Abstract

We investigate the effects of the discrete reflection on the performances of upstream and downstream signals in the wavelength-division-multiplexed passive optical network (WDM PON) implemented in a single-fiber loopback configuration using the reflective semiconductor optical amplifiers (RSOAs). We first analyze the optical beat interference (OBI) noise caused by the discrete reflection, and clarify the relation between the reflection tolerance and the network's operating conditions such as the RSOA gain, the link loss, and the location of the reflection point, etc. The results show that the impact of the reflection can be expressed by using the effective crosstalk level. We then measured the reflection tolerance of the RSOA-based WDM PON, in which the downstream signal operating at 1.25 Gb/s is remodulated by the RSOA at the subscriber's site for the transmission of 155-Mb/s upstream signal. The reflection tolerances are measured to be in the range of $-42$ to $- 35~\hbox{dB}$ for the downstream signals and $-29$ to $-19~\hbox{dB}$ for the upstream signals, depending on the RSOA gain. These small reflection tolerances are caused by the fact that the reflected light is re-amplified by the RSOA. We also show that the dependence of the reflection tolerance on the RSOA gain can be explained by using the effective crosstalk level. These results are used to evaluate the impacts of the unwanted discrete reflections on the RSOA-based WDM PON.

© 2009 IEEE

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  1. N. J. Frigo, P. P. Iannone, P. D. Magill, T. E. Darcie, M. M. Downs, B. N. Desai, U. Koren, T. L. Koch, C. Dragone, H. M. Presby, G. E. Bodeep, "A wavelength-division multiplexed passive optical network with cost-shared components," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 1365-1367 (1994).
  2. H. D. Kim, S. G. Kang, C. H. Lee, "A low-cost WDM source with an ASE injected Fabry-Perot semiconductor laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1067-1069 (2000).
  3. W. R. Lee, M. Y. Park, S. H. Cho, J. Lee, C. Kim, G. Jeong, B. W. Kim, "Bidirectional WDM-PON based on gain-saturated reflective semiconductor optical amplifiers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2460-2462 (2005).
  4. S. Y. Kim, S. B. Jun, Y. Takushima, E. S. Son, Y. C. Chung, "Enhanced performance of RSOA-based WDM PON by using Manchester coding," J. Opt. Netw. 6, 624-630 (2007).
  5. J. S. Lee, Y. C. Chung, D. J. DiGiovanni, "Spectrum-sliced fiber amplifier light source for multichannel WDM applications," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 1458-1461 (1993).
  6. F. Payox, P. Chanclou, N. Genay, "WDM-PON with colorless ONUs," OFC/NFOEC 2007 AnaheimCA paper OTuG5.
  7. "Corecess debuts DWDM-PON," Lightw. Mag. (2006).
  8. P. J. Legg, M. Tur, I. Andonovic, "Solution paths to limit interferometric noise induced performance degradation in ASK/direct detection lightwave networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 14, 1943-1954 (1996).
  9. E. L. Goldstein, L. Eskildsen, A. F. Elrefaie, "Performance implications of component crosstalk in transparent lightwave networks," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 657-660 (1994).
  10. J. L. Gimlett, N. K. Cheung, "Effects of phase-to-intensity noise conversion by multiple reflections on gigabit-per-second DFB laser transmission systems," J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 888-895 (1989).
  11. M. Fujiwara, J. Kani, H. Suzuki, K. Iwatsuki, "Impact of backreflection on upstream transmission in WDM single-fiber loopback access networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 740-746 (2006).
  12. M. Fujiwara, H. Suzuki, N. Yoshimoto, "Quantitative loss budget estimation in WDM single-fiber loopback access networks with ASE light sources," IEE Electron. Lett. 42, 1301-1302 (2006).
  13. IEEE Standard for Information Technology – Telecommunications and Information Exchange Between Systems – Local and Metropolitan Area Networks – Specific Requirements – Carrier Sense Multiple Access With Collision Detection (CSMA/CD) Access Method And Physical Layer Specifications Amendment: Mmedia Access Control Parameters, Physical Layers, and Management Parameters for Subscriber Access Networks. IEEE standard 802.3ah-2004 (2004).
  14. Broadband Optical Access Systems Based on Passive Optical Networks (PON). ITU-T Recommendation G.983.1 (2005).
  15. K. Sato, H. Toba, "Reduction of mode partition noise by using semiconductor optical amplifiers," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 7, 328-333 (2001).
  16. K. Inoue, "Suppression of signal fluctuation induced by crosstalk light in a gain saturated laser diode amplifier," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 458-460 (1996).
  17. S. -J. Kim, J. -H. Han, J. -S. Lee, C. -S. Park, "Intensity noise suppression in spectrum-sliced incoherent light communication systems using a gain-saturated semiconductor optical amplifier," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1042-1044 (1999).
  18. N. Cheng, L. G. Kazovskym, "Implications of injection current and optical input power on the performance of reflective semiconductor optical amplifiers," Proc. SPIE (2007) pp. 64680V.
  19. K. Y. Cho, A. Murakami, Y. J. Lee, A. Agata, Y. Takushima, Y. Chung, "Demonstration of RSOA-based WDM PON operating at symmetric rate of 1.25 Gb/s with high reflection tolerance," OFC/NFOEC 2008 San DiegoCA paper OTuH4.
  20. J. -H. Yu, N. Kim, B. W. Kim, "Remodulation schemes with reflective SOA for colorless DWDM PON," J. Opt. Netw. 6, 1041-1054 (2007).
  21. A. Murakami, Y. J. Lee, K. Y. Cho, Y. Takushima, A. Agata, K. Tanaka, Y. Horiuchi, Y. C. Chung, "Enhanced reflection tolerance of upstream signal in RSOA-based WDM-PON using Manchester coding," Proc. SPIE (2007) pp. 67832I.
  22. P. J. Urban, A. M. J. Koonen, G. D. Khoe, H. de Waardt, "Mitigation of reflection-induced crosstalk in a WDM access network," OFC/NFOEC 2008 .

