Abstract

The unapodized and apodized step-chirped gratings (SCGs) for broadband frequency converters based on quasi-phase-matched second-harmonic generation with pump depletion in lithium niobate waveguides have been theoretically modeled and simulated as a function of the number of sections, and compared with the linearly chirped gratings (LCGs) for the first time to our knowledge. It is shown that for the same length, using fewer sections with more segments and larger amounts of chirp, the efficiency and bandwidth of an SCG approach over that of an LCG and can be extensively improved with apodization. Moreover, the increasing chirp period and duty cycle for the SCG structure may provide a more convenient method for fabrication and poling. In addition, we present useful relations for the bandwidths that help to find the appropriate number of segments in the proposed SCGs of a given length.

© 2008 IEEE

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  12. G. Khanarian, "Theory of design parameters for quasi-phase-matched waveguides and application to frequency doubling in polymer waveguides," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 7, 793-805 (2001).
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  14. S. Zhu, Y. Zhu, Y. Qin, H. Wang, C. Ge, N. Ming, "Experimental realization of second harmonic generation in a Fibonacci optical superlattice of LiTaO3," Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2752-2755 (1997).
  15. B. Gu, B. Dong, Y. Zhang, G. Yang, "Enhanced harmonic generation in aperiodic optical superlattices," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2175-2177 (1999).
  16. T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, "Theoretical analysis of waveguide second-harmonic generation phase matched with uniform and chirped gratings," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 1265-1276 (1990).
  17. K. Mizuuchi, K. Yamamoto, M. Kato, H. Sato, "Broadening of the phase-matching bandwidth in quasi-phase-matched second-harmonic generation ," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1596-1604 (1994).
  18. R. Kashyap, "Phase-matched second-harmonic generation in periodically poled optical fibers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 1233-1235 (1991).
  19. R. Kashyap, "Phase-matched periodic electric-field-induced second-harmonic generation in optical fibers ," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B, Opt. Phys. 6, 313-328 (1989).
  20. R. Kashyap, "Design of step-chirped fibre Bragg gratings," Opt. Commun. 136, 461-469 (1997).
  21. V. Y. Shur, E. L. Rumyantsev, E. V. Nirolaeva, E. I. Shishkin, D. V. Fursov, R. G. Batchko, L. A. Eyres, M. M. Fejer, R. L. Byor, "Nanoscale backswitched domain patterning in lithium niobate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 143-145 (2000).
  22. V. Y. Shur, "Domain engineering in lithium niobate and lithium tantalate: Domain wall motion," Ferroelectrics 340, 3-16 (2006).
  23. M. Asobe, O. Tadanaga, H. Miyazawa, Y. Nishida, H. Suzuki, "Multiple quasi-phase-matched device using continuous phase modulation of χ(2) grating and its application to variable wavelength conversion," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 1540-1547 (2005).

2006

S. Gao, C. X. Yang, X. S. Xiao, Y. Tian, Z. You, G. F. Jin, "Bandwidth enhancement and response flattening of cascaded sum- and difference-frequency generation-based wavelength conversion," Opt. Commun. 266, 296-301 (2006).

V. Y. Shur, "Domain engineering in lithium niobate and lithium tantalate: Domain wall motion," Ferroelectrics 340, 3-16 (2006).

2005

M. Asobe, O. Tadanaga, H. Miyazawa, Y. Nishida, H. Suzuki, "Multiple quasi-phase-matched device using continuous phase modulation of χ(2) grating and its application to variable wavelength conversion," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 1540-1547 (2005).

M. Asobe, Y. Nishida, O. Tadanaga, H. Miyazawa, H. Suzuki, "Wavelength conversion using quasi-phase matched LiNbO3 waveguides," IEICE Trans. Electron. E88-C, 335-341 (2005).

2004

S. Gao, C. Yang, G. Jin, "Flat broad-band wavelength conversion based on sinusoidally chirped optical superlattices in lithium niobate," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 557-559 (2004).

2003

2002

Z. Zheng, A. M. Weiner, K. R. Parameswaran, M. Chou, M. M. Fejer, "Femtosecond second-harmonic generation in periodically poled lithium niobate waveguides with simultaneous strong pump depletion and group-velocity walk-off," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B, Opt. Phys. 19, 839-848 (2002).

Z. Xianglong, C. Xianfeng, W. Fei, C. Yuping, X. Yuxing, C. Yingli, "Second-harmonic generation with broadened flattop bandwidth in aperiodic domain-inverted gratings ," Opt. Commun. 204, 407-411 (2002).

2001

X. Liu, H. Zhang, Y. Guo, "Theoretical analyses and optimizations for wavelength conversion by quasi-phase-matching difference frequency generation," J. Lightw. Technol. 19, 1785-1792 (2001).

G. Khanarian, "Theory of design parameters for quasi-phase-matched waveguides and application to frequency doubling in polymer waveguides," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 7, 793-805 (2001).

2000

G. Imeshev, M. A. Arbore, M. M. Fejer, A. Galvanauskas, M. Fermann, D. Harter, "Ultrashort-pulse second-harmonic generation with longitudinally nonuniform quasi-phase-matching gratings: Pulse compression and shaping," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B, Opt. Phys. 17, 304-318 (2000).

V. Y. Shur, E. L. Rumyantsev, E. V. Nirolaeva, E. I. Shishkin, D. V. Fursov, R. G. Batchko, L. A. Eyres, M. M. Fejer, R. L. Byor, "Nanoscale backswitched domain patterning in lithium niobate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 143-145 (2000).

1999

B. Gu, B. Dong, Y. Zhang, G. Yang, "Enhanced harmonic generation in aperiodic optical superlattices," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2175-2177 (1999).

