Abstract

This paper reviews optical fiber design evolution for transmission systems over the past three decades, including both multimode and single-modes fibers. Key fiber attributes related to fiber transmission systems and how fiber designs have evolved to improve these attributes to enable higher and higher transmission data rate are discussed. Major fiber design change milestones in the past are covered. Also discussed are recent new developments in optical fiber technology.

© 2008 IEEE

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2006

R. E. Wagner, J. R. Igel, R. Whitman, M. D. Vaughn, A. B. Ruffin, S. Bickham, "Fiber-based broadband-access deployment in the United States," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 4526-4540 (2006).

2005

H. Shinohara, "Broadband access in Japan: Rapidly growing FTTH market," IEEE Commun. Mag. 43, 72-78 (2005).

Y. Bing, K. Ohsono, Y. Kurosawa, T. Kumagai, M. Tachikura, "Low-loss holey fiber," Hitachi Cable Rev. (2005).

A. H. McCurdy, "Modeling of stimulated Brillouin scattering in optical fibers with arbitrary radial index profile," J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 3509-3516 (2005).

A. B. Ruffin, M.-J. Li, X. Chen, A. Kobyakov, F. Annunziata, "Brillouin gain analysis for fibers with different refractive indices," Opt. Lett. 30, 3123-3125 (2005).

A. Kobyakov, S. Kumar, D. Chowdhury, A. B. Ruffin, M. Sauer, S. Bickham, R. Mishra, "Design concept for optical fibers with enhanced SBS threshold," Opt. Expr. 13, 5338-5346 (2005).

2004

Y. Koyamada, S. Sato, S. Nakamura, H. Sotobayashi, W. Chujo, "Simulating and designing Brillouin gain spectrum in single-mode fibers," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 631-639 (2004).

D. A. Nolan, X. C. Member, M.-J. Li, "Fibers with low polarization-mode dispersion," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 1066-1077 (2004).

2002

X. Chen, M.-J. Li, D. A. Nolan, "Polarization mode dispersion of spun fibers: An analytical solution," Opt. Lett. 27, 294-296 (2002).

K. Nagayama, M. Kakui, M. Matsui, T. Saitoh, Y. Chigusa, "Ultra-low-loss (0.1 484 dB/km) pure silica core fibre and extension of transmission distance," Electron. Lett. 38, 1168-1169 (2002).

2001

A. Galtarossa, L. Palmieri, A. Pizzinat, "Optimized spinning design for low PMD fibers: An analytical approach," J. Lightw. Technol. 19, 1502-1512 (2001).

1999

A. Bertaina, S. Bigo, C. Francia, S. Gauchard, J.-P. Hamaide, M. W. Chbat, "Experimental investigation of dispersion management for an 8 10-Gb/s WDM transmission," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1045-1047 (1999).

1998

M.-J. Li, D. A. Nolan, "Fiber spin-profile designs for producing fibers with low polarization mode dispersion," Opt. Lett. 23, 1659-1661 (1998).

R. E. Schuh, X. Shan, A. S. Siddiqui, "Polarization mode dispersion in spun fibers with different linear birefringence and spinning parameters," J. Lightw. Technol. 16, 1583 (1998).

1995

D. Q. Chowdhury, D. A. Nolan, "Perturbation model for computing optical fiber birefringence from two-dimensional refractive index profile," Opt. Lett. 20, 1973-1975 (1995).

R. W. Tkach, A. R. Chraplyvy, F. Forghieri, A. H. Gnauck, R. M. Derosier, "Four-photon mixing and high-speed WDM systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 13, 841-849 (1995).

1994

A. J. Antos, D. K. Smith, "Design and characterization of dispersion compensating fiber based on the LP01 mode," J. Lightw. Technol. 12, 1739-1745 (1994).

1993

A. R. Shraplyvy, A. H. Gnuck, R. W. Tkach, R. M. Derosier, "8$\,\times\,$10 Gb/s transmission through 280 km of dispersion managed fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 1232-1235 (1993).

1992

A. M. Vengsarkar, L. G. Cohen, W. L. Mammel, "Theoretical analysis, of highly elliptical-core fibers with arbitrary refractive index profile," Opt. Lett. 17, 1658-1660 (1992).

