Abstract

Optically pumped GaN-based vertical cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) with two Ta$_{2}$O$_{5}$/SiO$_{2}$ dielectric distributed Bragg reflectors (DBRs) was fabricated via a simplified procedure: direct deposition of the top DBR onto the GaN surface exposed after substrate removal and no use of etching and polishing processes. Blue-violet lasing action was observed at a wavelength of 397.3 nm under optical pumping at room temperature with a threshold pumping energy density of about 71.5mJ/cm$^{2}$. The laser action was further confirmed by a narrow emission linewidth of 0.13 nm and a degree of polarization of about 65%. The result suggests that practical blue-violet GaN-bsaed VCSEL can be realized by optimizing the laser lift-off technique for substrate removal.

© 2009 IEEE

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  1. S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, N. Iwasa, S. Nagahama, "High-brightness InGaN blue, green and yellow light-emitting diodes with quantum well structures," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34, L797-L799 (1995).
  2. S. Nakamura, "The roles of structural imperfections in InGaN-based blue light-emitting diodes and laser diodes," Science 281, 956-961 (1998).
  3. T. Someya, R. Werner, A. Forchel, M. Catalano, R. Cingolani, Y. Arakawa, "Room temperature lasing at blue wavelengths in gallium nitride microcavities," Science 285, 1905-1906 (1999).
  4. T. Tawara, H. Gotoh, T. Akasaka, N. Kobayashi, T. Saitoh, "Low-threshold lasing of InGaN vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with dielectric distributed Bragg reflectors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 830-832 (2003).
  5. Y.-K. Song, H. Zhou, M. Diagne, A. V. Nurmikko, R. P. Schneider, Jr.C. P. Kuo, M. R. Krames, R. S. Kern, C. Carter-Coman, F. A. Kish, "A quasicontinuous wave, optically pumped violet vertical cavity surface emitting laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1662-1664 (2000).
  6. J. T. Chu, T. C. Lu, H. H. Yao, C. C. Kao, W. D. Liang, J. Y. Tsai, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, "Room-temperature operation of optically pumped blue-violet GaN-based vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers fabricated by laser lift-off," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 2556-2560 (2006).
  7. C. C. Kao, Y. C. Peng, H. H. Yao, J. Y. Tsai, Y. H. Chang, J. T. Chu, H. W. Huang, T. T. Kao, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, "Fabrication and performance of blue GaN-based vertical-cavity surface emitting laser employing AlN/GaN and Ta$_{2}$O$_{5}$/SiO$_{2}$ distributed Bragg reflector," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 081105 (2005).
  8. E. Feltin, G. Christmann, J. Dorsaz, A. Castiglia, J.-F. Carlin, R. Butté, N. Grandjean, S. Christopoulos, G. Baldassarri, H. von Högersthal, A. J. D. Grundy, P. G. Lagoudakis, J. J. Baumberg, "Blue lasing at room temperature in an optically pumped lattice-matched AlInN/GaN VCSEL structure," Electron. Lett. 43, 1777-1778 (2007).
  9. H. Matsubara, S. Yoshimoto, H. Saito, J. L. Yue, Y. Tanaka, S. Noda, "GaN photonic-crystal surface-emitting laser at blue-violet wavelengths," Science 319, 445-447 (2008).
  10. H. Zhou, M. Diagne, E. Makarona, A. V. Nurmikko, J. Han, K. E. Waldrip, J. J. Figiel, "Near ultraviolet optically pumped vertical cavity laser," Electron. Lett. 36, 1777-1779 (2000).
  11. G. Björk, Y. Yamamoto, "Analysis of semiconductor microcavity lasers using rate equations," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 2386-2396 (1991).
  12. R. J. Horowicz, H. Heitmann, Y. Kadota, Y. Yamamoto, "GaAs microcavity quantum-well laser with enhanced coupling of spontaneous emission to the lasing mode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 393-395 (1992).

2008

H. Matsubara, S. Yoshimoto, H. Saito, J. L. Yue, Y. Tanaka, S. Noda, "GaN photonic-crystal surface-emitting laser at blue-violet wavelengths," Science 319, 445-447 (2008).

2007

E. Feltin, G. Christmann, J. Dorsaz, A. Castiglia, J.-F. Carlin, R. Butté, N. Grandjean, S. Christopoulos, G. Baldassarri, H. von Högersthal, A. J. D. Grundy, P. G. Lagoudakis, J. J. Baumberg, "Blue lasing at room temperature in an optically pumped lattice-matched AlInN/GaN VCSEL structure," Electron. Lett. 43, 1777-1778 (2007).

2006

J. T. Chu, T. C. Lu, H. H. Yao, C. C. Kao, W. D. Liang, J. Y. Tsai, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, "Room-temperature operation of optically pumped blue-violet GaN-based vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers fabricated by laser lift-off," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 2556-2560 (2006).

2005

C. C. Kao, Y. C. Peng, H. H. Yao, J. Y. Tsai, Y. H. Chang, J. T. Chu, H. W. Huang, T. T. Kao, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, "Fabrication and performance of blue GaN-based vertical-cavity surface emitting laser employing AlN/GaN and Ta$_{2}$O$_{5}$/SiO$_{2}$ distributed Bragg reflector," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 081105 (2005).

