Abstract

Sensing via fiber optics has occupied R&D groups for over 40 years, and some important transitions into the commercial sector have been achieved. We look at the fundamental concepts involved in the various sensing approaches, and the differentiators which have led to commercial impact. We also look to the future of fiber-optic sensors.

© 2008 IEEE

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  1. B. Culshaw, Optical Fibre Sensors and Signal Processing (Peter Peregrinus, 1984).
  2. Optical Fiber Sensors (Artech House, 1997).
  3. E. Udd, Fiber Optic Sensors (Wiley, 1990).
  4. J. M. Lopez-Higuera, Handbook of Optical Fibre Sensing Technology (Wiley, 2002).
  5. Fiber Optic Sensors (Marcel Decker, 2002).
  6. E. Udd, Fibre Optic Smart Structures (Wiley, 1995).
  7. B. Culshaw, Smart Structures and Materials (Artech House, 1996).
  8. Fiber Optic Sensors (SPIE, 1995).
  9. The OFS conference series started in London in 1983. The first 17 presentations of the conference are compiled on CD-ROM from SPIE, Bellingham (www.spie.org) together with the first two European Workshops on Optical Fibre Sensors. EWOFS 3 took place in Naples July 2007 (SPIE Vol 6619). OFS (18) was in Cancun, Mexico, October 2006 (Proceedings published through IEEE), OFS(19) will be in Perth Australia in April 2008 (Proceedings from SPIE) and OFS(20) is scheduled for Edinburgh Scotland in October 2009..
  10. The Europtrode series (Europtrode X Dublin Ireland 2008) of annual conferences presents the state of the art in optical chemical sensing, including fiber optic sensors.
  11. The SPIE Smart Structures meetings report fiber optic sensor applications to structural measurement (San Diego Annually in early spring).
  12. IEEE Sensors J. (2008) Special Issue on Optical Fiber Sensors.
  13. C. Menadier, C. Kissenger, H. Adkins, "The fotonic sensor," Instrum. Cont. Syst. 40, 114 (1967).
  14. E. Snitzer, Apparatus for controlling the propagation characteristics of coherent light within an optical fiber U.S. Patent 3 625 589 (1971).
  15. J. A. Bucaro, H. D. Dardy, E. F. Carome, "Fibre optic hydrophone," J. Acoust. Soc. Amer. 52, 1302 (1977).
  16. B. Culshaw, D. E. N. Davies, S. A. Kingsley, "Acoustic sensitivity of optical fiber waveguides," Electron. Lett. , 760-761 (1977).
  17. V. Vali, R. W. Shorthill, "Fibre ring interferometer," Appl. Opt. 15, 1099-1100 (1976).
  18. A. J. Rogers, "Optical measurement of current and voltage on power systems," IEEE J. Electron. Power Appl 2, 120 (1979).
  19. C. D. Butter, G. E. Hocker, "Fiber optics strain gauge," AppI. Opt. 17, 2867 (1978).
  20. B. Culshaw, S. A. Kingsley, "Thermal phase noise in coherent optical-fiber systems," Electron. Lett. 16, 97-99 (1980).
  21. D. A. Jackson, "Elimination of drift in a single-mode optical fiber interferometer using a piezoelectrically streteched coiled fiber," AppI. Opt. 19, 2926 (1980).
  22. A. Dandridge, A. B. Tveten, "Phase compensation in interferometric fiber optic sensors," Opt. Lett. 7, 279 (1982).
  23. J. H. Cole, "Synthetic heterodyne interferometric demodulation," J. Quant. Electron. 18, 694 (1982).
  24. A. D. Kersey, "Phase compensation scheme suitable for use in single mode fiber interferometer," Electron. Lett. 18, 392 (1982).
  25. K. H. Wanser, "Measurement of fundamental thermal phase fluctuations in optical fiber," Proc. OFS (1993) pp. 255.
  26. K. Krakenes, K. Blotekjaer, "Thermal noise in optical fibers—Mach-Zehnder vs. Sagnac interferometers," Proc. OFS10 (1994) pp. 572.
  27. A. Dandridge, "The development of fiber optic sensor systems," Proc. OFS-lO (1994) pp. 154.
  28. A. D. Kersey, M. J. Marrone, "Input polarrization scanning technique for overcoming polarization-induced signal fading in interferometric fiber sensors," Electron. Lett. 24, 931 (1988).
  29. K. H. Wanser, N. H. Safar, "Remote polarization control for fiber optic interferometers," Opt. Lett. 12, 217 (1987).