1988

H. Taga, S. Yamamoto, M. Mochizuki, H. Wakabayashi, "2.4 Gb/s 1.55 mm WDM bidirectional optical fiber transmission experiment," Trans. IEICE E71, 940-942 (1988).

1987

E. Desurvire, J. R. Simpson, P. C. Becker, "High-gain erbium-doped traveling-wave fiber amplifier," Opt. Lett. 12, 888-890 (1987).

R. J. Mears, L. Reekie, I. M. Jauncey, D. N. Payne, "Low-noise erbium-doped fibre amplifier operating at 1.54 $\mu$m," Electron. Lett. 23, 1026-1028 (1987).

D. A. Nolan, R. M. Hawk, D. B. Keck, "Multimode concatenation modal group analysis," J. Lightw. Technol 12, 1727-1731 (1987).

1985

D. M. Cooper, S. P. Craig, B. J. Ainslie, C. R. Day, "Dispersion shifted single-mode fibers using multiple index structures," Brit. Telecom Tech. J. 3, 52-58 (1985).

1983

P. L. Francois, "Zero dispersion in attenuation optimized doubly clad fibers," J. Lightw. Technol. 1, 26-37 (1983).

T. Miya, M. Nakahara, H. Inagaki, "Fabrication of dispersion free VAD single-mode fibers in the 1.5-pm wavelength region," J. Lightw. Technol. LT-1, 14-19 (1983).

1982

B. J. Ainslie, K. J. Beales, C. R. Day, J. D. Rush, "The design and fabrication of monomode optical fiber," IEEE J. Quant. Electron. QE-18, 514-521 (1982).

P. D. Lazay, A. D. Pearson, "Developments in single-mode fiber design, materials, and performance at Bell Laboratories," IEEE J. Quant. Electron. QE-18, 504-510 (1982).

P. L. Francois, "Sensitivity to geometrical parameters in a dispersion-free multicomponent fibre," Electron. Lett. 18, 484-486 (1982).

K. I. White, "Design parameters for dispersion-shifted triangular profile single-mode fibres," Electron. Lett. 18, 725-727 (1982).

1981

U. C. Paek, G. E. Peterson, A. Camevale, "Dispersionless single-mode lightguides with a index profiles," Bell Syst. Tech. J. 60, 583-598 (1981).

A. J. Barlow, J. J. Ramskov-Hansen, D. N. Payne, "Birefringence and polarization mode-dispersion in spun single-mode fibers," Appl. Opt. 20, 2963 (1981).

B. J. Ainslie, K. J. Beales, C. R. Day, J. D. Rush, "Interplay of design parameters and fabrication conditions on the performance of monomode fibers made by MCVD," IEEE J. Quant. Electron. QE -17, 854-857 (1981).

1980

T. Miya, A. Kawana, Y. Terunuma, T. Hosaka, "Fabrication of single-mode fibres for 1.5 pm wavelength region," Trans. IECE Jpn. E63, 514-519 (1980).

A. Kawana, T. Miya, N. Imoto, H. Tsuchiya, "Pulse broadening in long-span dispersion-free single-mode fibres at 1.5 pm," Electron. Lett. 16, 188-189 (1980).

P. C. Schultz, "Fabrication of optical waveguides by the outside vapor deposition process," Proc. IEEE 68, 1187-1190 (1980).

1979

T. Izawa, S. Sudo, H. Hanawa, "Continuous fabrication process for high-silica fiber preforms," Trans. IEICE E62, 779-785 (1979).

W. A. Gambling, H. Matsumura, C. M. Ragdale, "Zero total dispersion in graded-index single mode fibres," Electron. Lett. 15, 474-476 (1979).

L. G. Cohen, C. Lin, W. G. French, "Tailoring zero chromatic dispersion into the 1.5–1.6 pm low-loss spectral region of single-mode fibres," Electron. Lett. 15, 334-335 (1979).

R. Olshansky, "Multiple-$\alpha $ index profiles," Appl. Opt. 18, 683-689 (1979).

T. Miya, Y. Terunuma, T. Hosaka, T. Moyashita, "Ultimate low-loss single-mode fibers at 1.55 mm," Electron. Lett. 15, 106-108 (1979).

