Abstract

Over the past 25 years, networks have evolved from being relatively static with fairly homogeneous traffic to being more configurable and carrying a heterogeneous array of services. As the applications are ultimately the driver of network evolution, the paper begins with a brief history of circuit, packet, and wave services, along with the development of the corresponding transport layers. The discussion then moves to the evolution of network-node architecture, with an emphasis on the optical-electrical-optical and optical-bypass paradigms. Scalability and cost-effectiveness in meeting network demands are two key factors in the discussion. The evolution of networking equipment, along with the development of the optical control plane, has facilitated a configurable optical layer. The enabling technologies, along with their ramifications, are discussed. Finally, the paper speculates on how capacity might evolve in the future, to handle the undoubtedly new services that are on the horizon.

© 2008 IEEE

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  30. D. C. Kilper, "Optical performance monitoring," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 294-304 (2004).
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  33. M. Bortz, "Broadwing's experience with optical network planning and deployment," Optical Fiber Commun./National Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC'06) AnaheimCA (2006) Paper NThH1.
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  36. Y. Chen, C. Qiao, X. Yu, "Optical burst switching: A new area in optical networking research," IEEE Network 18, 16-23 (2004).
  37. A. A. M. Saleh, J. M. Simmons, "Evolution toward the next-generation core optical network," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 3303-3321 (2006).
  38. O. Leclerc, "Optical regeneration at 40 Gb/s and beyond," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 2779-2790 (2003).
  39. J. Leuthold, J. Jaques, S. Cabot, "All-optical wavelength conversion and regeneration," Optical Fiber Commun. Conf. (OFC) Los AngelesCA (2004) Paper WN1.
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  41. The Grid 2: Blueprint for a New Computing Infrastructure (Morgan Kaufmann, 2004).
  42. G. Karmous-Edwards, "Today's optical network research infrastructures for E-science applications," Optical Fiber Commun./National Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC'06) AnaheimCA (2006) Paper OWU3.
  43. P. Duggan, "Tunable filters provide flexibility for agile networks," WDM Solutions 9-12 (2003).
  44. K. Ennser, "Reconfigurable add/drop multiplexer design to implement flexibility in optical networks," Proc. Int. Conf. Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON) 2006 74-77.
  45. M. C. Wu, O. Solgaard, J. E. Ford, "Optical MEMS for lightwave communication," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 4433-4454 (2006).
  46. I. Tomkos, "Ultra-long-haul DWDM network with 320$\,\times\,$320 wavelength-port `broadcast & select' OXCs," Proc. Eur. Conf. Optical Commun. (ECOC) (2002) pp. 1-2.
  47. A. R. Pratt, "40$\,\times\,$10.7 Gbit/s DWDM transmission over a meshed ULH network with dynamically reconfigurable optical crossconnects," Optical Fiber Commun. Conf. (OFC) AtlantaGA (2003) Paper PD9.
  48. S. Mechels, "1D MEMS-based wavelength switching subsystem," IEEE Commun. Mag. 41, 88-94 (2003).
  49. V. Kaman, "Comparison of wavelength-selective cross-connect architectures for reconfigurable all-optical networks," Int. Conf. Photonics in Switching (2006) pp. 1-3.
  50. R. Batchellor, O. Gerstel, "Cost effective architectures for core transport networks," Optical Fiber Commun./National Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC'06) AnaheimCA (2006) Paper PDP42.
  51. M. Pickavet, "Recovery in multilayer optical networks," J. Lightw. Technol 24, 122-134 (2006).
  52. C. Chigan, G. W. Atkinson, R. Nagarajan, "Cost effectiveness of joint multilayer protection in packet-over-optical networks," J. Lightw. Technol 21, 2694-2704 (2003).
  53. G. Bernstein, B. Rajagolopan, D. Saha, Optical Network Control, Architecture Protocols and Standards (Addison-Wesley Professional, 2003).
  54. E. W. Dijkstra, "A note on two problems in connection with graphs," Numer. Math. 1, 1959, 269-271.
  55. Architecture for the Automatic Switched Optical Networks (ASON) ITU-T G.8080 (2003).
  56. E. Mannie, “Generalized Multi-Protocol Label Switching (GMPLS) architecture,” IETF RFC3945 (2004).
  57. M. Suzuki, I. Morita, "High spectral efficiency for large-capacity optical communication systems," Proc. Conf. Transparent Optical Networks (2004) pp. 171-176.
  58. E. Ip, J. Kahn, "Carrier synchronization for 3- and 4-bit-per-symbol optical transmission," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 4110-4124 (2005).
  59. H. Kogelnik, Optical Fiber Telecommunications IV B (Elsevier Science, 2002).
  60. P. Bayvel, R. Killey, Optical Fiber Telecommunications IV B (Elsevier Science, 2002).
  61. P. Bullock, C. Ward, Q. Wang, "Optimizing wavelength grouping granularity for optical add-drop network architectures," Optical Fiber Commun. Conf. (OFC) AtlantaGA (2003) Paper WH2.
  62. K. Harada, "Hierarchical optical path cross-connect systems for large scale WDM networks," Optical Fiber Commun. Conf. (OFC) San DiegoCA (1999) Paper WM55.
  63. A. A. M. Saleh, J. M. Simmons, "Architectural principles of optical regional and metropolitan access networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 17, 2431-2448 (1999).
  64. N. Chi, "All-optical wavelength conversion and multichannel 2R regeneration based on highly nonlinear dispersion-imbalanced loop mirror," Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1581-1583 (2002).
  65. Y.-K. Huang, "Simultaneous all-optical 3R regeneration of multiple WDM channels," 18th Annu. Meeting IEEE LEOS SydneyAustralia (2005) Paper MM2.
  66. R. Izmailov, "Non-uniform waveband hierarchy in hybrid optical networks," Proc. IEEE INFOCOM 2003 (2003) pp. 1344-1354.

