Abstract

Effects of built-in polarization and carrier overflow on InGaN quantum-well lasers with a ternary AlGaN or a quaternary AlInGaN electronic blocking layer (EBL) have been numerically investigated by employing an advanced device-simulation program. The simulation results indicate that the characteristics of InGaN quantum-well lasers can be improved by using the quaternary AlInGaN EBL. When the aluminum and indium compositions in the AlInGaN EBL are appropriately designed, the built-in charge density at the interface between the InGaN barrier and the AlInGaN EBL can be reduced. Under this circumstance, the electron leakage current and the laser threshold current can obviously be decreased as compared with the laser structure with a conventional AlGaN EBL when the built-in polarization is taken into account in the calculation. Furthermore, the AlInGaN EBL also gives a higher refractive index than the AlGaN EBL, which is a benefit for a higher quantum-well optical confinement factor in laser operations.

© 2008 IEEE

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  34. J. P. Ibbetson, P. T. Fini, K. D. Ness, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, "Polarization effects, surface states, and the source of electrons in AlGaN/GaN heterostructure field effect transistors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 250-252 (2000).
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  37. F. Renner, P. Kiesel, G. H. Dõhler, M. Kneissl, C. G. Van de Walle, N. M. Johnson, "Quantitative analysis of the polarization fields and absorption changes in InGaN/GaN quantum wells with electroabsorption spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 490-492 (2002).
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  39. S.-H. Wei, A. Zunger, "Valence band splittings and band offsets of AlN, GaN, and InN," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 2719-2721 (1996).
  40. Y.-K. Kuo, B.-T. Liou, M.-L. Chen, S.-H. Yen, C.-Y. Lin, "Effect of band-offset ratio on analysis of violet-blue InGaN laser characteristics," Opt. Commun. 231, 395-402 (2004).
  41. J. Li, T. N. Oder, M. L. Nakarmi, J. Y. Lin, H. X. Jiang, "Optical and electrical properties of Mg-doped p-type AlxGa1-xN," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 1210-1212 (2002).

2007 (2)

H. Yu, L. K. Lee, T. Jung, P. C. Ku, "Photoluminescence study of semipolar {101¯1} InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells grown by selective area epitaxy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 141 906 (2007).

X. Ni, Ü. Özgür, A. A. Baski, H. Morkoç, L. Zhou, D. J. Smith, C. A. Tran, "Epitaxial lateral overgrowth of {112¯2} semipolar GaN on {11¯00} m-plane sapphire by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 182 109 (2007).

2006 (4)

T. Paskova, R. Kroeger, S. Figge, D. Hommel, V. Darakchieva, B. Monemar, E. Preble, A. Hanser, N. M. Williams, M. Tutor, "High-quality bulk a-plane GaN sliced from boules in comparison to heteroepitaxially grown thick films on r-plane sapphire," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 051 914 (2006).

A. Chakraborty, K. C. Kim, F. Wu, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, U. K. Mishra, "Defect reduction in nonpolar a-plane GaN films using in situ SiNx nanomask," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 041903 (2006).

H. Y. Ryu, H. Ha, S. N. Lee, K. K. Choi, T. Jang, J. K. Son, J. H. Chae, S. H. Chae, H. S. Paek, Y. J. Sung, T. Sakong, H. G. Kim, K. S. Kim, Y. H. Kim, O. H. Nam, Y. J. Park, "Single-mode blue-violet laser diodes with low beam divergence and high COD level," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1001-1003 (2006).

J. Piprek, R. Farrell, S. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, "Effects of built-in polarization on InGaN-GaN vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers ," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 7-9 (2006).

2005 (3)

G. Franssen, T. Suski, P. Perlin, R. Bohdan, A. Bercha, W. Trzeciakowski, I. Makarowa, P. Prystawko, M. Leszczyñski, I. Grzegory, S. Porowski, S. Kokenyesi, "Fully-screened polarization-induced electric fields in blue/violet InGaN/GaN light-emitting devices grown on bulk GaN," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 041109 (2005).