2007

S. Y. Kim, S. B. Jun, Y. Takushima, E. S. Son, Y. C. Chung, "Enhanced performance of RSOA-based WDM PON by using Manchester coding," J. Opt. Netw. 6, 624-630 (2007).

J. -H. Yu, N. Kim, B. W. Kim, "Remodulation schemes with reflective SOA for colorless DWDM PON," J. Opt. Netw. 6, 1041-1054 (2007).

2006

M. Fujiwara, J. Kani, H. Suzuki, K. Iwatsuki, "Impact of backreflection on upstream transmission in WDM single-fiber loopback access networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 740-746 (2006).

M. Fujiwara, H. Suzuki, N. Yoshimoto, "Quantitative loss budget estimation in WDM single-fiber loopback access networks with ASE light sources," IEE Electron. Lett. 42, 1301-1302 (2006).

2005

W. R. Lee, M. Y. Park, S. H. Cho, J. Lee, C. Kim, G. Jeong, B. W. Kim, "Bidirectional WDM-PON based on gain-saturated reflective semiconductor optical amplifiers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2460-2462 (2005).

2001

K. Sato, H. Toba, "Reduction of mode partition noise by using semiconductor optical amplifiers," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 7, 328-333 (2001).

2000

H. D. Kim, S. G. Kang, C. H. Lee, "A low-cost WDM source with an ASE injected Fabry-Perot semiconductor laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1067-1069 (2000).

1999

S. -J. Kim, J. -H. Han, J. -S. Lee, C. -S. Park, "Intensity noise suppression in spectrum-sliced incoherent light communication systems using a gain-saturated semiconductor optical amplifier," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1042-1044 (1999).

1996

P. J. Legg, M. Tur, I. Andonovic, "Solution paths to limit interferometric noise induced performance degradation in ASK/direct detection lightwave networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 14, 1943-1954 (1996).

K. Inoue, "Suppression of signal fluctuation induced by crosstalk light in a gain saturated laser diode amplifier," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 458-460 (1996).

1994

N. J. Frigo, P. P. Iannone, P. D. Magill, T. E. Darcie, M. M. Downs, B. N. Desai, U. Koren, T. L. Koch, C. Dragone, H. M. Presby, G. E. Bodeep, "A wavelength-division multiplexed passive optical network with cost-shared components," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 1365-1367 (1994).

E. L. Goldstein, L. Eskildsen, A. F. Elrefaie, "Performance implications of component crosstalk in transparent lightwave networks," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 657-660 (1994).

1993

J. S. Lee, Y. C. Chung, D. J. DiGiovanni, "Spectrum-sliced fiber amplifier light source for multichannel WDM applications," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 1458-1461 (1993).

1989

J. L. Gimlett, N. K. Cheung, "Effects of phase-to-intensity noise conversion by multiple reflections on gigabit-per-second DFB laser transmission systems," J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 888-895 (1989).

IEE Electron. Lett.