2006

A. E. Willner, "The optical network of the future: Can optical performance monitoring enable automated, intelligent and robust systems," Opt. Photon. News 30-35 (2006).

D. F. Welch, "The realization of large-scale photonic integrated circuits and the associated impact on fiber-optic communication systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 4674-4683 (2006).

A. A. M. Saleh, J. M. Simmons, "Evolution toward the next-generation core optical network," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 3303-3321 (2006).

M. C. Wu, O. Solgaard, J. E. Ford, "Optical MEMS for lightwave communication," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 4433-4454 (2006).

M. Pickavet, "Recovery in multilayer optical networks," J. Lightw. Technol 24, 122-134 (2006).

2005

E. Ip, J. Kahn, "Carrier synchronization for 3- and 4-bit-per-symbol optical transmission," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 4110-4124 (2005).

J. M. Simmons, "On determining the optimal optical reach for a long-haul network," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 1039-1048 (2005).

2004

Y. Chen, C. Qiao, X. Yu, "Optical burst switching: A new area in optical networking research," IEEE Network 18, 16-23 (2004).

D. C. Kilper, "Optical performance monitoring," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 294-304 (2004).

2003

P. Duggan, "Tunable filters provide flexibility for agile networks," WDM Solutions 9-12 (2003).

O. Leclerc, "Optical regeneration at 40 Gb/s and beyond," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 2779-2790 (2003).

C. Chigan, G. W. Atkinson, R. Nagarajan, "Cost effectiveness of joint multilayer protection in packet-over-optical networks," J. Lightw. Technol 21, 2694-2704 (2003).

S. Mechels, "1D MEMS-based wavelength switching subsystem," IEEE Commun. Mag. 41, 88-94 (2003).

2002

N. Chi, "All-optical wavelength conversion and multichannel 2R regeneration based on highly nonlinear dispersion-imbalanced loop mirror," Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1581-1583 (2002).

2000

H. Zang, J. P. Jue, B. Mukherjee, "A review of routing and wavelength assignment approaches for wavelength-routed optical WDM networks," Opt. Netw. Mag. 1, 47-60 (2000).

1999

A. A. M. Saleh, J. M. Simmons, "Architectural principles of optical regional and metropolitan access networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 17, 2431-2448 (1999).

1996

S. Subramaniam, M. Azizoglu, A. K. Somani, "All-optical networks with sparse wavelength conversion," IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 4, 544-557 (1996).

1994

C.-W. Chao, G. Fuoco, D. Kropfl, "FASTAR platform gives the network a competitive edge," AT&T Tech. J. 73, 69-81 (1994).

AT&T Tech. J.

C.-W. Chao, G. Fuoco, D. Kropfl, "FASTAR platform gives the network a competitive edge," AT&T Tech. J. 73, 69-81 (1994).

IEEE Commun. Mag.

S. Mechels, "1D MEMS-based wavelength switching subsystem," IEEE Commun. Mag. 41, 88-94 (2003).

IEEE Network

Y. Chen, C. Qiao, X. Yu, "Optical burst switching: A new area in optical networking research," IEEE Network 18, 16-23 (2004).

IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw.

S. Subramaniam, M. Azizoglu, A. K. Somani, "All-optical networks with sparse wavelength conversion," IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 4, 544-557 (1996).