R. Sharma, P. M. Pattison, H. Masui, R. M. Farrell, T. J. Baker, B. A. Haskell, F. Wu, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, "Demonstration of a semipolar {101¯3¯} InGaN/GaN green light emitting diode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 231 110 (2005).

S. Kamiyama, K. Iida, T. Kawashima, H. Kasugai, S. Mishima, A. Honshio, Y. Miyake, M. Iwaya, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, "UV laser diode with 350.9-nm-lasing wavelength grown by hetero-epitaxial-lateral overgrowth technology," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 11, 1069-1073 (2005).

2004 (3)

Y.-K. Kuo, B.-T. Liou, M.-L. Chen, S.-H. Yen, C.-Y. Lin, "Effect of band-offset ratio on analysis of violet-blue InGaN laser characteristics," Opt. Commun. 231, 395-402 (2004).

Y.-K. Kuo, Y.-A. Chang, "Effects of electronic current overflow and inhomogeneous carrier distribution on InGaN quantum-well laser performance," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 437-444 (2004).

H. Zhang, E. J. Miller, E. T. Yu, C. Poblenz, J. S. Speck, "Measurement of polarization charge and conduction-band offset at InxGa1-xN/GaN heterojunction interfaces," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4644-4646 (2004).

2003 (2)

I. Vurgaftman, J. R. Meyer, "Band parameters for nitrogen-containing semiconductors," J. Appl. Phys. 94, 3675-3691 (2003).

T. Asano, T. Tojyo, T. Mizuno, M. Takeya, S. Ikeda, K. Shibuya, T. Hino, S. Uchida, M. Ikeda, "100-mW kink-free blue-violet laser diodes with low aspect ratio," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 135-140 (2003).

2002 (5)

D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, S. L. Rudaz, "Illumination with solid state lighting technology," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 8, 310-320 (2002).

M. D. Craven, S. H. Lim, F. Wu, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, "Structural characterization of nonpolar {112¯0}a -plane GaN thin films grown on {11¯02}r-plane sapphire," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 469-471 (2002).

F. Renner, P. Kiesel, G. H. Dõhler, M. Kneissl, C. G. Van de Walle, N. M. Johnson, "Quantitative analysis of the polarization fields and absorption changes in InGaN/GaN quantum wells with electroabsorption spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 490-492 (2002).

V. Fiorentini, F. Bernardini, O. Ambacher, "Evidence for nonlinear macroscopic polarization in III–V nitride alloy heterostructures ," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 1204-1206 (2002).

J. Li, T. N. Oder, M. L. Nakarmi, J. Y. Lin, H. X. Jiang, "Optical and electrical properties of Mg-doped p-type AlxGa1-xN," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 1210-1212 (2002).

2001 (1)

I. Vurgaftman, J. R. Meyer, L. R. Ram-Mohan, "Band parameters for III–V compound semiconductors and their alloys," J. Appl. Phys. 89, 5815-5875 (2001).

2000 (6)

O. Ambacher, B. Foutz, J. Smart, J. R. Shealy, N. G. Weimann, K. Chu, M. Murphy, A. J. Sierakowski, W. J. Schaff, L. F. Eastman, R. Dimitrov, A. Mitchell, M. Stutzmann, "Two dimensional electron gases induced by spontaneous and piezoelectric polarization in undoped and doped AlGaN/GaN heterostructures," J. Appl. Phys. 87, 334-344 (2000).

J. P. Ibbetson, P. T. Fini, K. D. Ness, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, "Polarization effects, surface states, and the source of electrons in AlGaN/GaN heterostructure field effect transistors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 250-252 (2000).

B. Romero, J. Arias, I. Esquivias, M. Cada, "Simple model for calculating the ratio of the carrier capture and escape times in quantum-well lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1504-1506 (2000).

P. Waltereit, O. Brandt, A. Trampert, H. T. Grahn, J. Menniger, M. Ramsteiner, M. Reiche, K. H. Ploog, "Nitride semiconductors free of electrostatic fields for efficient white light-emitting diodes ," Nature 406, 865-868 (2000).