  30. M. J. Marrone, A. D. Kersey, "Visibility limits in fiber optic Michelson interferometer with birefringence compensation," Electron. Lett. 27, 1422 (1991).
  31. A. Elamari, L. Pflug, N. Gisin, J. Bregiet, S. Vurpillot, "Low coherence deformation sensors for monitoring of civil engineering structures," Sens. Actuators A 44, 125-130 (1994) http://www.smartec.ch.
  32. B. S. Lee, T. C. Strand, "Profilometry with a coherence scanning microscope," AppI. Opt. 29, 3784 (1990).
  33. P. M. Nellon, "Absolute strain measurements with multiplexed low coherence demodulated fiber Fabry- Perot sensors," Proc. OFS (1994) pp. 518.
  34. W. V. Sorin, "High resolution optical fiber reflectometry techniques," Proc. SPIE (1992) pp. 108.
  35. C. C. Davis, "Fiber near field microscopy," Proc. OFS-12 (1997) pp. 8-12.
  36. A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, C. K. Hitzenberger, T. Lasser, "Optical coherence tomography-principles and applications," Rep. Prog. Phys. 66, 239-303 (2003).
  37. A. D. Kersey, "Demonstration of a 64 channel TDM fiber sensor array," OFC San JoseCA (1996).
  38. Ø. Farsund, C. Erbeia, C. Lachaize, A. Hordvik, K. Nakken, A. Berg, G. B. Havsgård, I. Vines, G. Wang, "Design and field test of a 32-element fiber optic hydrophone system," Proc. 15th Optical Fiber Sensors Conf. Tech. Dig. (2002) pp. 329-332.
  39. A. D. Kersey, M. I. Marrone, Nested intererometric sensors utilizing fiber bragg grating reflectors OFS-11SapporoJapan (1996).
  40. S. Blin, M. Bishop, K. Parameswaran, "Pickup suppression in Sagnac based fiber-optic acoustic sensor array," SPIE (2005).
  41. Optical Fiber Rotation Sensing (Academic, 1994).
  42. H. C. Lefèvre, The Fiber Optic Gyroscope (Artech House, 1996).
  43. B. Culshaw, "The optical fiber Sagnac interferometer: An overview of its principles and applications," Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, R1-R16 (2006).
  44. A. J. Rogers, "The electrogyration effect in crystalline quartz," Proc. Roy. Soc. A 353, 117-192 (1977).
  45. M. Willsch, T. Bosselmann, "Optical current sensor application in the harsh environment of a 120 MVA power generator," Proc. 15th Optical Fiber Sensors Conference Technical Digest OFS (2002) pp. 407-410.
  46. A. Othenos, K. Kalli, Fiber Bragg Gratings (Artech House, 1999).
  47. R. Kashap, Fibre Bragg Gratings (Academic, 1999).
  48. A. D. Kersey, "Fiber grating sensors," IEEE J. Lightw. Technol. 15, 1442-1463 (1997).
  49. S. Abad, F. M. Aráújo, L. A. Ferreira, J. L. Santos, M. López-Amo, "Bragg-grating interrogation scheme using spectral filtering and amplitude-to-phase optical conversion," Proc. 15th Optical Fiber Sensors Conf. Tech. Dig. (2002) pp. 103-106.
  50. R. Willsch, W. Ecke, H. Bartelt, "Optical fiber grating sensor networks and their application in electric power facilities, aerospace and geotechnical engineering," Proc. 15th Optical Fiber Sensors Conf. Tech. Dig. (2002) pp. 49-54.
  51. G. A. Johnson, B. L. Althouse, M. D. Todd, "A system for high-frequency and quasi-static fiber bragg grating interrogation," Proc. 14th Int. Conf. Optical Fiber Sensors OFS (2000) pp. 182-185.
  52. B. Culshaw, G. Thursby, D. Betz, "The detection of ultrasound using fiber optic sensors," SPIE (2007) paper 92J vol. 6619.
  53. J. P. Dakin, Fiber Optic Sensors (SPIE, 1995) pp. 284-311.
  54. A. MacLean, C. Moran, W. Johnstone, B. Culshaw, D. Marsh, P. Parker, "Detection of hydrocarbon fuel spills using a distributed fiber optic sensor," Sens. Actuators A 109, 60-67 (2003).
  55. J. P. Dakin, D. J. Pratt, "Temperature distribution measurement using raman ratio thermometry," Proc. SPIEFiber Optic and Laser Sensors III (1985) pp. 249.
  56. A. J. Rogers, "Non-linear distributed optical fiber sensing," Proc. SPIE Distributed and Multiplexed Fiber Optic Sensors II (1992) pp. 50.
