Abstract

We describe the development of an optically clocked transistor array (OCTA) interface device for label swapping high-speed asynchronous burst optical packets. The OCTA integrates the three critical functions of serial-to-parallel (SP) conversion, parallel-to-serial (PS) conversion, and clock-pulse generation into a simple optoelectronic integrated circuit (OEIC) to create a single-chip interface between the input/output baseband optical labels and a CMOS label processor. The result is a high-performance label swapping solution which is compact and low power. In this paper, a detailed investigation of the design and optimization of the circuit is first performed, followed by testing of device stability under subsystem operating conditions. Finally, demonstrations of single-channel switching speeds allowing greater than 100-Gb/s operation, 40-Gb/s SP and PS conversion with an eight-channel OCTA, and error-free label swapping of 10-Gb/s asynchronous optical packets with a prototype label swapper module are described.

© 2008 IEEE

PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |

  1. R. Takahashi, T. Nakahara, K. Takahata, H. Takenouchi, T. Yasui, N. Kondo, H. Suzuki, "Ultrafast optoelectronic packet processing for asynchronous, optical-packet-switched networks," OSA J. Opt. Netw. 3, 914-930 (2004).
  2. D. J. Blumenthal, B.-E. Olsson, G. Rossi, T. E. Dimmick, L. Rau, M. Masanovic, O. Lavrova, R. Doshi, O. Jerphagnon, J. E. Bowers, V. Kaman, L. A. Coldren, J. Barton, "All-optical label swapping networks and technologies," J. Lightw. Technol. 18, 2058-2075 (2000).
  3. S. J. B. Yoo, "Optical packet and burst switching technologies for the future photonic internet," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 4468-4492 (2006).
  4. K. Kitayama, M. Murata, "Versatile optical code-based MPLS for circuit, burst, and packet switchings," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 2753-2764 (2003).
  5. R. S. Tucker, "The role of optics and electronics in high-capacity routers," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 4655-4673 (2006).
  6. A. Okada, "All-optical packet routing in AWG-based wavelength routing networks using an out-of-band optical label," Proc. OFC 2002 Tech. Dig. (2002) pp. 213-214.
  7. G.-K. Chang, J. Yu, Y.-K. Yeo, A. Chowdhury, Z. Jia, "Enabling technologies for next-generation optical packet-switching networks," Proc. IEEE 94, 892-910 (2006).
  8. Z. Pan, Z. Zhu, M. Funabashi, H. Yang, S. J. B. Yoo, "101-hop cascaded operation of an optical-label switching router with all-optical clock recovery and 3R regeneration," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1654-1656 (2006).
  9. Z. Zhu, Z. Pan, S. J. B. Yoo, "A compact all-optical subcarrier label-swapping system using an integrated EML for 10-Gb/s optical label-switching networks," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 426-428 (2005).
  10. J. J. V. Olmos, J. Zhang, P. V. Holm-Nielsen, I. T. Monroy, V. Polo, A. M. J. Koonen, C. Peucheret, J. Prat, "Simultaneous optical label erasure and insertion in a single wavelength conversion stage of combined FSK/IM modulated signals," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2144-2146 (2004).
  11. J. Zhang, N. Chi, P. V. Holm-Nielsen, C. Peucheret, P. Jeppesen, "An optical FSK transmitter based on an integrated DFB laser-EA modulator and its application in optical labeling," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 984-986 (2003).
  12. S. J. B. Yoo, H. J. Lee, Z. Pan, J. Cao, Y. Zhang, K. Okamoto, S. Kamei, "Rapidly switching all-optical packet routing system with optical-label swapping incorporating tunable wavelength conversion and a uniform-loss cyclic frequency AWGR," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1211-1213 (2002).
  13. F. Ramos, E. Kehayas, J. M. Martinez, R. Clavero, J. Marti, L. Stampoulidis, D. Tsiokos, H. Avramopoulos, J. Zhang, P. V. Holm-Nielsen, N. Chi, P. Jeppesen, N. Yan, I. T. Monroy, A. M. J. Koonen, M. T. Hill, Y. Liu, H. J. S. Dorren, R. V. Caenegem, D. Colle, M. Pickavet, B. Riposati, "IST-LASAGNE: Towards all-optical label swapping employing optical logic gates and optical flip-flops," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 2993-3011 (2005).
  14. M. Takenaka, M. Raburn, K. Takeda, Y. Nakano, "All-optical packet switching by MMI-BLD optical flip-flop," Proc.OFC 2006 Tech. Dig. (2006).
