InP-based Mach–Zehnder modulators with capacitively loaded traveling-wave electrodes (CL-TWEs), which have segmented structures along the optical waveguides, are presented. Devices with various structural parameters for gap length (the length between adjacent segmented phase modulators) and total active length were fabricated and investigated both optically and electrically. Excellent characteristics such as characteristic impedance matching to 50 Ω and low electrical propagation losses were obtained. Using the optimum structures, 40- and 10-Gb/s large signal operations were successfully performed with peak-to-peak driving voltages of 3.0 and 1.2 V, respectively. The effects of structural parameters, such as gap length and total active length on electrical and optical modulation properties, are discussed.
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