Abstract

Apodized linearly chirped Bragg grating (CFBG) filters have been studied with a view of determining an optimal set of grating parameters to design and fabricate linear edge filter for Bragg grating sensor demodulation. A rigorous numerical computation towards understanding the relation of all the grating parameters with filter characteristics like the linear bandwidth and slope efficiency produced some simple empirical formula for the design of edge filters of specific desired characteristics. The results are corroborated with experiments.

© 2008 IEEE

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  1. A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, "Fiber grating sensors," J. Lightw. Technol. 15, 1442-1463 (1997).
  2. B. Lee, "Review of the present status of optical fiber sensors," Opt. Fiber Technol. 9, 57-79 (2003).
  3. S. M. Melle, K. Liu, R. M. Measures, "A passive wavelength demodulation system for guided-wave Bragg grating sensors," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 516-518 (1992).
  4. A. Cusano, A. Cutolo, B. Nasser, M. Giordano, A. Calabro, "Dynamic strain measurement by fibre Bragg grating sensor," Sensors Actuators A 110, 276-281 (2004).
  5. Q. Jiang, Q. Sui, J. Wang, "Experimental and technical study of fiber Bragg grating vibration detection based on linear tilt filter method," Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Automation Logistics (2007) pp. 1295-1298.
  6. J. C. C. da Silva, C. Martellia, H. J. Kalinowskia, E. Pennera, J. Canning, N. Groothoff, "Dynamic analysis and temperature measurements of concrete cantilever beam using fibre Bragg gratings," Opt. Lasers Eng. 45, 88-92 (2007).
  7. S. Abad, F. M. Araujo, L. A. Ferreira, J. L. Santos, M. Lopez-Amo, "Interrogation of wavelength multiplexed fiber Bragg gratings using spectral filtering and amplitude-to-phase optical conversion," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 127-131 (2003).
  8. G. Hongwei, L. Hongmin, L. Bo, Z. Hao, L. Jianhua, C. Ye, Y. Shuzhong, Z. Weigang, K. Guiyun, D. Xiaoyi, "A novel fiber Bragg grating sensors multiplexing technique," Opt. Commun. 251, 361-366 (2005).
  9. G. Breglio, A. Iracea, A. Cusanob, A. Cutolob, "Chirped-pulsed frequency modulation (C-PFM) for fiber Bragg grating sensors multiplexing," Opt. Fiber Technol. 12, 71-86 (2006).
  10. Q. Wang, G. Farrell, T. Freir, "Resolution investigation of a ratiometric wavelength measurement system," App. Opt. 46, 6362-6367 (2007).
  11. A. B. L. Ribeiro, L. A. Ferreira, M. Tsvekov, J. L. Santos, "All-fiber interrogation technique for fiber Bragg sensors using a biconical fiber filter," Electron. Lett. 32, 382-383 (1996).
  12. Q. Wang, G. Rajan, G. Farrell, P. Wang, Y. Semenova, T. Freir, "Macrobending fibre loss filter, ratiometric wavelength measurement and application," Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 3082-3088 (2007).
  13. Q. Wang, G. Farrell, "Multimode-fiber-based edge filter for optical wavelength measurement application and its design," Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 48, 900-902 (2006).
  14. A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, T. Tsai, "Fiber optic Bragg grating strain sensor with direct reflectometric interrogation," Proc. 11th Int. Conf. Optical Fiber Sensor (1996) pp. 634-637.
  15. Y. Liu, L. Zhang, I. Bennion, "Fabricating fibre edge filters with arbitrary spectral response based on titled chirped grating structures," Meas. Sci. Technol. 10, 1-3 (1999).
  16. R. Huang, Y. Zhou, H. Cai, R. Qu, Z. Fang, "A fiber Bragg grating with triangular spectrum as wavelength readout in sensor system," Opt. Commun. 229, 197-201 (2004).
  17. S. Baskar, P. N. Suganthan, N. Q. Ngo, A. Alphones, R. T. Zheng, "Design of triangular FBG filter for sensor applications using covariance matrix adapted evolution algorithm," Opt. Commun. 260, 716-722 (2006).
  18. J. C. C. Carvalho, M. J. Sousa, C. S. Sales, JuniorJ. C. W. A. Costa, C. R. L. Francês, M. E. V. Segatto, "A new acceleration technique for the design of fibre gratings," Opt. Exp. 14, 10715-10725 (2006).
  19. R. W. Fallon, L. Zhang, L. A. Everall, J. A. R. Williams, I. Bennion, "All-fibre optical sensing system: Bragg grating sensor interrogated by a long-period grating," Meas. Sci. Technol. 9, 1969-1973 (1998).
  20. O. Schmidt, P. Kiesel, S. Motha, N. M. Johnson, "Resolving picometer wavelength shift in optical sensing," App. Phys. B 86, 593-600 (2007).
  21. T. Erdogan, "Fiber grating spectra," J. Lightw. Technol. 15, 1277-1294 (1997).
  22. P. S. Cross, H. Kogelnik, "Sidelobe suppression in corrugated waveguide filters," Opt. Lett. 55, 43-45 (1977).