J. Lightw. Technol.

D. C. Kilper, "Optical performance monitoring," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 294-304 (2004).

J. Lightw. Technol.

M. C. Wu, O. Solgaard, J. E. Ford, "Optical MEMS for lightwave communication," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 4433-4454 (2006).

J. Lightw. Technol

M. Pickavet, "Recovery in multilayer optical networks," J. Lightw. Technol 24, 122-134 (2006).

C. Chigan, G. W. Atkinson, R. Nagarajan, "Cost effectiveness of joint multilayer protection in packet-over-optical networks," J. Lightw. Technol 21, 2694-2704 (2003).

J. Lightw. Technol.

A. A. M. Saleh, J. M. Simmons, "Architectural principles of optical regional and metropolitan access networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 17, 2431-2448 (1999).

E. Ip, J. Kahn, "Carrier synchronization for 3- and 4-bit-per-symbol optical transmission," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 4110-4124 (2005).

J. M. Simmons, "On determining the optimal optical reach for a long-haul network," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 1039-1048 (2005).

D. F. Welch, "The realization of large-scale photonic integrated circuits and the associated impact on fiber-optic communication systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 4674-4683 (2006).

A. A. M. Saleh, J. M. Simmons, "Evolution toward the next-generation core optical network," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 3303-3321 (2006).

O. Leclerc, "Optical regeneration at 40 Gb/s and beyond," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 2779-2790 (2003).

Numer. Math.

E. W. Dijkstra, "A note on two problems in connection with graphs," Numer. Math. 1, 1959, 269-271.

Opt. Netw. Mag.

H. Zang, J. P. Jue, B. Mukherjee, "A review of routing and wavelength assignment approaches for wavelength-routed optical WDM networks," Opt. Netw. Mag. 1, 47-60 (2000).

Opt. Photon. News

A. E. Willner, "The optical network of the future: Can optical performance monitoring enable automated, intelligent and robust systems," Opt. Photon. News 30-35 (2006).

Photon. Technol. Lett.

N. Chi, "All-optical wavelength conversion and multichannel 2R regeneration based on highly nonlinear dispersion-imbalanced loop mirror," Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1581-1583 (2002).

Proc. Int. Conf. Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON) 2006

K. Ennser, "Reconfigurable add/drop multiplexer design to implement flexibility in optical networks," Proc. Int. Conf. Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON) 2006 74-77.

WDM Solutions

P. Duggan, "Tunable filters provide flexibility for agile networks," WDM Solutions 9-12 (2003).

Other

The Grid 2: Blueprint for a New Computing Infrastructure (Morgan Kaufmann, 2004).

G. Karmous-Edwards, "Today's optical network research infrastructures for E-science applications," Optical Fiber Commun./National Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC'06) AnaheimCA (2006) Paper OWU3.

I. Tomkos, "Ultra-long-haul DWDM network with 320$\,\times\,$320 wavelength-port `broadcast & select' OXCs," Proc. Eur. Conf. Optical Commun. (ECOC) (2002) pp. 1-2.

A. R. Pratt, "40$\,\times\,$10.7 Gbit/s DWDM transmission over a meshed ULH network with dynamically reconfigurable optical crossconnects," Optical Fiber Commun. Conf. (OFC) AtlantaGA (2003) Paper PD9.

V. Kaman, "Comparison of wavelength-selective cross-connect architectures for reconfigurable all-optical networks," Int. Conf. Photonics in Switching (2006) pp. 1-3.

R. Batchellor, O. Gerstel, "Cost effective architectures for core transport networks," Optical Fiber Commun./National Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC'06) AnaheimCA (2006) Paper PDP42.

Architecture for the Automatic Switched Optical Networks (ASON) ITU-T G.8080 (2003).

E. Mannie, “Generalized Multi-Protocol Label Switching (GMPLS) architecture,” IETF RFC3945 (2004).

M. Suzuki, I. Morita, "High spectral efficiency for large-capacity optical communication systems," Proc. Conf. Transparent Optical Networks (2004) pp. 171-176.

H. Kogelnik, Optical Fiber Telecommunications IV B (Elsevier Science, 2002).

P. Bayvel, R. Killey, Optical Fiber Telecommunications IV B (Elsevier Science, 2002).

P. Bullock, C. Ward, Q. Wang, "Optimizing wavelength grouping granularity for optical add-drop network architectures," Optical Fiber Commun. Conf. (OFC) AtlantaGA (2003) Paper WH2.

K. Harada, "Hierarchical optical path cross-connect systems for large scale WDM networks," Optical Fiber Commun. Conf. (OFC) San DiegoCA (1999) Paper WM55.

Y.-K. Huang, "Simultaneous all-optical 3R regeneration of multiple WDM channels," 18th Annu. Meeting IEEE LEOS SydneyAustralia (2005) Paper MM2.