  57. T. Horiguchi, T. Kurashima, M. Tateda, "Tensile strain dependence of Brilloiun frequency shift in silica optical fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 1, 107-108 (1989).
  58. D. Culverhouse, "Potential of stimulated Brillouin scattering as sensing mechanism for distributed temperature sensors," Electron. Lett. 25, 913-915 (1989).
  59. M. Niklès, L. Thévenaz, P. A. Robert, "Simple distributed fiber sensor based on Brillouin gain spectrum analysis," Opt. Lett. 21, 758-760 (1996).
  60. M. Niklès, "Fibre optic distributed sensing systems: Perspectives and challenges for high performance applications," EWOFS (2007 ) paper 0D SPIE 6619.
  61. S. R. Cordero, A. Low, D. Ruiz, R. A. Lieberman, "Polymer waveguide sensor arrays for enhanced multichemical detection," SPIE (2007) paper 03 vol. 6755.
  62. A. G. Mignani, "Eat by light," EWOFS (2007) paper 0H SPIE 6619.
  63. J. Homola, "Surface plasmon resonance biosensors," EWOFS (2007) paper 09 SPIE 6619.
  64. O. S. Wolfbeis, Chemical sensing using indicator dyes B. Culshaw, J. P. Dakin, 4 pp. 53-108.
  65. A. G. Mignami, F. Baldini, "In-vivo biomedical monitoring by fiber optic systems," IEEE J. Lightw. TechnoI. 13, 1396-1406 (1995).
  66. G. Duxbury, Infrared Vibration-Rotation Spectroscopy: From Free Radicals to the Infrared Sky (Wiley, 1999).
  67. The Hitran database, .e.g., www.harvard.edu/hitran/.
  68. B. Culshaw, G. Stewart, F. Dong, C. Tandy, D. Moodie, "Fibre optic techniques for remote spectroscopic methane detection—From concept to system realisation," Sens. Actuators B 51, 25-37 (1998).
  69. K. Duffin, A. J. McGettrick, W. Johnstone, G. Stewart, D. G. Moodie, "Tunable diode laser spectroscopy with wavelength modulation: A calibration-free approach to the recovery of absolute gas absorption line-shapes," IEEE J. Lightw. Technol. .
  70. K. Duffin, A. McGettrick, W. Johnstone, G. Stewart, "Tunable diode laser spectroscopy for industrial process applications," EWOFS (2007) paper 27 SPIE 6619.
  71. D. Inaudi, "Testing performance and reliability of fiber optic sensing system for long-term monitoring," Proc. SPIE (2004) pp. 552-555.
  72. S. D. Dyer, "Key metrology considerations for fiber Bragg grating sensors," SPIE (2004) paper 25 vol. 5384.
  73. Fiber optic sensor market projections are available from Optoelectronics Industry Development Association (OIDA) 1133 Connecticut Ave NW Suite 600 Washington DC Contact David B Huff. The most recent report was published in summer 2007.
  74. S. Lebid, Perturbations in behaviour of fibre Bragg grating sensors introduced by local thermal and mechanical influences Dissertation Dresden Univ. Technol.DresdenGermany (2003) 3-86509-136-9 BAM Dissertationsreihe vol. 2.
  75. P. M. Nellen, "Reliability in fiber optical sensor applications," SPIE (2003) vol. 4940 174–185, invited paper.
  76. W. Habel, "Fiber optic sensors for deformation measurements: Criteria and method to put them to the best possible use," SPIE (2004) paper 23 vol. 5384.
  77. W. Habel, "Guidelines and standards for fiber optic sensors—Quo vadis," Proc. SPIE SSSM (2006) pp. 1-9.
  78. W. Habel, "Standards and guidelines—Could they enhance user confidence in fiber sensors technology?," Proc. EWOFS (2007) pp. 1-8.
  79. W. Urbanczyk, "Photonic crystal fibers: New opportunities for sensing," EWOFS (2007) paper 0G SPIE 6619.
  80. F. J. Arregui, "Optical fiber sensors based on nanostructured coatings," EWOFS (2007) paper 0F SPIE 6619.
  81. L. Thevenaz, “The prospects for slow light in fibre optic sensing,” published to date as a discussion topic in COST 299 meetings and to be published .
  82. K.-Y. Song, Chung-Ang, K. Hotate, "All-optical dynamic grating generation based on Brillouin scattering in polarization maintaining fiber," SPIE vol. 7004–219.
  83. B. Sorazu, B. Culshaw, S. H. Atique, "Inversion technique for an all-optical inspection of materials' elastic properties," SPIE (2006) vol. 6167.