1998

1997

R. Kashyap, "Design of step-chirped fibre Bragg gratings," Opt. Commun. 136, 461-469 (1997).

K. Mizuuchi, H. Ohta, K. Yamamoto, M. Kato, "Second-harmonic generation with a high-index-clad waveguide," Opt. Lett. 22, 1217-1219 (1997).

S. Zhu, Y. Zhu, Y. Qin, H. Wang, C. Ge, N. Ming, "Experimental realization of second harmonic generation in a Fibonacci optical superlattice of LiTaO3," Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2752-2755 (1997).

1995

J. Wu, T. Kondo, R. Ito, "Optimal design for broadband quasi-phase-matched second-harmonic generation using simulated annealing," J. Lightw. Technol. 13, 456-460 (1995).

1994

K. Mizuuchi, K. Yamamoto, M. Kato, H. Sato, "Broadening of the phase-matching bandwidth in quasi-phase-matched second-harmonic generation ," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1596-1604 (1994).

1991

R. Kashyap, "Phase-matched second-harmonic generation in periodically poled optical fibers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 1233-1235 (1991).

1990

T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, "Theoretical analysis of waveguide second-harmonic generation phase matched with uniform and chirped gratings," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 1265-1276 (1990).

1989

R. Kashyap, "Phase-matched periodic electric-field-induced second-harmonic generation in optical fibers ," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B, Opt. Phys. 6, 313-328 (1989).

Appl. Phys. Lett.

B. Gu, B. Dong, Y. Zhang, G. Yang, "Enhanced harmonic generation in aperiodic optical superlattices," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2175-2177 (1999).

R. Kashyap, "Phase-matched second-harmonic generation in periodically poled optical fibers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 1233-1235 (1991).

V. Y. Shur, E. L. Rumyantsev, E. V. Nirolaeva, E. I. Shishkin, D. V. Fursov, R. G. Batchko, L. A. Eyres, M. M. Fejer, R. L. Byor, "Nanoscale backswitched domain patterning in lithium niobate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 143-145 (2000).

Ferroelectrics

V. Y. Shur, "Domain engineering in lithium niobate and lithium tantalate: Domain wall motion," Ferroelectrics 340, 3-16 (2006).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

M. Asobe, O. Tadanaga, H. Miyazawa, Y. Nishida, H. Suzuki, "Multiple quasi-phase-matched device using continuous phase modulation of χ(2) grating and its application to variable wavelength conversion," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 1540-1547 (2005).

T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, "Theoretical analysis of waveguide second-harmonic generation phase matched with uniform and chirped gratings," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 1265-1276 (1990).

K. Mizuuchi, K. Yamamoto, M. Kato, H. Sato, "Broadening of the phase-matching bandwidth in quasi-phase-matched second-harmonic generation ," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1596-1604 (1994).

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron.

G. Khanarian, "Theory of design parameters for quasi-phase-matched waveguides and application to frequency doubling in polymer waveguides," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 7, 793-805 (2001).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

S. Gao, C. Yang, G. Jin, "Flat broad-band wavelength conversion based on sinusoidally chirped optical superlattices in lithium niobate," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 557-559 (2004).

IEICE Trans. Electron.

M. Asobe, Y. Nishida, O. Tadanaga, H. Miyazawa, H. Suzuki, "Wavelength conversion using quasi-phase matched LiNbO3 waveguides," IEICE Trans. Electron. E88-C, 335-341 (2005).

J. Lightw. Technol.

X. Liu, H. Zhang, Y. Guo, "Theoretical analyses and optimizations for wavelength conversion by quasi-phase-matching difference frequency generation," J. Lightw. Technol. 19, 1785-1792 (2001).

J. Wu, T. Kondo, R. Ito, "Optimal design for broadband quasi-phase-matched second-harmonic generation using simulated annealing," J. Lightw. Technol. 13, 456-460 (1995).

J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B, Opt. Phys.

Z. Zheng, A. M. Weiner, K. R. Parameswaran, M. Chou, M. M. Fejer, "Femtosecond second-harmonic generation in periodically poled lithium niobate waveguides with simultaneous strong pump depletion and group-velocity walk-off," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B, Opt. Phys. 19, 839-848 (2002).

G. Imeshev, M. A. Arbore, M. M. Fejer, A. Galvanauskas, M. Fermann, D. Harter, "Ultrashort-pulse second-harmonic generation with longitudinally nonuniform quasi-phase-matching gratings: Pulse compression and shaping," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B, Opt. Phys. 17, 304-318 (2000).

R. Kashyap, "Phase-matched periodic electric-field-induced second-harmonic generation in optical fibers ," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B, Opt. Phys. 6, 313-328 (1989).

Opt. Commun.

R. Kashyap, "Design of step-chirped fibre Bragg gratings," Opt. Commun. 136, 461-469 (1997).

Z. Xianglong, C. Xianfeng, W. Fei, C. Yuping, X. Yuxing, C. Yingli, "Second-harmonic generation with broadened flattop bandwidth in aperiodic domain-inverted gratings ," Opt. Commun. 204, 407-411 (2002).

S. Gao, C. X. Yang, X. S. Xiao, Y. Tian, Z. You, G. F. Jin, "Bandwidth enhancement and response flattening of cascaded sum- and difference-frequency generation-based wavelength conversion," Opt. Commun. 266, 296-301 (2006).

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. Lett.

S. Zhu, Y. Zhu, Y. Qin, H. Wang, C. Ge, N. Ming, "Experimental realization of second harmonic generation in a Fibonacci optical superlattice of LiTaO3," Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2752-2755 (1997).

Other

B. Jaskorzynska, G. Arvidsson, F. Laurell, "Periodic structures for phase-matching in second harmonic generation in titanium lithium niobate waveguides," Proc. Integr. Opt. Circuit Eng. III (1986) pp. 221-228.

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