  15. N. Wada, G. Cincotti, S. Yoshima, N. Kataoka, K. Kitayama, "Characterization of a full encoder/decoder in the AWG configuration for code-based photonic routers-Part II: Experiments and applications," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 113-121 (2006).
  16. H. Uenohara, S. Shimizu, K. Kobayashi, "Demonstration of an optical label switch using an optical digital-to-analog conversion-type label processor with a self-gate-pulse generator and a power equalizer," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 694-696 (2006).
  17. B. Razavi, "Prospects of CMOS technology for high-speed optical communication circuits," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 37, 1135-1145 (2002).
  18. J. Lee, B. Kim, "A low-noise fast-lock phase-locked loop with adaptive bandwidth control," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 35, 1137-1145 (2000).
  19. R. Zhang, G. S. La Rue, "Fast acquisition clock and data recovery circuit with low jitter," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 41, 1016-1024 (2006).
  20. T. H. Lee, The Design of CMOS Radio-Frequency Integrated Circuits (Cambridge Univ. Press, 1998).
  21. K. Habara, Y. Yamada, "High-speed burst-mode optical interconnects for photonic packet communications," Proc. IEEE LEOS Annu. Meeting (1999) pp. 621-622.
  22. H. Nishizawa, Y. Yamada, K. Habara, T. Ohyama, "Design of a 10-Gb/s burst-mode optical packet receiver module and its demonstration in a WDM optical switching network," J. Lightw. Technol. 20, 1078-1083 (2002).
  23. D. Wolfson, V. Lal, M. Masanovic, H. N. Poulsen, C. Coldren, G. Epps, D. Civello, P. Donner, D. J. Blumenthal, "All-optical asynchronous variable-length optically labeled 40 Gbps packet switch," Proc. ECOC'05 (2005) pp. 49-50.
  24. R. Takahashi, R. Urata, T. Suemitsu, H. Suzuki, "A 40-Gb/s self-clocked bidirectional serial/parallel converter for asynchronous label swapping," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 294-296 (2007).
  25. T. Nakahara, R. Takahashi, H. Suzuki, "32-bit label swapping of 40-Gbit/s burst optical packets with intensity tracking of input label," Proc. ECOC'04 (2004) pp. 938-939.
  26. K. Takahata, R. Takahashi, T. Nakahara, H. Takenouchi, H. Suzuki, "3.3 ps electrical pulse generation from a discharge-based metal-semiconductor-metal photodetector," Electron. Lett. 41, 38-39 (2005).
  27. R. Urata, R. Takahashi, T. Nakahara, K. Takahata, H. Suzuki, "An optically clocked transistor array with dual serial-to-parallel and parallel-to-serial conversion capability for optical label swapping," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 67-69 (2006).
  28. R. Urata, R. Takahashi, T. Nakahara, H. Suzuki, "A compact low-power label swapper for asynchronous burst optical packets based on an optically clocked transistor array," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 871-873 (2006).
  29. T. Suemitsu, H. Yokoyama, T. Ishii, T. Enoki, G. Meneghesso, E. Zanoni, "30-nm two-step recess gate InP-based InAlAs/InGaAs HEMTs," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 49, 1694-1700 (2002).
  30. R. Urata, R. Takahashi, T. Suemitsu, H. Suzuki, "An optically clocked transistor array (OCTA) for 40-Gb/s, bidirectional serial-to-parallel conversion of asynchronous burst optical packets," IEICE Electron. Express 3, 129-135 (2006).
  31. Y. Awano, M. Kosugi, K. Kosemura, T. Mimura, M. Abe, "Short-channel effects in subquarter-micrometer-gate HEMT's: simulation and experiment," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 36, 2260-2266 (1989).
  32. G. Meneghesso, D. Buttari, E. Perin, C. Canali, E. Zanoni, "Improvement of DC, low frequency and reliability properties of InAlAs/InGaAs InP-based HEMT's by means of an InP etch stop layer," Proc. IEDM Tech. Dig. (1998) pp. 227-230.
  33. R. Urata, R. Takahashi, T. Nakahara, T. Suemitsu, H. Suzuki, "Error-free label swapping of asynchronous optical packets with multifunctional optically clocked transistor array," Electron. Lett. 43, 359-361 (2007).

2007 (2)

R. Takahashi, R. Urata, T. Suemitsu, H. Suzuki, "A 40-Gb/s self-clocked bidirectional serial/parallel converter for asynchronous label swapping," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 294-296 (2007).

R. Urata, R. Takahashi, T. Nakahara, T. Suemitsu, H. Suzuki, "Error-free label swapping of asynchronous optical packets with multifunctional optically clocked transistor array," Electron. Lett. 43, 359-361 (2007).