W. A. Gambling, H. Matsumura, C. M. Ragdale, "Mode dispersion, material dispersion and profile dispersion in graded-index single-mode fibres," Microw., Opt., Acoust. 3, 239-246 (1979).

1977

W. B. Joyce, R. W. Dixon, R. L. Hartman, "Continuously operated (Al,Ga)As double-heterostructure lasers with 70$^{\circ}{\rm C}$ lifetimes as long as two years," Appl. Phys. Lett. 31, 756-759 (1977).

A. R. Tynes, R. M. Derosier, "Low-loss splices for single mode fibres," Electron. Lett. 13, 673-674 (1977).

K. Okamoto, T. Okoshi, "Computer-aided synthesis of the optimum refractive-index profile for a multimode fiber," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. MTT-25, 213-221 (1977).

L. G. Cohen, C. Lin, "Pulse delay measurements in the zero material dispersion wavelength region for optical fibers," Appl. Opt. 16, 3136-3139 (1977).

1976

W. B. Joyce, R. W. Dixon, R. L. Hartman, "Statistical characterization of the lifetimes of continuously operate (Al,Ga)As double-heterostructure lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 28, 684-686 (1976).

R. Olshansky, D. B. Keck, "Pulse broadening in graded-index optical fibers," Appl. Opt. 15, 483-491 (1976).

K. Okamoto, T. Okoshi, "Analysis of wave propagation in optical fibers having core with alpha-power refractive-index distribution and uniform cladding," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. MTT-24, 416-421 (1976).

P. Geittner, D. Kuppers, H. Lydtin, "Low-loss optical fibers prepared by plasma-activated chemical vapor deposition (CVD)," Appl. Phys. Lett. 28, 645-646 (1976).

M. Horiguchi, H. Osanai, "Spectral losses of low-OH-content optical fibres," Electron. Lett. 12, 310-312 (1976).

S. Kawakami, S. Nishida, M. Sumi, "Transmission characteristics of W-type optical fibres," Proc. Inst. Elec. Eng. 123, 586-590 (1976).

1974

S. Kawakami, S. Nishida, "Anomalous dispersion of new doubly clad optical fibre," Electron. Lett. 10, 38-40 (1974).

S. Kawakami, S. Nishida, "Characteristics of a doubly clad optical fiber with a low-index inner cladding," IEEE J. Quant. Electron. QE-10, 879-887 (1974).

D. N. Payne, W. A. Gambling, "New silica-based low-loss optical fibre," Electron. Lett. 10, 289-190 (1974).

P. Kaiser, H. W. Astle, "Low-loss single-material fibers made from pure fused silica," Bell Syst. Tech. J. 53, 1021-1039 (1974).

J. B. MacChesney, P. B. O'Conner, H. M. Presby, "A new technique for the preparation of low-loss and graded-index optical fiber," Proc. IEEE 62, 1280-1281 (1974).

1973

D. B. Keck, R. D. Maurer, P. C. Schultz, "On the ultimate lower limit of attenuation in glass optical waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 22, 307-309 (1973).

W. G. French, A. D. Pearson, G. W. Tasker, J. B. Mac-Chesney, "Low-loss fused silica optical waveguide with borosilicate cladding," Appl. Phys. Lett. 23, 338-339 (1973).

D. Kato, "Fused-silica-core glass fiber as a low-loss optical waveguide," Appl. Phys. Lett. 22, 3-4 (1973).

D. Gloge, A. J. Marcatelli, "Multimode theory of graded-core fibers," Bell Syst. Tech. J. 52, 1563-1579 (1973).

1972

R. G. Smith, "Optical power handling capacity of low loss optical fibers as determined by stimulated Raman and Brillouin scattering," Appl. Opt. 11, 2459-2494 (1972).

1971

D. Gloge, "Weakly guiding fibers," Appl. Opt. 10, 2252-2258 (1971).

D. Gloge, "Dispersion in weakly guiding fibers," Appl. Opt. 11, 2242-2245 (1971).

F. P. Kapron, D. B. Keck, "Pulse transmission through a dielectric optical waveguide," Appl. Opt. 10, 1519-1523 (1971).

1970

F. P. Kapron, D. B. Keck, R. D. Maurer, "Radiation losses in glass optical waveguides," Trunk Telecom. Guided Waves, IEE 148-153 (1970).