2008 (1)

IEEE Sensors J. (2008) Special Issue on Optical Fiber Sensors.

2006 (1)

B. Culshaw, "The optical fiber Sagnac interferometer: An overview of its principles and applications," Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, R1-R16 (2006).

2003 (2)

A. MacLean, C. Moran, W. Johnstone, B. Culshaw, D. Marsh, P. Parker, "Detection of hydrocarbon fuel spills using a distributed fiber optic sensor," Sens. Actuators A 109, 60-67 (2003).

A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, C. K. Hitzenberger, T. Lasser, "Optical coherence tomography-principles and applications," Rep. Prog. Phys. 66, 239-303 (2003).

1998 (1)

B. Culshaw, G. Stewart, F. Dong, C. Tandy, D. Moodie, "Fibre optic techniques for remote spectroscopic methane detection—From concept to system realisation," Sens. Actuators B 51, 25-37 (1998).

1997 (1)

A. D. Kersey, "Fiber grating sensors," IEEE J. Lightw. Technol. 15, 1442-1463 (1997).

1996 (1)

1995 (1)

A. G. Mignami, F. Baldini, "In-vivo biomedical monitoring by fiber optic systems," IEEE J. Lightw. TechnoI. 13, 1396-1406 (1995).

1994 (1)

A. Elamari, L. Pflug, N. Gisin, J. Bregiet, S. Vurpillot, "Low coherence deformation sensors for monitoring of civil engineering structures," Sens. Actuators A 44, 125-130 (1994) http://www.smartec.ch.

1991 (1)

M. J. Marrone, A. D. Kersey, "Visibility limits in fiber optic Michelson interferometer with birefringence compensation," Electron. Lett. 27, 1422 (1991).