2006 (10)

R. Urata, R. Takahashi, T. Nakahara, K. Takahata, H. Suzuki, "An optically clocked transistor array with dual serial-to-parallel and parallel-to-serial conversion capability for optical label swapping," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 67-69 (2006).

R. Urata, R. Takahashi, T. Nakahara, H. Suzuki, "A compact low-power label swapper for asynchronous burst optical packets based on an optically clocked transistor array," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 871-873 (2006).

R. Urata, R. Takahashi, T. Suemitsu, H. Suzuki, "An optically clocked transistor array (OCTA) for 40-Gb/s, bidirectional serial-to-parallel conversion of asynchronous burst optical packets," IEICE Electron. Express 3, 129-135 (2006).

R. Zhang, G. S. La Rue, "Fast acquisition clock and data recovery circuit with low jitter," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 41, 1016-1024 (2006).

N. Wada, G. Cincotti, S. Yoshima, N. Kataoka, K. Kitayama, "Characterization of a full encoder/decoder in the AWG configuration for code-based photonic routers-Part II: Experiments and applications," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 113-121 (2006).

H. Uenohara, S. Shimizu, K. Kobayashi, "Demonstration of an optical label switch using an optical digital-to-analog conversion-type label processor with a self-gate-pulse generator and a power equalizer," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 694-696 (2006).

S. J. B. Yoo, "Optical packet and burst switching technologies for the future photonic internet," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 4468-4492 (2006).

R. S. Tucker, "The role of optics and electronics in high-capacity routers," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 4655-4673 (2006).

G.-K. Chang, J. Yu, Y.-K. Yeo, A. Chowdhury, Z. Jia, "Enabling technologies for next-generation optical packet-switching networks," Proc. IEEE 94, 892-910 (2006).

Z. Pan, Z. Zhu, M. Funabashi, H. Yang, S. J. B. Yoo, "101-hop cascaded operation of an optical-label switching router with all-optical clock recovery and 3R regeneration," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1654-1656 (2006).

2005 (3)

Z. Zhu, Z. Pan, S. J. B. Yoo, "A compact all-optical subcarrier label-swapping system using an integrated EML for 10-Gb/s optical label-switching networks," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 426-428 (2005).

K. Takahata, R. Takahashi, T. Nakahara, H. Takenouchi, H. Suzuki, "3.3 ps electrical pulse generation from a discharge-based metal-semiconductor-metal photodetector," Electron. Lett. 41, 38-39 (2005).

F. Ramos, E. Kehayas, J. M. Martinez, R. Clavero, J. Marti, L. Stampoulidis, D. Tsiokos, H. Avramopoulos, J. Zhang, P. V. Holm-Nielsen, N. Chi, P. Jeppesen, N. Yan, I. T. Monroy, A. M. J. Koonen, M. T. Hill, Y. Liu, H. J. S. Dorren, R. V. Caenegem, D. Colle, M. Pickavet, B. Riposati, "IST-LASAGNE: Towards all-optical label swapping employing optical logic gates and optical flip-flops," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 2993-3011 (2005).

2004 (2)

J. J. V. Olmos, J. Zhang, P. V. Holm-Nielsen, I. T. Monroy, V. Polo, A. M. J. Koonen, C. Peucheret, J. Prat, "Simultaneous optical label erasure and insertion in a single wavelength conversion stage of combined FSK/IM modulated signals," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2144-2146 (2004).

R. Takahashi, T. Nakahara, K. Takahata, H. Takenouchi, T. Yasui, N. Kondo, H. Suzuki, "Ultrafast optoelectronic packet processing for asynchronous, optical-packet-switched networks," OSA J. Opt. Netw. 3, 914-930 (2004).

2003 (2)

K. Kitayama, M. Murata, "Versatile optical code-based MPLS for circuit, burst, and packet switchings," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 2753-2764 (2003).

J. Zhang, N. Chi, P. V. Holm-Nielsen, C. Peucheret, P. Jeppesen, "An optical FSK transmitter based on an integrated DFB laser-EA modulator and its application in optical labeling," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 984-986 (2003).

2002 (4)

S. J. B. Yoo, H. J. Lee, Z. Pan, J. Cao, Y. Zhang, K. Okamoto, S. Kamei, "Rapidly switching all-optical packet routing system with optical-label swapping incorporating tunable wavelength conversion and a uniform-loss cyclic frequency AWGR," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1211-1213 (2002).

H. Nishizawa, Y. Yamada, K. Habara, T. Ohyama, "Design of a 10-Gb/s burst-mode optical packet receiver module and its demonstration in a WDM optical switching network," J. Lightw. Technol. 20, 1078-1083 (2002).