F. P. Kapron, D. B. Keck, R. D. Maurer, "Radiation losses in glass optical waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 17, 423-425 (1970).

1967

W. Streifer, C. N. Kurtz, "Scalar analysis of radially inhomogeneous guiding media," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 57, 779-786 (1967).

1966

C. K. Kao, G. A. Hockham, "Dielectric-fiber surface waveguides for optical frequencies," Proc. IEE 133, 1151-1158 (1966).

1961

E. Snitzer, "Cylindrical dielectric waveguide modes," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 51, 491-498 (1961).

E. Snitzer, H. Osterberg, "Observed dielectric waveguide modes in the visible spectrum," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 51, 499-505 (1961).

Appl. Opt.

D. Gloge, "Weakly guiding fibers," Appl. Opt. 10, 2252-2258 (1971).

D. Gloge, "Dispersion in weakly guiding fibers," Appl. Opt. 11, 2242-2245 (1971).

L. G. Cohen, C. Lin, "Pulse delay measurements in the zero material dispersion wavelength region for optical fibers," Appl. Opt. 16, 3136-3139 (1977).

Appl. Phys. Lett.

W. B. Joyce, R. W. Dixon, R. L. Hartman, "Statistical characterization of the lifetimes of continuously operate (Al,Ga)As double-heterostructure lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 28, 684-686 (1976).

Appl. Opt.

F. P. Kapron, D. B. Keck, "Pulse transmission through a dielectric optical waveguide," Appl. Opt. 10, 1519-1523 (1971).

R. Olshansky, D. B. Keck, "Pulse broadening in graded-index optical fibers," Appl. Opt. 15, 483-491 (1976).

R. Olshansky, "Multiple-$\alpha $ index profiles," Appl. Opt. 18, 683-689 (1979).

A. J. Barlow, J. J. Ramskov-Hansen, D. N. Payne, "Birefringence and polarization mode-dispersion in spun single-mode fibers," Appl. Opt. 20, 2963 (1981).

R. G. Smith, "Optical power handling capacity of low loss optical fibers as determined by stimulated Raman and Brillouin scattering," Appl. Opt. 11, 2459-2494 (1972).

Appl. Phys. Lett.

F. P. Kapron, D. B. Keck, R. D. Maurer, "Radiation losses in glass optical waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 17, 423-425 (1970).

P. Geittner, D. Kuppers, H. Lydtin, "Low-loss optical fibers prepared by plasma-activated chemical vapor deposition (CVD)," Appl. Phys. Lett. 28, 645-646 (1976).

D. B. Keck, R. D. Maurer, P. C. Schultz, "On the ultimate lower limit of attenuation in glass optical waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 22, 307-309 (1973).

W. G. French, A. D. Pearson, G. W. Tasker, J. B. Mac-Chesney, "Low-loss fused silica optical waveguide with borosilicate cladding," Appl. Phys. Lett. 23, 338-339 (1973).

D. Kato, "Fused-silica-core glass fiber as a low-loss optical waveguide," Appl. Phys. Lett. 22, 3-4 (1973).

W. B. Joyce, R. W. Dixon, R. L. Hartman, "Continuously operated (Al,Ga)As double-heterostructure lasers with 70$^{\circ}{\rm C}$ lifetimes as long as two years," Appl. Phys. Lett. 31, 756-759 (1977).

Bell Syst. Tech. J.

U. C. Paek, G. E. Peterson, A. Camevale, "Dispersionless single-mode lightguides with a index profiles," Bell Syst. Tech. J. 60, 583-598 (1981).

P. Kaiser, H. W. Astle, "Low-loss single-material fibers made from pure fused silica," Bell Syst. Tech. J. 53, 1021-1039 (1974).

D. Gloge, A. J. Marcatelli, "Multimode theory of graded-core fibers," Bell Syst. Tech. J. 52, 1563-1579 (1973).

Brit. Telecom Tech. J.