1990 (1)

B. S. Lee, T. C. Strand, "Profilometry with a coherence scanning microscope," AppI. Opt. 29, 3784 (1990).

1989 (2)

T. Horiguchi, T. Kurashima, M. Tateda, "Tensile strain dependence of Brilloiun frequency shift in silica optical fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 1, 107-108 (1989).

D. Culverhouse, "Potential of stimulated Brillouin scattering as sensing mechanism for distributed temperature sensors," Electron. Lett. 25, 913-915 (1989).

1988 (1)

A. D. Kersey, M. J. Marrone, "Input polarrization scanning technique for overcoming polarization-induced signal fading in interferometric fiber sensors," Electron. Lett. 24, 931 (1988).

1987 (1)

1982 (3)

A. Dandridge, A. B. Tveten, "Phase compensation in interferometric fiber optic sensors," Opt. Lett. 7, 279 (1982).

J. H. Cole, "Synthetic heterodyne interferometric demodulation," J. Quant. Electron. 18, 694 (1982).

A. D. Kersey, "Phase compensation scheme suitable for use in single mode fiber interferometer," Electron. Lett. 18, 392 (1982).

1980 (2)

B. Culshaw, S. A. Kingsley, "Thermal phase noise in coherent optical-fiber systems," Electron. Lett. 16, 97-99 (1980).

D. A. Jackson, "Elimination of drift in a single-mode optical fiber interferometer using a piezoelectrically streteched coiled fiber," AppI. Opt. 19, 2926 (1980).

1979 (1)

A. J. Rogers, "Optical measurement of current and voltage on power systems," IEEE J. Electron. Power Appl 2, 120 (1979).

1978 (1)

C. D. Butter, G. E. Hocker, "Fiber optics strain gauge," AppI. Opt. 17, 2867 (1978).

1977 (3)

J. A. Bucaro, H. D. Dardy, E. F. Carome, "Fibre optic hydrophone," J. Acoust. Soc. Amer. 52, 1302 (1977).

B. Culshaw, D. E. N. Davies, S. A. Kingsley, "Acoustic sensitivity of optical fiber waveguides," Electron. Lett. , 760-761 (1977).

A. J. Rogers, "The electrogyration effect in crystalline quartz," Proc. Roy. Soc. A 353, 117-192 (1977).

1976 (1)

V. Vali, R. W. Shorthill, "Fibre ring interferometer," Appl. Opt. 15, 1099-1100 (1976).

1967 (1)

C. Menadier, C. Kissenger, H. Adkins, "The fotonic sensor," Instrum. Cont. Syst. 40, 114 (1967).

AppI. Opt. (2)

C. D. Butter, G. E. Hocker, "Fiber optics strain gauge," AppI. Opt. 17, 2867 (1978).

D. A. Jackson, "Elimination of drift in a single-mode optical fiber interferometer using a piezoelectrically streteched coiled fiber," AppI. Opt. 19, 2926 (1980).

AppI. Opt. (1)

B. S. Lee, T. C. Strand, "Profilometry with a coherence scanning microscope," AppI. Opt. 29, 3784 (1990).

Appl. Opt. (1)

V. Vali, R. W. Shorthill, "Fibre ring interferometer," Appl. Opt. 15, 1099-1100 (1976).

Electron. Lett. (2)

A. D. Kersey, M. J. Marrone, "Input polarrization scanning technique for overcoming polarization-induced signal fading in interferometric fiber sensors," Electron. Lett. 24, 931 (1988).

M. J. Marrone, A. D. Kersey, "Visibility limits in fiber optic Michelson interferometer with birefringence compensation," Electron. Lett. 27, 1422 (1991).

Electron. Lett. (4)

D. Culverhouse, "Potential of stimulated Brillouin scattering as sensing mechanism for distributed temperature sensors," Electron. Lett. 25, 913-915 (1989).

A. D. Kersey, "Phase compensation scheme suitable for use in single mode fiber interferometer," Electron. Lett. 18, 392 (1982).