M. Fujiwara, H. Suzuki, N. Yoshimoto, "Quantitative loss budget estimation in WDM single-fiber loopback access networks with ASE light sources," IEE Electron. Lett. 42, 1301-1302 (2006).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

N. J. Frigo, P. P. Iannone, P. D. Magill, T. E. Darcie, M. M. Downs, B. N. Desai, U. Koren, T. L. Koch, C. Dragone, H. M. Presby, G. E. Bodeep, "A wavelength-division multiplexed passive optical network with cost-shared components," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 1365-1367 (1994).

H. D. Kim, S. G. Kang, C. H. Lee, "A low-cost WDM source with an ASE injected Fabry-Perot semiconductor laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1067-1069 (2000).

J. S. Lee, Y. C. Chung, D. J. DiGiovanni, "Spectrum-sliced fiber amplifier light source for multichannel WDM applications," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 1458-1461 (1993).

E. L. Goldstein, L. Eskildsen, A. F. Elrefaie, "Performance implications of component crosstalk in transparent lightwave networks," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 657-660 (1994).

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron.

K. Sato, H. Toba, "Reduction of mode partition noise by using semiconductor optical amplifiers," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 7, 328-333 (2001).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

S. -J. Kim, J. -H. Han, J. -S. Lee, C. -S. Park, "Intensity noise suppression in spectrum-sliced incoherent light communication systems using a gain-saturated semiconductor optical amplifier," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1042-1044 (1999).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

K. Inoue, "Suppression of signal fluctuation induced by crosstalk light in a gain saturated laser diode amplifier," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 458-460 (1996).

W. R. Lee, M. Y. Park, S. H. Cho, J. Lee, C. Kim, G. Jeong, B. W. Kim, "Bidirectional WDM-PON based on gain-saturated reflective semiconductor optical amplifiers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2460-2462 (2005).

J. Lightw. Technol.

M. Fujiwara, J. Kani, H. Suzuki, K. Iwatsuki, "Impact of backreflection on upstream transmission in WDM single-fiber loopback access networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 740-746 (2006).

J. Lightw. Technol.

P. J. Legg, M. Tur, I. Andonovic, "Solution paths to limit interferometric noise induced performance degradation in ASK/direct detection lightwave networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 14, 1943-1954 (1996).

J. Lightwave Technol.

J. L. Gimlett, N. K. Cheung, "Effects of phase-to-intensity noise conversion by multiple reflections on gigabit-per-second DFB laser transmission systems," J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 888-895 (1989).

J. Opt. Netw.

S. Y. Kim, S. B. Jun, Y. Takushima, E. S. Son, Y. C. Chung, "Enhanced performance of RSOA-based WDM PON by using Manchester coding," J. Opt. Netw. 6, 624-630 (2007).

J. Opt. Netw.

Other

A. Murakami, Y. J. Lee, K. Y. Cho, Y. Takushima, A. Agata, K. Tanaka, Y. Horiuchi, Y. C. Chung, "Enhanced reflection tolerance of upstream signal in RSOA-based WDM-PON using Manchester coding," Proc. SPIE (2007) pp. 67832I.

P. J. Urban, A. M. J. Koonen, G. D. Khoe, H. de Waardt, "Mitigation of reflection-induced crosstalk in a WDM access network," OFC/NFOEC 2008 .

F. Payox, P. Chanclou, N. Genay, "WDM-PON with colorless ONUs," OFC/NFOEC 2007 AnaheimCA paper OTuG5.

"Corecess debuts DWDM-PON," Lightw. Mag. (2006).

IEEE Standard for Information Technology – Telecommunications and Information Exchange Between Systems – Local and Metropolitan Area Networks – Specific Requirements – Carrier Sense Multiple Access With Collision Detection (CSMA/CD) Access Method And Physical Layer Specifications Amendment: Mmedia Access Control Parameters, Physical Layers, and Management Parameters for Subscriber Access Networks. IEEE standard 802.3ah-2004 (2004).

Broadband Optical Access Systems Based on Passive Optical Networks (PON). ITU-T Recommendation G.983.1 (2005).

N. Cheng, L. G. Kazovskym, "Implications of injection current and optical input power on the performance of reflective semiconductor optical amplifiers," Proc. SPIE (2007) pp. 64680V.

K. Y. Cho, A. Murakami, Y. J. Lee, A. Agata, Y. Takushima, Y. Chung, "Demonstration of RSOA-based WDM PON operating at symmetric rate of 1.25 Gb/s with high reflection tolerance," OFC/NFOEC 2008 San DiegoCA paper OTuH4.

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