B. Razavi, "Prospects of CMOS technology for high-speed optical communication circuits," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 37, 1135-1145 (2002).

T. Suemitsu, H. Yokoyama, T. Ishii, T. Enoki, G. Meneghesso, E. Zanoni, "30-nm two-step recess gate InP-based InAlAs/InGaAs HEMTs," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 49, 1694-1700 (2002).

2000 (2)

J. Lee, B. Kim, "A low-noise fast-lock phase-locked loop with adaptive bandwidth control," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 35, 1137-1145 (2000).

D. J. Blumenthal, B.-E. Olsson, G. Rossi, T. E. Dimmick, L. Rau, M. Masanovic, O. Lavrova, R. Doshi, O. Jerphagnon, J. E. Bowers, V. Kaman, L. A. Coldren, J. Barton, "All-optical label swapping networks and technologies," J. Lightw. Technol. 18, 2058-2075 (2000).

1989 (1)

Y. Awano, M. Kosugi, K. Kosemura, T. Mimura, M. Abe, "Short-channel effects in subquarter-micrometer-gate HEMT's: simulation and experiment," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 36, 2260-2266 (1989).

Electron. Lett. (1)

K. Takahata, R. Takahashi, T. Nakahara, H. Takenouchi, H. Suzuki, "3.3 ps electrical pulse generation from a discharge-based metal-semiconductor-metal photodetector," Electron. Lett. 41, 38-39 (2005).

Electron. Lett. (1)

R. Urata, R. Takahashi, T. Nakahara, T. Suemitsu, H. Suzuki, "Error-free label swapping of asynchronous optical packets with multifunctional optically clocked transistor array," Electron. Lett. 43, 359-361 (2007).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (5)

Z. Zhu, Z. Pan, S. J. B. Yoo, "A compact all-optical subcarrier label-swapping system using an integrated EML for 10-Gb/s optical label-switching networks," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 426-428 (2005).

J. J. V. Olmos, J. Zhang, P. V. Holm-Nielsen, I. T. Monroy, V. Polo, A. M. J. Koonen, C. Peucheret, J. Prat, "Simultaneous optical label erasure and insertion in a single wavelength conversion stage of combined FSK/IM modulated signals," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2144-2146 (2004).

J. Zhang, N. Chi, P. V. Holm-Nielsen, C. Peucheret, P. Jeppesen, "An optical FSK transmitter based on an integrated DFB laser-EA modulator and its application in optical labeling," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 984-986 (2003).

S. J. B. Yoo, H. J. Lee, Z. Pan, J. Cao, Y. Zhang, K. Okamoto, S. Kamei, "Rapidly switching all-optical packet routing system with optical-label swapping incorporating tunable wavelength conversion and a uniform-loss cyclic frequency AWGR," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1211-1213 (2002).

H. Uenohara, S. Shimizu, K. Kobayashi, "Demonstration of an optical label switch using an optical digital-to-analog conversion-type label processor with a self-gate-pulse generator and a power equalizer," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 694-696 (2006).

IEEE Trans. Electron Devices (1)

T. Suemitsu, H. Yokoyama, T. Ishii, T. Enoki, G. Meneghesso, E. Zanoni, "30-nm two-step recess gate InP-based InAlAs/InGaAs HEMTs," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 49, 1694-1700 (2002).

IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits (1)

B. Razavi, "Prospects of CMOS technology for high-speed optical communication circuits," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 37, 1135-1145 (2002).

IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits (2)

J. Lee, B. Kim, "A low-noise fast-lock phase-locked loop with adaptive bandwidth control," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 35, 1137-1145 (2000).

R. Zhang, G. S. La Rue, "Fast acquisition clock and data recovery circuit with low jitter," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 41, 1016-1024 (2006).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

Z. Pan, Z. Zhu, M. Funabashi, H. Yang, S. J. B. Yoo, "101-hop cascaded operation of an optical-label switching router with all-optical clock recovery and 3R regeneration," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1654-1656 (2006).

R. Takahashi, R. Urata, T. Suemitsu, H. Suzuki, "A 40-Gb/s self-clocked bidirectional serial/parallel converter for asynchronous label swapping," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 294-296 (2007).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

R. Urata, R. Takahashi, T. Nakahara, K. Takahata, H. Suzuki, "An optically clocked transistor array with dual serial-to-parallel and parallel-to-serial conversion capability for optical label swapping," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 67-69 (2006).

R. Urata, R. Takahashi, T. Nakahara, H. Suzuki, "A compact low-power label swapper for asynchronous burst optical packets based on an optically clocked transistor array," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 871-873 (2006).