D. M. Cooper, S. P. Craig, B. J. Ainslie, C. R. Day, "Dispersion shifted single-mode fibers using multiple index structures," Brit. Telecom Tech. J. 3, 52-58 (1985).

Electron. Lett.

R. J. Mears, L. Reekie, I. M. Jauncey, D. N. Payne, "Low-noise erbium-doped fibre amplifier operating at 1.54 $\mu$m," Electron. Lett. 23, 1026-1028 (1987).

A. Kawana, T. Miya, N. Imoto, H. Tsuchiya, "Pulse broadening in long-span dispersion-free single-mode fibres at 1.5 pm," Electron. Lett. 16, 188-189 (1980).

T. Miya, Y. Terunuma, T. Hosaka, T. Moyashita, "Ultimate low-loss single-mode fibers at 1.55 mm," Electron. Lett. 15, 106-108 (1979).

K. Nagayama, M. Kakui, M. Matsui, T. Saitoh, Y. Chigusa, "Ultra-low-loss (0.1 484 dB/km) pure silica core fibre and extension of transmission distance," Electron. Lett. 38, 1168-1169 (2002).

Electron. Lett.

D. N. Payne, W. A. Gambling, "New silica-based low-loss optical fibre," Electron. Lett. 10, 289-190 (1974).

M. Horiguchi, H. Osanai, "Spectral losses of low-OH-content optical fibres," Electron. Lett. 12, 310-312 (1976).

L. G. Cohen, C. Lin, W. G. French, "Tailoring zero chromatic dispersion into the 1.5–1.6 pm low-loss spectral region of single-mode fibres," Electron. Lett. 15, 334-335 (1979).

A. R. Tynes, R. M. Derosier, "Low-loss splices for single mode fibres," Electron. Lett. 13, 673-674 (1977).

P. L. Francois, "Sensitivity to geometrical parameters in a dispersion-free multicomponent fibre," Electron. Lett. 18, 484-486 (1982).

W. A. Gambling, H. Matsumura, C. M. Ragdale, "Zero total dispersion in graded-index single mode fibres," Electron. Lett. 15, 474-476 (1979).

K. I. White, "Design parameters for dispersion-shifted triangular profile single-mode fibres," Electron. Lett. 18, 725-727 (1982).

S. Kawakami, S. Nishida, "Anomalous dispersion of new doubly clad optical fibre," Electron. Lett. 10, 38-40 (1974).

Hitachi Cable Rev.

Y. Bing, K. Ohsono, Y. Kurosawa, T. Kumagai, M. Tachikura, "Low-loss holey fiber," Hitachi Cable Rev. (2005).

IEEE J. Quant. Electron.

S. Kawakami, S. Nishida, "Characteristics of a doubly clad optical fiber with a low-index inner cladding," IEEE J. Quant. Electron. QE-10, 879-887 (1974).

P. D. Lazay, A. D. Pearson, "Developments in single-mode fiber design, materials, and performance at Bell Laboratories," IEEE J. Quant. Electron. QE-18, 504-510 (1982).

IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech.

K. Okamoto, T. Okoshi, "Computer-aided synthesis of the optimum refractive-index profile for a multimode fiber," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. MTT-25, 213-221 (1977).

IEEE Commun. Mag.

H. Shinohara, "Broadband access in Japan: Rapidly growing FTTH market," IEEE Commun. Mag. 43, 72-78 (2005).

IEEE J. Quant. Electron.

B. J. Ainslie, K. J. Beales, C. R. Day, J. D. Rush, "Interplay of design parameters and fabrication conditions on the performance of monomode fibers made by MCVD," IEEE J. Quant. Electron. QE -17, 854-857 (1981).

B. J. Ainslie, K. J. Beales, C. R. Day, J. D. Rush, "The design and fabrication of monomode optical fiber," IEEE J. Quant. Electron. QE-18, 514-521 (1982).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

A. Bertaina, S. Bigo, C. Francia, S. Gauchard, J.-P. Hamaide, M. W. Chbat, "Experimental investigation of dispersion management for an 8 10-Gb/s WDM transmission," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1045-1047 (1999).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

A. R. Shraplyvy, A. H. Gnuck, R. W. Tkach, R. M. Derosier, "8$\,\times\,$10 Gb/s transmission through 280 km of dispersion managed fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 1232-1235 (1993).

IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech.

K. Okamoto, T. Okoshi, "Analysis of wave propagation in optical fibers having core with alpha-power refractive-index distribution and uniform cladding," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. MTT-24, 416-421 (1976).

J. Lightw. Technol.

R. E. Schuh, X. Shan, A. S. Siddiqui, "Polarization mode dispersion in spun fibers with different linear birefringence and spinning parameters," J. Lightw. Technol. 16, 1583 (1998).

J. Lightwave Technol.

A. H. McCurdy, "Modeling of stimulated Brillouin scattering in optical fibers with arbitrary radial index profile," J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 3509-3516 (2005).

J. Lightw. Technol

D. A. Nolan, R. M. Hawk, D. B. Keck, "Multimode concatenation modal group analysis," J. Lightw. Technol 12, 1727-1731 (1987).

J. Lightw. Technol.

T. Miya, M. Nakahara, H. Inagaki, "Fabrication of dispersion free VAD single-mode fibers in the 1.5-pm wavelength region," J. Lightw. Technol. LT-1, 14-19 (1983).

P. L. Francois, "Zero dispersion in attenuation optimized doubly clad fibers," J. Lightw. Technol. 1, 26-37 (1983).

R. E. Wagner, J. R. Igel, R. Whitman, M. D. Vaughn, A. B. Ruffin, S. Bickham, "Fiber-based broadband-access deployment in the United States," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 4526-4540 (2006).

Y. Koyamada, S. Sato, S. Nakamura, H. Sotobayashi, W. Chujo, "Simulating and designing Brillouin gain spectrum in single-mode fibers," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 631-639 (2004).

A. Galtarossa, L. Palmieri, A. Pizzinat, "Optimized spinning design for low PMD fibers: An analytical approach," J. Lightw. Technol. 19, 1502-1512 (2001).

D. A. Nolan, X. C. Member, M.-J. Li, "Fibers with low polarization-mode dispersion," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 1066-1077 (2004).

R. W. Tkach, A. R. Chraplyvy, F. Forghieri, A. H. Gnauck, R. M. Derosier, "Four-photon mixing and high-speed WDM systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 13, 841-849 (1995).

A. J. Antos, D. K. Smith, "Design and characterization of dispersion compensating fiber based on the LP01 mode," J. Lightw. Technol. 12, 1739-1745 (1994).

J. Opt. Soc. Amer.

W. Streifer, C. N. Kurtz, "Scalar analysis of radially inhomogeneous guiding media," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 57, 779-786 (1967).

E. Snitzer, "Cylindrical dielectric waveguide modes," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 51, 491-498 (1961).

E. Snitzer, H. Osterberg, "Observed dielectric waveguide modes in the visible spectrum," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 51, 499-505 (1961).

Microw., Opt., Acoust.

W. A. Gambling, H. Matsumura, C. M. Ragdale, "Mode dispersion, material dispersion and profile dispersion in graded-index single-mode fibres," Microw., Opt., Acoust. 3, 239-246 (1979).

Opt. Lett.

A. M. Vengsarkar, L. G. Cohen, W. L. Mammel, "Theoretical analysis, of highly elliptical-core fibers with arbitrary refractive index profile," Opt. Lett. 17, 1658-1660 (1992).

Opt. Expr.

A. Kobyakov, S. Kumar, D. Chowdhury, A. B. Ruffin, M. Sauer, S. Bickham, R. Mishra, "Design concept for optical fibers with enhanced SBS threshold," Opt. Expr. 13, 5338-5346 (2005).

Opt. Lett.

Proc. IEE

C. K. Kao, G. A. Hockham, "Dielectric-fiber surface waveguides for optical frequencies," Proc. IEE 133, 1151-1158 (1966).

Proc. IEEE

P. C. Schultz, "Fabrication of optical waveguides by the outside vapor deposition process," Proc. IEEE 68, 1187-1190 (1980).

J. B. MacChesney, P. B. O'Conner, H. M. Presby, "A new technique for the preparation of low-loss and graded-index optical fiber," Proc. IEEE 62, 1280-1281 (1974).