R. Izmailov, "Non-uniform waveband hierarchy in hybrid optical networks," Proc. IEEE INFOCOM 2003 (2003) pp. 1344-1354.

G. Bernstein, B. Rajagolopan, D. Saha, Optical Network Control, Architecture Protocols and Standards (Addison-Wesley Professional, 2003).

P. Hofmann, "DWDM long haul network deployment for the Verizon GNI nationwide network," Optical Fiber Commun./National Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC'05) AnaheimCA (2005) Paper OTuP5.

M. Bortz, "Broadwing's experience with optical network planning and deployment," Optical Fiber Commun./National Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC'06) AnaheimCA (2006) Paper NThH1.

K. Tse, "AT&T's photonic network," Optical Fiber Commun./National Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC'08) San DiegoCA (2008) Paper NMC1.

H. P. Sardesai, Y. Shen, R. Ranganathan, "Optimal WDM layer partitioning and transmission reach in optical networks," Optical Fiber Commun. Conf. (OFC) AnaheimCA (2005) Paper OTuP4.

A. A. M. Saleh, "Transparent optical networking in backbone networks," Optical Fiber Commun. Conf. (OFC) BaltimoreMD (2000) Paper ThD7.

M. Sharma, "Value of agile transparent optical networks," Proc. 15th Annu. Meeting IEEE LEOS (2002) pp. 293-294.

J. M. Simmons, "Cost versus capacity tradeoff with shared mesh protection in optical-bypass-enabled backbone networks," Optical Fiber Comm./ National Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (OFC/NFOEC) AnaheimCA (2007) Paper NThC2.

B. Manseur, J. Leung, "Comparative analysis of network reliability and optical reach," National Fiber Optic Engineers Conf. (NFOEC) OrlandoFL (2003).

W. Van Parys, "Quantifying the benefits of selective wavelength regeneration in ultra long-haul WDM networks," Optical Fiber Commun. Conf. (OFC) AnaheimCA (2001) Paper TuT4.

J. M. Simmons, "Analysis of wavelength conversion in all-optical express backbone networks," Optical Fiber Commun. Conf. (OFC) AnaheimCA (2002) Paper TuG2.

J. Leuthold, J. Jaques, S. Cabot, "All-optical wavelength conversion and regeneration," Optical Fiber Commun. Conf. (OFC) Los AngelesCA (2004) Paper WN1.

A. Odlyzko—MINTS http://www.dtc.umn.edu/mints/home.html.

“Ethernet Services Definitions—Phase I,” Metro Ethernet Forum (2004) MEF 6 http://www.metroethernetforum.org/PDFs/Standards/MEF6.pdf.

C. A. Siller, JrM. Shafi, SONET/SDH: A Sourcebook of Synchronous Networking (IEEE Press, 1996).

“Circuit emulation service definitions, framework and requirements in metro Ethernet networks,” Metro Ethernet Forum (2004) MEF 3 http://www.metroethernetforum.org/PDFs/Standards/MEF3.pdf.

“2007 Worldwide Interoperability Demonstration: On-demand Ethernet services across global optical networks,” http://www.oiforum.com/public/downloads/OIF-White-Paper-2007.pdf.

“2005 OIF Worldwide Interoperability Demonstration: Setup of Ethernet services over global optical networks,” http://www.oiforum.com/public/downloads/2005InterOpDemoWhitePaper_FINAL.pdf.

“OIF World Interoperability Demonstration,” (2004) http://www.oiforum.com/public/downloads/Demo-WPaper-FINAL.pdf.

E. Rosen, A. Viswanathan, R. Callon, “Multiprotocol label switching architecture,” RFC 3031 (2001).

Connectivity Fault Management IEEE 802.lag (2007).

OAM Functions and Mechanisms for Ethernet Based Networks ITU-T Y.1731 (2006).

Architecture of Transport MPLS (T-MPLS) Layer Network ITU-T G.8110.1 (2006).

Provider Backbone Bridge Traffic Engineering IEEE 802.1Qay, Draft 2.0 (2008).

Architecture of Optical Transport Networks ITU-T G.872 (2001).

Interfaces for the Optical Transport Network ITU-T G.709 (2003).

Forward Error Correction for Submarine Systems ITU-T G. 975 (2000).

10 Gigabit Ethernet IEEE 802.3ae (2002).

Transport of IEEE 10G Base-R in Optical Transport Networks (OTN) ITU-T G.sup43 (2006).

R. Ramaswami, K. N. Sivarajan, Optical Networks: A Practical Perspective (Morgan Kaufmann, 2001).

J. M. Simmons, Optical Network Design and Planning (Springer, 2008).

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