Abstract

This paper proposes a novel IP routing schemes over coherent optical code-division multiple-access (OCDMA) network. As spreading code, flexible in length double-padded modified prime code (DPMPC) has been deployed. The performance has been analyzed in terms of the users' channel utilization factor in the network. The results are comparable with previous schemes and indicate that the architecture is power efficient and capable of accommodating greater number of active users with advantage of shorter code length (i.e., higher bit rate). It is shown that for a maximum bit rate the network performance can be improved by reducing the channel utilization. However, when each user in the network has a fixed bit rate, optimal channel utilization can be set for the overall network performance. Additionally, each IP packet is buffered only at the edge of this network, thus the buffer delay is significantly reduced compared with traditional routing schemes. Since the optical encoder is adjusted for number of packets rather than individually, the encoder adjusting time is also significantly reduced. Analytical results clearly indicate that coherent OCDMA technique can be a fine candidate for the future ultra fast optical IP networks.

© 2009 IEEE

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  1. K. Kitayama, N. Wada, H. Sotobayashi, "Architectural considerations for photonic IP router based on upon optical code correlation," J. Lightw. Technol. 18, 1834-1844 (2000).
  2. R. Xu, Q. Gong, P. Ya, "A novel IP with MPLS over WDM-based broadband wavelength switched IP network," J. Lightw. Technol. 19, 596-602 (2001).
  3. S. Yao, S. J. B. Yoo, B. Mukherjee, "All-optical packet switching for metropolitan area networks: opportunities and challenges," IEEE Commun. Mag. 142-148 (2000).
  4. R. Dutta, G. N. Rouskas, "A survey of virtual topology design algorithms for wavelength routed optical networks," Opt. Netw. Mag. 73-89 (2000).
  5. M. Meenakshi, I. Andonovic, "Code-based all optical routing using two-level coding," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 1627-1637 (2006).
  6. A. L. J. Teixeira, "All-optical routing based on OCDMA header," 16th Annual Meeting IEEE LEOS (2003).
  7. S. Sun, "Performance analysis of a new random access protocol for OCDMA networks," Photon. Netw. Commun. 14, 89-95 (2007).
  8. M. M. Karbassian, H. Ghafouri-Shiraz, "Performance analysis of heterodyne detected coherent optical CDMA using a novel prime code family," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 3028-3034 (2007).
  9. S. Benedetto, G. Olmo, "Performance evaluation of coherent code division multiple access," Electron. Lett. 27, 2000-2002 (1991).
  10. X. Wang, "Demonstration of DPSK-OCDMA with balanced detection to improve MAI and beat noise tolerance in OCDMA systems," OFC 2006 paper JThB57.
  11. Z. Jiang, D. E. Leaird, A. M. Weiner, "Experimental investigation of security issues in OCDMA," OFC 2006 paper OThT2.
  12. Z. Wei, H. Ghafouri-Shiraz, "IP routing by an optical spectral-amplitude-coding CDMA network," IEE Proc. Commun. 149, 265-269 (2002).
  13. M. M. Karbassian, H. Ghafouri-Shiraz, "Fresh prime codes evaluation for synchronous PPM and OPPM signaling for optical CDMA networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 1422-1430 (2007).
  14. M. M. Karbassian, H. Ghafouri-Shiraz, "Capacity enhancement in synchronous optical overlapping PPM-CDMA network by a novel spreading code," Proc. GlobeCom 2007 pp. 2407-2411.
  15. M. M. Karbassian, H. Ghafouri-Shiraz, "Phase-modulations analyses in coherent homodyne optical CDMA network using a novel prime code family," Proc. WCE (ICEEE) 2007 pp. 358-362.
  16. M. M. Karbassian, H. Ghafouri-Shiraz, J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 977-985 (2008).
  17. M. M. Karbassian, H. Ghafouri-Shiraz, "Frequency-shift keying optical code-division multiple-access system with novel interference cancellation," J. Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 50, 883-885 (2008).
  18. Z. Wei, H. Ghafouri-Shiraz, "IP transmission over spectral-amplitude-coding CDMA links," J. Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 33, 140-142 (2002).

2008

M. M. Karbassian, H. Ghafouri-Shiraz, J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 977-985 (2008).

M. M. Karbassian, H. Ghafouri-Shiraz, "Frequency-shift keying optical code-division multiple-access system with novel interference cancellation," J. Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 50, 883-885 (2008).

2007

S. Sun, "Performance analysis of a new random access protocol for OCDMA networks," Photon. Netw. Commun. 14, 89-95 (2007).

M. M. Karbassian, H. Ghafouri-Shiraz, "Performance analysis of heterodyne detected coherent optical CDMA using a novel prime code family," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 3028-3034 (2007).