Proc. Inst. Elec. Eng.

S. Kawakami, S. Nishida, M. Sumi, "Transmission characteristics of W-type optical fibres," Proc. Inst. Elec. Eng. 123, 586-590 (1976).

Trans. IECE Jpn.

T. Miya, A. Kawana, Y. Terunuma, T. Hosaka, "Fabrication of single-mode fibres for 1.5 pm wavelength region," Trans. IECE Jpn. E63, 514-519 (1980).

Trans. IEICE

H. Taga, S. Yamamoto, M. Mochizuki, H. Wakabayashi, "2.4 Gb/s 1.55 mm WDM bidirectional optical fiber transmission experiment," Trans. IEICE E71, 940-942 (1988).

T. Izawa, S. Sudo, H. Hanawa, "Continuous fabrication process for high-silica fiber preforms," Trans. IEICE E62, 779-785 (1979).

Trunk Telecom. Guided Waves, IEE

F. P. Kapron, D. B. Keck, R. D. Maurer, "Radiation losses in glass optical waveguides," Trunk Telecom. Guided Waves, IEE 148-153 (1970).

Other

J. F. Hyde, Method of making a transparent article of silica U.S. Patent 2272342 (1942).

D. B. Keck, P. C. Schultz, Method of producing optical waveguide fibers U.S. Patent 3711262 (1973).

P. C. Schultz, American Ceramic Society Meeting, Cincinnati, OH (American Ceramic Society Meeting, Cincinnati, OH, 1973).

J. B. MacChesney, P. B. O'Connor, F. V. DiMarcello, J. R. Simpson, P. D. Lazay, "Preparation of low loss optical fibers using simultaneous vapor deposition and fusion," 10th Int. Congr. GlassKyotoJapan (1974).

P. C. Schultz, Fiber Optics: Advances in Research and Development (Plenum, 1979).

A. Muhlick, K. Rau, F. Simmat, N. Treber, "A new doped synthetic silica as a bulk material for low loss optical fibers," 1st Eur. Conf. Opt. Fiber Commun. LondonU.K. (1975).

K. Abe, "Fluorine doped silica for optical waveguides," Proc. 2nd Eu. Conf. Opt. Fiber Commun. (1976) pp. 59-61.

D. Marcuse, Light Transmission Optics (Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1972).

D. B. Keck, Fundamentals of Optical Fiber Communications (Academic, 1981).

C. Vassallo, Optical Waveguide Concepts (Elsevier, 1991).

V. A. Bhagavatula, P. E. Blaszyk, "Single-mode fiber with segmented core," OFC (1983) MF5.

V. A. Bhagavatula, M. S. Spotz, D. E. Quinn, "Uniform waveguide dispersion segmented-core designs for dispersion-shifted single-mode fibers," OFC New OrleansLA (1984) MG2.

D. M. Cooper, S. P. Craig, C. R. Day, B. J. Ainslie, "Multiple index structures for dispersion-shifted single-mode fibers," OFC San DiegoCA (1985) WD4.

T. Moriyama, M. Miyamoto, M. Akiyama, R. Sanada, O. Fukuda, T. Miya, R. Chida, "Fabrication of low loss and long length VAD fibres for 1.55 pm wavelength region," Proc. 8th Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. (1982) pp. 31-35.

J. Irven, K. C. Byron, G. J. Cannell, "Dispersion characteristics of practical single mode fibres," 7th Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. CopenhagenDenmark (1981) 4.3.

Optical Fiber Communications (Academic, 1985).

C. A. Miller, M. H. Reeve, S. Hornung, D. B. Payne, "Optimum design of 1.3- and 1.55-rm monomode fiber," 6th Top. Meet. Opt.-Fiber Commun. New OrleansLA-l (1983) MF2.

V. H. Bhagavatula, D. B. Keck, R. A. Westwig, P. E. Blaszyk, "Step index single mode waveguide design study," 5th Top. Meet. Fiber Commun. PhoenixAZ (1982) THCC4.

J. Tusuchiya, I. Hayakayama, Topical Meeting Optical Fiber Transmission II (1977).

D. Sarchi, G. Roba, "PMD mitigating through constant spinning and twist control: Experimental results," Proc. OFC Tech. Dig. (2003) pp. 367-368.