M. A. Khan, J. W. Yang, G. Simin, R. Gaska, M. S. Shur, H.-C. Loye, G. Tamulaitis, A. Zukauskas, D. J. Smith, D. Chandrasekhar, R. Bicknell-Tassius, "Lattice and energy band engineering in AlInGaN/GaN heterostructures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1161-1163 (2000).

J. Zhang, J. Yang, G. Simin, M. Shatalov, M. A. Khan, M. S. Shur, R. Gaska, "Enhanced luminescence in InGaN multiple quantum wells with quaternary AlInGaN barriers ," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 2668-2670 (2000).

1999 (2)

L. H. Peng, C. W. Chuang, L. H. Lou, "Piezoelectric effects in the optical properties of strained InGaN quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 795-797 (1999).

J. Minch, S. H. Park, T. Keating, S. L. Chuang, "Theory and experiment of In1-xGaxAsyP1-yand In1-x-yGaxAlyAs long-wavelength strained quantum-well lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 771-782 (1999).

1998 (4)

K. Domen, R. Soejima, A. Kuramata, T. Tanahashi, "Electron overflow to the AlGaN p-cladding layer in InGaN/GaN/AlGaN MQW laser diodes ," MRS Internet J. Nitride Semicond. Res. 3, 2-7 (1998).

Y. C. Yeo, T. C. Chong, M.-F. Li, W. J. Fan, "Electronic band structures and optical gain spectra of strained wurtzite GaN-AlxGa1-xN quantum-well lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 526-534 (1998).

Y. C. Yeo, T. C. Chong, M. F. Li, W. J. Fan, "Analysis of optical gain and threshold current density of wurtzite InGaN/GaN/AlGaN quantum well lasers," J. Appl. Phys. 84, 1813-1819 (1998).

S. F. Chichibu, A. C. Abare, M. S. Minsky, S. Keller, S. B. Fleischer, J. E. Bowers, E. Hu, U. K. Mishra, L. A. Coldren, S. P. DenBaars, T. Sota, "Effective band gap inhomogeneity and piezoelectric field in InGaN/GaN multiquantum well structures ," Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2006-2008 (1998).

1996 (5)

T. Peng, J. Piprek, "Refractive index of AlGaInN alloys," Electron. Lett. 32, 2285-2286 (1996).

S.-H. Wei, A. Zunger, "Valence band splittings and band offsets of AlN, GaN, and InN," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 2719-2721 (1996).

S. L. Chuang, C. S. Chang, "k · p method for strained wurtzite semiconductors ," Phys. Rev. B, Condens. Matter 54, 2491-2504 (1996).

S. L. Chuang, C. S. Chang, "Effective-mass Hamiltonian for strained wurtzite GaN and analytical solutions," Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1657-1659 (1996).

S. L. Chuang, "Optical gain of strained wurtzite GaN quantum-well lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 1791-1800 (1996).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (6)

M. D. Craven, S. H. Lim, F. Wu, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, "Structural characterization of nonpolar {112¯0}a -plane GaN thin films grown on {11¯02}r-plane sapphire," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 469-471 (2002).

J. Zhang, J. Yang, G. Simin, M. Shatalov, M. A. Khan, M. S. Shur, R. Gaska, "Enhanced luminescence in InGaN multiple quantum wells with quaternary AlInGaN barriers ," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 2668-2670 (2000).

S. L. Chuang, C. S. Chang, "Effective-mass Hamiltonian for strained wurtzite GaN and analytical solutions," Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1657-1659 (1996).

B. Romero, J. Arias, I. Esquivias, M. Cada, "Simple model for calculating the ratio of the carrier capture and escape times in quantum-well lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1504-1506 (2000).

V. Fiorentini, F. Bernardini, O. Ambacher, "Evidence for nonlinear macroscopic polarization in III–V nitride alloy heterostructures ," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 1204-1206 (2002).

S. F. Chichibu, A. C. Abare, M. S. Minsky, S. Keller, S. B. Fleischer, J. E. Bowers, E. Hu, U. K. Mishra, L. A. Coldren, S. P. DenBaars, T. Sota, "Effective band gap inhomogeneity and piezoelectric field in InGaN/GaN multiquantum well structures ," Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2006-2008 (1998).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

M. A. Khan, J. W. Yang, G. Simin, R. Gaska, M. S. Shur, H.-C. Loye, G. Tamulaitis, A. Zukauskas, D. J. Smith, D. Chandrasekhar, R. Bicknell-Tassius, "Lattice and energy band engineering in AlInGaN/GaN heterostructures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1161-1163 (2000).