B. Culshaw, S. A. Kingsley, "Thermal phase noise in coherent optical-fiber systems," Electron. Lett. 16, 97-99 (1980).

B. Culshaw, D. E. N. Davies, S. A. Kingsley, "Acoustic sensitivity of optical fiber waveguides," Electron. Lett. , 760-761 (1977).

IEEE J. Lightw. Technol. (1)

A. D. Kersey, "Fiber grating sensors," IEEE J. Lightw. Technol. 15, 1442-1463 (1997).

IEEE Sensors J. (1)

IEEE Sensors J. (2008) Special Issue on Optical Fiber Sensors.

IEEE J. Electron. Power Appl (1)

A. J. Rogers, "Optical measurement of current and voltage on power systems," IEEE J. Electron. Power Appl 2, 120 (1979).

IEEE J. Lightw. TechnoI. (1)

A. G. Mignami, F. Baldini, "In-vivo biomedical monitoring by fiber optic systems," IEEE J. Lightw. TechnoI. 13, 1396-1406 (1995).

IEEE J. Lightw. Technol. (1)

K. Duffin, A. J. McGettrick, W. Johnstone, G. Stewart, D. G. Moodie, "Tunable diode laser spectroscopy with wavelength modulation: A calibration-free approach to the recovery of absolute gas absorption line-shapes," IEEE J. Lightw. Technol. .

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

T. Horiguchi, T. Kurashima, M. Tateda, "Tensile strain dependence of Brilloiun frequency shift in silica optical fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 1, 107-108 (1989).

Instrum. Cont. Syst. (1)

C. Menadier, C. Kissenger, H. Adkins, "The fotonic sensor," Instrum. Cont. Syst. 40, 114 (1967).

J. Acoust. Soc. Amer. (1)

J. A. Bucaro, H. D. Dardy, E. F. Carome, "Fibre optic hydrophone," J. Acoust. Soc. Amer. 52, 1302 (1977).

J. Quant. Electron. (1)

J. H. Cole, "Synthetic heterodyne interferometric demodulation," J. Quant. Electron. 18, 694 (1982).

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

B. Culshaw, "The optical fiber Sagnac interferometer: An overview of its principles and applications," Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, R1-R16 (2006).

Opt. Lett. (3)

Proc. Roy. Soc. A (1)

A. J. Rogers, "The electrogyration effect in crystalline quartz," Proc. Roy. Soc. A 353, 117-192 (1977).

Rep. Prog. Phys. (1)

A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, C. K. Hitzenberger, T. Lasser, "Optical coherence tomography-principles and applications," Rep. Prog. Phys. 66, 239-303 (2003).

Sens. Actuators A (2)

A. Elamari, L. Pflug, N. Gisin, J. Bregiet, S. Vurpillot, "Low coherence deformation sensors for monitoring of civil engineering structures," Sens. Actuators A 44, 125-130 (1994) http://www.smartec.ch.

A. MacLean, C. Moran, W. Johnstone, B. Culshaw, D. Marsh, P. Parker, "Detection of hydrocarbon fuel spills using a distributed fiber optic sensor," Sens. Actuators A 109, 60-67 (2003).

Sens. Actuators B (1)

B. Culshaw, G. Stewart, F. Dong, C. Tandy, D. Moodie, "Fibre optic techniques for remote spectroscopic methane detection—From concept to system realisation," Sens. Actuators B 51, 25-37 (1998).

Other (55)

G. Duxbury, Infrared Vibration-Rotation Spectroscopy: From Free Radicals to the Infrared Sky (Wiley, 1999).

The Hitran database, .e.g., www.harvard.edu/hitran/.

K. Duffin, A. McGettrick, W. Johnstone, G. Stewart, "Tunable diode laser spectroscopy for industrial process applications," EWOFS (2007) paper 27 SPIE 6619.

D. Inaudi, "Testing performance and reliability of fiber optic sensing system for long-term monitoring," Proc. SPIE (2004) pp. 552-555.