IEEE Trans. Electron Devices (1)

Y. Awano, M. Kosugi, K. Kosemura, T. Mimura, M. Abe, "Short-channel effects in subquarter-micrometer-gate HEMT's: simulation and experiment," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 36, 2260-2266 (1989).

IEICE Electron. Express (1)

R. Urata, R. Takahashi, T. Suemitsu, H. Suzuki, "An optically clocked transistor array (OCTA) for 40-Gb/s, bidirectional serial-to-parallel conversion of asynchronous burst optical packets," IEICE Electron. Express 3, 129-135 (2006).

J. Lightw. Technol. (1)

N. Wada, G. Cincotti, S. Yoshima, N. Kataoka, K. Kitayama, "Characterization of a full encoder/decoder in the AWG configuration for code-based photonic routers-Part II: Experiments and applications," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 113-121 (2006).

J. Lightw. Technol. (6)

F. Ramos, E. Kehayas, J. M. Martinez, R. Clavero, J. Marti, L. Stampoulidis, D. Tsiokos, H. Avramopoulos, J. Zhang, P. V. Holm-Nielsen, N. Chi, P. Jeppesen, N. Yan, I. T. Monroy, A. M. J. Koonen, M. T. Hill, Y. Liu, H. J. S. Dorren, R. V. Caenegem, D. Colle, M. Pickavet, B. Riposati, "IST-LASAGNE: Towards all-optical label swapping employing optical logic gates and optical flip-flops," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 2993-3011 (2005).

D. J. Blumenthal, B.-E. Olsson, G. Rossi, T. E. Dimmick, L. Rau, M. Masanovic, O. Lavrova, R. Doshi, O. Jerphagnon, J. E. Bowers, V. Kaman, L. A. Coldren, J. Barton, "All-optical label swapping networks and technologies," J. Lightw. Technol. 18, 2058-2075 (2000).

S. J. B. Yoo, "Optical packet and burst switching technologies for the future photonic internet," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 4468-4492 (2006).

K. Kitayama, M. Murata, "Versatile optical code-based MPLS for circuit, burst, and packet switchings," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 2753-2764 (2003).

R. S. Tucker, "The role of optics and electronics in high-capacity routers," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 4655-4673 (2006).

H. Nishizawa, Y. Yamada, K. Habara, T. Ohyama, "Design of a 10-Gb/s burst-mode optical packet receiver module and its demonstration in a WDM optical switching network," J. Lightw. Technol. 20, 1078-1083 (2002).

OSA J. Opt. Netw. (1)

R. Takahashi, T. Nakahara, K. Takahata, H. Takenouchi, T. Yasui, N. Kondo, H. Suzuki, "Ultrafast optoelectronic packet processing for asynchronous, optical-packet-switched networks," OSA J. Opt. Netw. 3, 914-930 (2004).

Proc. IEEE (1)

G.-K. Chang, J. Yu, Y.-K. Yeo, A. Chowdhury, Z. Jia, "Enabling technologies for next-generation optical packet-switching networks," Proc. IEEE 94, 892-910 (2006).

Other (7)

T. H. Lee, The Design of CMOS Radio-Frequency Integrated Circuits (Cambridge Univ. Press, 1998).

K. Habara, Y. Yamada, "High-speed burst-mode optical interconnects for photonic packet communications," Proc. IEEE LEOS Annu. Meeting (1999) pp. 621-622.

A. Okada, "All-optical packet routing in AWG-based wavelength routing networks using an out-of-band optical label," Proc. OFC 2002 Tech. Dig. (2002) pp. 213-214.

M. Takenaka, M. Raburn, K. Takeda, Y. Nakano, "All-optical packet switching by MMI-BLD optical flip-flop," Proc.OFC 2006 Tech. Dig. (2006).

D. Wolfson, V. Lal, M. Masanovic, H. N. Poulsen, C. Coldren, G. Epps, D. Civello, P. Donner, D. J. Blumenthal, "All-optical asynchronous variable-length optically labeled 40 Gbps packet switch," Proc. ECOC'05 (2005) pp. 49-50.

T. Nakahara, R. Takahashi, H. Suzuki, "32-bit label swapping of 40-Gbit/s burst optical packets with intensity tracking of input label," Proc. ECOC'04 (2004) pp. 938-939.

G. Meneghesso, D. Buttari, E. Perin, C. Canali, E. Zanoni, "Improvement of DC, low frequency and reliability properties of InAlAs/InGaAs InP-based HEMT's by means of an InP etch stop layer," Proc. IEDM Tech. Dig. (1998) pp. 227-230.

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.