L. H. Peng, C. W. Chuang, L. H. Lou, "Piezoelectric effects in the optical properties of strained InGaN quantum wells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 795-797 (1999).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (11)

G. Franssen, T. Suski, P. Perlin, R. Bohdan, A. Bercha, W. Trzeciakowski, I. Makarowa, P. Prystawko, M. Leszczyñski, I. Grzegory, S. Porowski, S. Kokenyesi, "Fully-screened polarization-induced electric fields in blue/violet InGaN/GaN light-emitting devices grown on bulk GaN," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 041109 (2005).

X. Ni, Ü. Özgür, A. A. Baski, H. Morkoç, L. Zhou, D. J. Smith, C. A. Tran, "Epitaxial lateral overgrowth of {112¯2} semipolar GaN on {11¯00} m-plane sapphire by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 182 109 (2007).

R. Sharma, P. M. Pattison, H. Masui, R. M. Farrell, T. J. Baker, B. A. Haskell, F. Wu, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, S. Nakamura, "Demonstration of a semipolar {101¯3¯} InGaN/GaN green light emitting diode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 231 110 (2005).

H. Yu, L. K. Lee, T. Jung, P. C. Ku, "Photoluminescence study of semipolar {101¯1} InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells grown by selective area epitaxy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 141 906 (2007).

T. Paskova, R. Kroeger, S. Figge, D. Hommel, V. Darakchieva, B. Monemar, E. Preble, A. Hanser, N. M. Williams, M. Tutor, "High-quality bulk a-plane GaN sliced from boules in comparison to heteroepitaxially grown thick films on r-plane sapphire," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 051 914 (2006).

A. Chakraborty, K. C. Kim, F. Wu, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, U. K. Mishra, "Defect reduction in nonpolar a-plane GaN films using in situ SiNx nanomask," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 041903 (2006).

J. P. Ibbetson, P. T. Fini, K. D. Ness, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, "Polarization effects, surface states, and the source of electrons in AlGaN/GaN heterostructure field effect transistors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 250-252 (2000).

H. Zhang, E. J. Miller, E. T. Yu, C. Poblenz, J. S. Speck, "Measurement of polarization charge and conduction-band offset at InxGa1-xN/GaN heterojunction interfaces," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4644-4646 (2004).

F. Renner, P. Kiesel, G. H. Dõhler, M. Kneissl, C. G. Van de Walle, N. M. Johnson, "Quantitative analysis of the polarization fields and absorption changes in InGaN/GaN quantum wells with electroabsorption spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 490-492 (2002).

S.-H. Wei, A. Zunger, "Valence band splittings and band offsets of AlN, GaN, and InN," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 2719-2721 (1996).

J. Li, T. N. Oder, M. L. Nakarmi, J. Y. Lin, H. X. Jiang, "Optical and electrical properties of Mg-doped p-type AlxGa1-xN," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 1210-1212 (2002).

Electron. Lett. (1)

T. Peng, J. Piprek, "Refractive index of AlGaInN alloys," Electron. Lett. 32, 2285-2286 (1996).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

H. Y. Ryu, H. Ha, S. N. Lee, K. K. Choi, T. Jang, J. K. Son, J. H. Chae, S. H. Chae, H. S. Paek, Y. J. Sung, T. Sakong, H. G. Kim, K. S. Kim, Y. H. Kim, O. H. Nam, Y. J. Park, "Single-mode blue-violet laser diodes with low beam divergence and high COD level," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1001-1003 (2006).

J. Piprek, R. Farrell, S. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, "Effects of built-in polarization on InGaN-GaN vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers ," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 7-9 (2006).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

Y. C. Yeo, T. C. Chong, M.-F. Li, W. J. Fan, "Electronic band structures and optical gain spectra of strained wurtzite GaN-AlxGa1-xN quantum-well lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 526-534 (1998).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (4)

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