S. D. Dyer, "Key metrology considerations for fiber Bragg grating sensors," SPIE (2004) paper 25 vol. 5384.

Fiber optic sensor market projections are available from Optoelectronics Industry Development Association (OIDA) 1133 Connecticut Ave NW Suite 600 Washington DC Contact David B Huff. The most recent report was published in summer 2007.

S. Lebid, Perturbations in behaviour of fibre Bragg grating sensors introduced by local thermal and mechanical influences Dissertation Dresden Univ. Technol.DresdenGermany (2003) 3-86509-136-9 BAM Dissertationsreihe vol. 2.

P. M. Nellen, "Reliability in fiber optical sensor applications," SPIE (2003) vol. 4940 174–185, invited paper.

W. Habel, "Fiber optic sensors for deformation measurements: Criteria and method to put them to the best possible use," SPIE (2004) paper 23 vol. 5384.

W. Habel, "Guidelines and standards for fiber optic sensors—Quo vadis," Proc. SPIE SSSM (2006) pp. 1-9.

W. Habel, "Standards and guidelines—Could they enhance user confidence in fiber sensors technology?," Proc. EWOFS (2007) pp. 1-8.

W. Urbanczyk, "Photonic crystal fibers: New opportunities for sensing," EWOFS (2007) paper 0G SPIE 6619.

F. J. Arregui, "Optical fiber sensors based on nanostructured coatings," EWOFS (2007) paper 0F SPIE 6619.

L. Thevenaz, “The prospects for slow light in fibre optic sensing,” published to date as a discussion topic in COST 299 meetings and to be published .

K.-Y. Song, Chung-Ang, K. Hotate, "All-optical dynamic grating generation based on Brillouin scattering in polarization maintaining fiber," SPIE vol. 7004–219.

B. Sorazu, B. Culshaw, S. H. Atique, "Inversion technique for an all-optical inspection of materials' elastic properties," SPIE (2006) vol. 6167.

J. P. Dakin, D. J. Pratt, "Temperature distribution measurement using raman ratio thermometry," Proc. SPIEFiber Optic and Laser Sensors III (1985) pp. 249.

A. J. Rogers, "Non-linear distributed optical fiber sensing," Proc. SPIE Distributed and Multiplexed Fiber Optic Sensors II (1992) pp. 50.

M. Niklès, "Fibre optic distributed sensing systems: Perspectives and challenges for high performance applications," EWOFS (2007 ) paper 0D SPIE 6619.

S. R. Cordero, A. Low, D. Ruiz, R. A. Lieberman, "Polymer waveguide sensor arrays for enhanced multichemical detection," SPIE (2007) paper 03 vol. 6755.

A. G. Mignani, "Eat by light," EWOFS (2007) paper 0H SPIE 6619.

J. Homola, "Surface plasmon resonance biosensors," EWOFS (2007) paper 09 SPIE 6619.

O. S. Wolfbeis, Chemical sensing using indicator dyes B. Culshaw, J. P. Dakin, 4 pp. 53-108.

M. Willsch, T. Bosselmann, "Optical current sensor application in the harsh environment of a 120 MVA power generator," Proc. 15th Optical Fiber Sensors Conference Technical Digest OFS (2002) pp. 407-410.

A. Othenos, K. Kalli, Fiber Bragg Gratings (Artech House, 1999).

R. Kashap, Fibre Bragg Gratings (Academic, 1999).

S. Abad, F. M. Aráújo, L. A. Ferreira, J. L. Santos, M. López-Amo, "Bragg-grating interrogation scheme using spectral filtering and amplitude-to-phase optical conversion," Proc. 15th Optical Fiber Sensors Conf. Tech. Dig. (2002) pp. 103-106.

R. Willsch, W. Ecke, H. Bartelt, "Optical fiber grating sensor networks and their application in electric power facilities, aerospace and geotechnical engineering," Proc. 15th Optical Fiber Sensors Conf. Tech. Dig. (2002) pp. 49-54.

