFAs," IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. (2009).

C. Elosua, R. A. Perez-Herrera, M. Lopez-Amo, C. Bariain, R. Garcia-Olcina, S. Sales, J. Capmany, "An amplified coarse wavelength division multiplexing self-referencing sensor network based on phase-shifted FBGs in transmissive configuration," Meas. Sci. Technol. 20, (2009) 034017.

2008

S. Diaz, S. Abad, M. Lopez-Amo, "Fiber optic sensor active networking with distributed erbium doped fiber and Raman amplification," Laser Photon. Rev. 2, 480-497 (2008).

2007

E. L. Izquierdo, P. Urquhart, M. L. Amo, "Protection architectures for WDM optical fibre bus sensor arrays," J. Eng. Sci. J. Int. 1, 1-18 (2007).

2006

M. Lopez-Amo, S. Abad, "Amplified fiber-optic networks for sensor multiplexing," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 6626-6631 (2006).

2005

S. Diaz, G. Lasheras, M. Lopez-Amo, "WDM Bi-directional transmission over 35 km amplified fiber-optic bus network using Raman amplification for optical sensors," Opt. Exp. 13, 9666-9671 (2005).

2003

P. Peng-Chun, C. Sieni, "A reliable architecture for FBG sensor systems," Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 39, 479-482 (2003).

I. R. Matias, C. Fernandez-Valdevieso, F. J. Arregui, C. Bariain, M. Lopez-Amo, "Transmitted optical power through a tapered single-mode fiber under dynamic bending effects," Fiber Integr. Opt. 22, 173-187 (2003).

2002

P. Peng-Chun, H.-Y. Tseng, S. Chi, "Fiber-ring laser-based fiber grating sensor system using self-healing architecture," Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 35, 441-444 (2002).

I. F. Akyildiz, W. Su, Y. Sankarasubramaniam, E. Cayirci, "A survey on sensor networks," IEEE Commun. Mag. 80, 102-114 (2002).

2001

G. A. Cranch, P. J. Nash, "Large-scale multiplexing of interferometric fiber-optic sensors using TDM and DWDM," J. Lightw. Technol. 19, 687-699 (2001).

2000

C. Bariain, I. R. Matias, I. Romero, J. Garrido, M. Laguna, "Detection of volatile organic compound vapors by using a vapochromic material on a tapered optical fiber," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 2274-2276 (2000).

1999

1996

P. Datta, I. R. Matias, C. Aramburu, A. Bakas, M. Lopez-Amo, J. M. Oton, "Tapered optical-fiber temperature sensor," Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 11, 93-95 (1996).

1991

J. D. Love, W. N. Henry, W. J. Stewart, R. J. Black, S. Lacroix, F. Gonthier, "Tapered single-mode fibres and devices, Part 1: Adiabatic criteria," IEE Proc. J 38, 343-354 (1991).

Appl. Phys. Lett.

C. Bariain, I. R. Matias, I. Romero, J. Garrido, M. Laguna, "Detection of volatile organic compound vapors by using a vapochromic material on a tapered optical fiber," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 2274-2276 (2000).

Fiber Integr. Opt.

I. R. Matias, C. Fernandez-Valdevieso, F. J. Arregui, C. Bariain, M. Lopez-Amo, "Transmitted optical power through a tapered single-mode fiber under dynamic bending effects," Fiber Integr. Opt. 22, 173-187 (2003).

IEE Proc. J

J. D. Love, W. N. Henry, W. J. Stewart, R. J. Black, S. Lacroix, F. Gonthier, "Tapered single-mode fibres and devices, Part 1: Adiabatic criteria," IEE Proc. J 38, 343-354 (1991).

IEEE Commun. Mag.

I. F. Akyildiz, W. Su, Y. Sankarasubramaniam, E. Cayirci, "A survey on sensor networks," IEEE Commun. Mag. 80, 102-114 (2002).

IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas.

O. G. López, K. Schires, P. Urquhart, N. Gueyne, B. Duhamel, "Optical fibre bus protection network to multiplex sensors: Amplification by remotely pumped EDFAs," IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. (2009).

J. Eng. Sci. J. Int.

E. L. Izquierdo, P. Urquhart, M. L. Amo, "Protection architectures for WDM optical fibre bus sensor arrays," J. Eng. Sci. J. Int. 1, 1-18 (2007).

J. Lightw. Technol.

G. A. Cranch, P. J. Nash, "Large-scale multiplexing of interferometric fiber-optic sensors using TDM and DWDM," J. Lightw. Technol. 19, 687-699 (2001).

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

M. Lopez-Amo, S. Abad, "Amplified fiber-optic networks for sensor multiplexing," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 6626-6631 (2006).

Laser Photon. Rev.

S. Diaz, S. Abad, M. Lopez-Amo, "Fiber optic sensor active networking with distributed erbium doped fiber and Raman amplification," Laser Photon. Rev. 2, 480-497 (2008).

Meas. Sci. Technol.

C. Elosua, R. A. Perez-Herrera, M. Lopez-Amo, C. Bariain, R. Garcia-Olcina, S. Sales, J. Capmany, "An amplified coarse wavelength division multiplexing self-referencing sensor network based on phase-shifted FBGs in transmissive configuration," Meas. Sci. Technol. 20, (2009) 034017.

Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett.

P. Peng-Chun, H.-Y. Tseng, S. Chi, "Fiber-ring laser-based fiber grating sensor system using self-healing architecture," Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 35, 441-444 (2002).

Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett.

P. Peng-Chun, C. Sieni, "A reliable architecture for FBG sensor systems," Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 39, 479-482 (2003).

P. Datta, I. R. Matias, C. Aramburu, A. Bakas, M. Lopez-Amo, J. M. Oton, "Tapered optical-fiber temperature sensor," Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 11, 93-95 (1996).

Opt. Exp.

S. Diaz, G. Lasheras, M. Lopez-Amo, "WDM Bi-directional transmission over 35 km amplified fiber-optic bus network using Raman amplification for optical sensors," Opt. Exp. 13, 9666-9671 (2005).

Opt. Lett.

Other

J. M. Lopez-Higuera, Ed., Handbook of Fibre Optic Sensing Technology (Wiley, 2002).

E. L. Izquierdo, P. Urquhart, M. López-Amo, "Optical fibre bus protection architecture for the networking of sensors," Proc. IEEE Int. Symp. Intell. Signal Process. (2007) pp. 531-536.

T. E. Stern, K. Bala, Multiwavelength Optical Networks: A Layered Approach (Addison-Wesley, 1999).

T.-H. Wu, Fiber Network Service Survivability (Artech House, 1992).

J.-P. Vasseur, M. Pickavet, P. Demeester, Network Recovery: Protection and Restoration of Optical, Sonet-SDH, IP and MPLS (Morgan Kaufmann, 2004).

R. A. Perez-Herrera, S. Diaz, P. Urquhart, M. Lopez-Amo, "A resilient raman-amplified double ring network for multiplexing fiber bragg grating sensors," Proc. SPIE 3rd Eur. Workshop Opt. Fibre Sens. (2007) pp. 66193E-1-66193E-4.

M. N. Islam, C. DeWilde, A. Kuditcher, Raman Amplifiers for Telecommunications 2: Sub-Systems and Systems (Springer-Verlag, 2004).

T. Amano, K. Okamoto, T. Tsuzaki, M. Kakui, M. Shigematsu, "Hybrid dispersion compensating raman amplifier module employing highly nonlinear fiber," Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. AtlantaGA (2003) paper WB3.

N. Miki, K. Kumozaki, Passive Optical Networks: Principles and Practice (Elsevier, 2007).

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