M. T. Lee, M.-J. Li, J. Jacobs, X. Chen, T. Hanson, N. R. Faddoul, D. Nolan, "Statistical PMD specification – Evolution, utilization and control," NFOEC AnaheimCA (2005) NWE2.

D. Q. Chowdhury, D. Wilcox, "Comparison between optical fiber birefringence induced by stress-anisotropy & geometric deformation," Proc. OFC/IOOC Tech. Dig. (1999) pp. 220-222.

K. Mukasa, Y. Akasaka, Y. Suzuki, T. Kamiya, "Novel network fiber to manage dispersion at 1.55 $\mu $m with combination of 1.3 $\mu $m zero dispersion single-mode fiber," Proc. ECOC (1997) pp. 127-130.

S. Ten, M. Sauer, E. Kolltveit, J. Hurley, D. Dalgoutte, J. Ferner, S. Colby, D. Witzel, "1.6 Tb/s (40$\,\times\,$40 Gb/s) transmission over 1200 km of field-deployed dispersion-managed fiber," OCF (2003) TuS3.

K. Mukasa, K. Imamura, I. Shimotahara, T. Yagi, K. Kokura, Fiber based Dispersion Compensation (Springer, 2007).

T. Kashiwada, S. Ishikawa, T. Okuno, K. Tamano, M. Onishi, Y. Makio, "Broadband dispersion compensating module considering its attenuation spectrum behavior for WDM system," OFC (1999) WM12.

L. Gruner-Nielsen, S. N. Knudsen, T. Veng, B. Edvold, C. C. Larsen, "Design and manufacture of dispersion compensating fiber for simultaneous compensation of dispersion and dispersion slope," OFC (1999) WM13.

G. E. Berkey, M. R. Sozanski, "Negative slope dispersion compensating fibers," OFC (1999) WM14.

S. N. Knudsen, T. Veng, "Large effective area dispersion compensating fiber for cabled compensation of standard single-mode fiber," OFC (2000) TuG5.

L. Gruner-Nielsen, T. Veng, S. N. Knudsen, C. C. Larsen, B. Edvold, "New dispersion compensating fibers for simultaneous compensation of dispersion and dispersion slope of non-zero dispersion shifted fibers in the C or L band," OFC (2000) TuG6.

R. Sugizagi, "Dispersion slope compensating fibers for L-band WDM systems using NZDSF," OFC (2000) TuG4.

A. H. Gnauck, L. D. Garrett, Y. Danziger, U. Levy, M. Tur, "Dispersion and dispersion-slope compensation of NZDSF for 40-Gb/s operation over the entire C band," OFC (2000) PD8.

L. Gruner-Nielsen, S. N. Knudsen, B. Edvold, P. Kristensen, T. Veng, D. Magnussen, "Dispersion compensating fibers and perspectives for future developments," Proc. ECOC (2000) pp. 91-93.

M. Hirano, T. Kato, K. Fukuda, K. Tamano, M. Onishi, Y. Makio, M. Nishimura, "Novel dispersion flattened link consisting of new NZ-DSF and dispersion compensating fibers module," Proc. ECOC (2000) pp. 99-100.

Quang, OFC (2001).

T. Kato, M. Hirano, K. Fukuda, A. Tada, M. Onishi, M. Nishimura, "Design optimization of dispersion compensating fiber for NZ-DSF considering nonlinearity and packaging performance," OFC (2001) TuS6.

M.-J. Li, "Recent progress in fiber dispersion compensators," Proc. ECOC (2001) pp. 486-489.

S. R. Bickham, P. Diep, S. Challa, P. Hajcak, M. B. Cain, G. G. Luther, J. Koh, M. Murtagh, P. Zhang, P. Tandon, C. Tennent, "Ultra-wide band fiber pairs with accurate slope compensation over an extended wavelength range," Proc. ECOC (2002).

M.-J. Li, X. Chen, D. A. Nolan, J. Wang, J. A. West, K. W. Koch, Optical Fiber Telecommunications V A (Academic, 2008).

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics (Academic, 1989).

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