G. A. Johnson, B. L. Althouse, M. D. Todd, "A system for high-frequency and quasi-static fiber bragg grating interrogation," Proc. 14th Int. Conf. Optical Fiber Sensors OFS (2000) pp. 182-185.

B. Culshaw, G. Thursby, D. Betz, "The detection of ultrasound using fiber optic sensors," SPIE (2007) paper 92J vol. 6619.

J. P. Dakin, Fiber Optic Sensors (SPIE, 1995) pp. 284-311.

A. D. Kersey, "Demonstration of a 64 channel TDM fiber sensor array," OFC San JoseCA (1996).

Ø. Farsund, C. Erbeia, C. Lachaize, A. Hordvik, K. Nakken, A. Berg, G. B. Havsgård, I. Vines, G. Wang, "Design and field test of a 32-element fiber optic hydrophone system," Proc. 15th Optical Fiber Sensors Conf. Tech. Dig. (2002) pp. 329-332.

A. D. Kersey, M. I. Marrone, Nested intererometric sensors utilizing fiber bragg grating reflectors OFS-11SapporoJapan (1996).

S. Blin, M. Bishop, K. Parameswaran, "Pickup suppression in Sagnac based fiber-optic acoustic sensor array," SPIE (2005).

Optical Fiber Rotation Sensing (Academic, 1994).

H. C. Lefèvre, The Fiber Optic Gyroscope (Artech House, 1996).

P. M. Nellon, "Absolute strain measurements with multiplexed low coherence demodulated fiber Fabry- Perot sensors," Proc. OFS (1994) pp. 518.

W. V. Sorin, "High resolution optical fiber reflectometry techniques," Proc. SPIE (1992) pp. 108.

C. C. Davis, "Fiber near field microscopy," Proc. OFS-12 (1997) pp. 8-12.

K. H. Wanser, "Measurement of fundamental thermal phase fluctuations in optical fiber," Proc. OFS (1993) pp. 255.

K. Krakenes, K. Blotekjaer, "Thermal noise in optical fibers—Mach-Zehnder vs. Sagnac interferometers," Proc. OFS10 (1994) pp. 572.

A. Dandridge, "The development of fiber optic sensor systems," Proc. OFS-lO (1994) pp. 154.

E. Snitzer, Apparatus for controlling the propagation characteristics of coherent light within an optical fiber U.S. Patent 3 625 589 (1971).

B. Culshaw, Optical Fibre Sensors and Signal Processing (Peter Peregrinus, 1984).

Optical Fiber Sensors (Artech House, 1997).

E. Udd, Fiber Optic Sensors (Wiley, 1990).

J. M. Lopez-Higuera, Handbook of Optical Fibre Sensing Technology (Wiley, 2002).

Fiber Optic Sensors (Marcel Decker, 2002).

E. Udd, Fibre Optic Smart Structures (Wiley, 1995).

B. Culshaw, Smart Structures and Materials (Artech House, 1996).

Fiber Optic Sensors (SPIE, 1995).

The OFS conference series started in London in 1983. The first 17 presentations of the conference are compiled on CD-ROM from SPIE, Bellingham (www.spie.org) together with the first two European Workshops on Optical Fibre Sensors. EWOFS 3 took place in Naples July 2007 (SPIE Vol 6619). OFS (18) was in Cancun, Mexico, October 2006 (Proceedings published through IEEE), OFS(19) will be in Perth Australia in April 2008 (Proceedings from SPIE) and OFS(20) is scheduled for Edinburgh Scotland in October 2009..

The Europtrode series (Europtrode X Dublin Ireland 2008) of annual conferences presents the state of the art in optical chemical sensing, including fiber optic sensors.

The SPIE Smart Structures meetings report fiber optic sensor applications to structural measurement (San Diego Annually in early spring).

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