M. M. Karbassian, H. Ghafouri-Shiraz, "Fresh prime codes evaluation for synchronous PPM and OPPM signaling for optical CDMA networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 1422-1430 (2007).

2006

M. Meenakshi, I. Andonovic, "Code-based all optical routing using two-level coding," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 1627-1637 (2006).

2002

Z. Wei, H. Ghafouri-Shiraz, "IP routing by an optical spectral-amplitude-coding CDMA network," IEE Proc. Commun. 149, 265-269 (2002).

Z. Wei, H. Ghafouri-Shiraz, "IP transmission over spectral-amplitude-coding CDMA links," J. Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 33, 140-142 (2002).

2001

R. Xu, Q. Gong, P. Ya, "A novel IP with MPLS over WDM-based broadband wavelength switched IP network," J. Lightw. Technol. 19, 596-602 (2001).

2000

S. Yao, S. J. B. Yoo, B. Mukherjee, "All-optical packet switching for metropolitan area networks: opportunities and challenges," IEEE Commun. Mag. 142-148 (2000).

R. Dutta, G. N. Rouskas, "A survey of virtual topology design algorithms for wavelength routed optical networks," Opt. Netw. Mag. 73-89 (2000).

K. Kitayama, N. Wada, H. Sotobayashi, "Architectural considerations for photonic IP router based on upon optical code correlation," J. Lightw. Technol. 18, 1834-1844 (2000).

1991

S. Benedetto, G. Olmo, "Performance evaluation of coherent code division multiple access," Electron. Lett. 27, 2000-2002 (1991).

Electron. Lett.

S. Benedetto, G. Olmo, "Performance evaluation of coherent code division multiple access," Electron. Lett. 27, 2000-2002 (1991).

IEE Proc. Commun.

Z. Wei, H. Ghafouri-Shiraz, "IP routing by an optical spectral-amplitude-coding CDMA network," IEE Proc. Commun. 149, 265-269 (2002).

IEEE Commun. Mag.

S. Yao, S. J. B. Yoo, B. Mukherjee, "All-optical packet switching for metropolitan area networks: opportunities and challenges," IEEE Commun. Mag. 142-148 (2000).

J. Lightw. Technol.

K. Kitayama, N. Wada, H. Sotobayashi, "Architectural considerations for photonic IP router based on upon optical code correlation," J. Lightw. Technol. 18, 1834-1844 (2000).

J. Lightw. Technol.

R. Xu, Q. Gong, P. Ya, "A novel IP with MPLS over WDM-based broadband wavelength switched IP network," J. Lightw. Technol. 19, 596-602 (2001).

M. Meenakshi, I. Andonovic, "Code-based all optical routing using two-level coding," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 1627-1637 (2006).

M. M. Karbassian, H. Ghafouri-Shiraz, "Performance analysis of heterodyne detected coherent optical CDMA using a novel prime code family," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 3028-3034 (2007).

M. M. Karbassian, H. Ghafouri-Shiraz, "Fresh prime codes evaluation for synchronous PPM and OPPM signaling for optical CDMA networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 1422-1430 (2007).

M. M. Karbassian, H. Ghafouri-Shiraz, J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 977-985 (2008).

J. Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett.

M. M. Karbassian, H. Ghafouri-Shiraz, "Frequency-shift keying optical code-division multiple-access system with novel interference cancellation," J. Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 50, 883-885 (2008).

Z. Wei, H. Ghafouri-Shiraz, "IP transmission over spectral-amplitude-coding CDMA links," J. Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 33, 140-142 (2002).

Opt. Netw. Mag.

R. Dutta, G. N. Rouskas, "A survey of virtual topology design algorithms for wavelength routed optical networks," Opt. Netw. Mag. 73-89 (2000).

Photon. Netw. Commun.

S. Sun, "Performance analysis of a new random access protocol for OCDMA networks," Photon. Netw. Commun. 14, 89-95 (2007).

Other

A. L. J. Teixeira, "All-optical routing based on OCDMA header," 16th Annual Meeting IEEE LEOS (2003).

X. Wang, "Demonstration of DPSK-OCDMA with balanced detection to improve MAI and beat noise tolerance in OCDMA systems," OFC 2006 paper JThB57.

Z. Jiang, D. E. Leaird, A. M. Weiner, "Experimental investigation of security issues in OCDMA," OFC 2006 paper OThT2.

M. M. Karbassian, H. Ghafouri-Shiraz, "Capacity enhancement in synchronous optical overlapping PPM-CDMA network by a novel spreading code," Proc. GlobeCom 2007 pp. 2407-2411.

M. M. Karbassian, H. Ghafouri-Shiraz, "Phase-modulations analyses in coherent homodyne optical CDMA network using a novel prime code family," Proc. WCE (ICEEE) 2007 pp. 358-362.

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