2003

T. Tawara, H. Gotoh, T. Akasaka, N. Kobayashi, T. Saitoh, "Low-threshold lasing of InGaN vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with dielectric distributed Bragg reflectors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 830-832 (2003).

2000

Y.-K. Song, H. Zhou, M. Diagne, A. V. Nurmikko, R. P. Schneider, Jr.C. P. Kuo, M. R. Krames, R. S. Kern, C. Carter-Coman, F. A. Kish, "A quasicontinuous wave, optically pumped violet vertical cavity surface emitting laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1662-1664 (2000).

H. Zhou, M. Diagne, E. Makarona, A. V. Nurmikko, J. Han, K. E. Waldrip, J. J. Figiel, "Near ultraviolet optically pumped vertical cavity laser," Electron. Lett. 36, 1777-1779 (2000).

1999

T. Someya, R. Werner, A. Forchel, M. Catalano, R. Cingolani, Y. Arakawa, "Room temperature lasing at blue wavelengths in gallium nitride microcavities," Science 285, 1905-1906 (1999).

1998

S. Nakamura, "The roles of structural imperfections in InGaN-based blue light-emitting diodes and laser diodes," Science 281, 956-961 (1998).

1995

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, N. Iwasa, S. Nagahama, "High-brightness InGaN blue, green and yellow light-emitting diodes with quantum well structures," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34, L797-L799 (1995).

1992

R. J. Horowicz, H. Heitmann, Y. Kadota, Y. Yamamoto, "GaAs microcavity quantum-well laser with enhanced coupling of spontaneous emission to the lasing mode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 393-395 (1992).

1991

G. Björk, Y. Yamamoto, "Analysis of semiconductor microcavity lasers using rate equations," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 2386-2396 (1991).

Appl. Phys. Lett.

Y.-K. Song, H. Zhou, M. Diagne, A. V. Nurmikko, R. P. Schneider, Jr.C. P. Kuo, M. R. Krames, R. S. Kern, C. Carter-Coman, F. A. Kish, "A quasicontinuous wave, optically pumped violet vertical cavity surface emitting laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1662-1664 (2000).

R. J. Horowicz, H. Heitmann, Y. Kadota, Y. Yamamoto, "GaAs microcavity quantum-well laser with enhanced coupling of spontaneous emission to the lasing mode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 393-395 (1992).

Appl. Phys. Lett.

T. Tawara, H. Gotoh, T. Akasaka, N. Kobayashi, T. Saitoh, "Low-threshold lasing of InGaN vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with dielectric distributed Bragg reflectors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 830-832 (2003).

C. C. Kao, Y. C. Peng, H. H. Yao, J. Y. Tsai, Y. H. Chang, J. T. Chu, H. W. Huang, T. T. Kao, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, "Fabrication and performance of blue GaN-based vertical-cavity surface emitting laser employing AlN/GaN and Ta$_{2}$O$_{5}$/SiO$_{2}$ distributed Bragg reflector," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 081105 (2005).

Electron. Lett.

E. Feltin, G. Christmann, J. Dorsaz, A. Castiglia, J.-F. Carlin, R. Butté, N. Grandjean, S. Christopoulos, G. Baldassarri, H. von Högersthal, A. J. D. Grundy, P. G. Lagoudakis, J. J. Baumberg, "Blue lasing at room temperature in an optically pumped lattice-matched AlInN/GaN VCSEL structure," Electron. Lett. 43, 1777-1778 (2007).

H. Zhou, M. Diagne, E. Makarona, A. V. Nurmikko, J. Han, K. E. Waldrip, J. J. Figiel, "Near ultraviolet optically pumped vertical cavity laser," Electron. Lett. 36, 1777-1779 (2000).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

G. Björk, Y. Yamamoto, "Analysis of semiconductor microcavity lasers using rate equations," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 2386-2396 (1991).

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

J. T. Chu, T. C. Lu, H. H. Yao, C. C. Kao, W. D. Liang, J. Y. Tsai, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, "Room-temperature operation of optically pumped blue-violet GaN-based vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers fabricated by laser lift-off," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 2556-2560 (2006).

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

S. Nakamura, M. Senoh, N. Iwasa, S. Nagahama, "High-brightness InGaN blue, green and yellow light-emitting diodes with quantum well structures," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34, L797-L799 (1995).

Science

S. Nakamura, "The roles of structural imperfections in InGaN-based blue light-emitting diodes and laser diodes," Science 281, 956-961 (1998).

T. Someya, R. Werner, A. Forchel, M. Catalano, R. Cingolani, Y. Arakawa, "Room temperature lasing at blue wavelengths in gallium nitride microcavities," Science 285, 1905-1906 (1999).

H. Matsubara, S. Yoshimoto, H. Saito, J. L. Yue, Y. Tanaka, S. Noda, "GaN photonic-crystal surface-emitting laser at blue-violet wavelengths," Science 319, 445-447 (2008).

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