2007 (4)

J. C. C. da Silva, C. Martellia, H. J. Kalinowskia, E. Pennera, J. Canning, N. Groothoff, "Dynamic analysis and temperature measurements of concrete cantilever beam using fibre Bragg gratings," Opt. Lasers Eng. 45, 88-92 (2007).

Q. Wang, G. Farrell, T. Freir, "Resolution investigation of a ratiometric wavelength measurement system," App. Opt. 46, 6362-6367 (2007).

Q. Wang, G. Rajan, G. Farrell, P. Wang, Y. Semenova, T. Freir, "Macrobending fibre loss filter, ratiometric wavelength measurement and application," Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 3082-3088 (2007).

O. Schmidt, P. Kiesel, S. Motha, N. M. Johnson, "Resolving picometer wavelength shift in optical sensing," App. Phys. B 86, 593-600 (2007).

2006 (4)

S. Baskar, P. N. Suganthan, N. Q. Ngo, A. Alphones, R. T. Zheng, "Design of triangular FBG filter for sensor applications using covariance matrix adapted evolution algorithm," Opt. Commun. 260, 716-722 (2006).

J. C. C. Carvalho, M. J. Sousa, C. S. Sales, JuniorJ. C. W. A. Costa, C. R. L. Francês, M. E. V. Segatto, "A new acceleration technique for the design of fibre gratings," Opt. Exp. 14, 10715-10725 (2006).

Q. Wang, G. Farrell, "Multimode-fiber-based edge filter for optical wavelength measurement application and its design," Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 48, 900-902 (2006).

G. Breglio, A. Iracea, A. Cusanob, A. Cutolob, "Chirped-pulsed frequency modulation (C-PFM) for fiber Bragg grating sensors multiplexing," Opt. Fiber Technol. 12, 71-86 (2006).

2005 (1)

G. Hongwei, L. Hongmin, L. Bo, Z. Hao, L. Jianhua, C. Ye, Y. Shuzhong, Z. Weigang, K. Guiyun, D. Xiaoyi, "A novel fiber Bragg grating sensors multiplexing technique," Opt. Commun. 251, 361-366 (2005).

2004 (2)

A. Cusano, A. Cutolo, B. Nasser, M. Giordano, A. Calabro, "Dynamic strain measurement by fibre Bragg grating sensor," Sensors Actuators A 110, 276-281 (2004).

R. Huang, Y. Zhou, H. Cai, R. Qu, Z. Fang, "A fiber Bragg grating with triangular spectrum as wavelength readout in sensor system," Opt. Commun. 229, 197-201 (2004).

2003 (2)

B. Lee, "Review of the present status of optical fiber sensors," Opt. Fiber Technol. 9, 57-79 (2003).

S. Abad, F. M. Araujo, L. A. Ferreira, J. L. Santos, M. Lopez-Amo, "Interrogation of wavelength multiplexed fiber Bragg gratings using spectral filtering and amplitude-to-phase optical conversion," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 127-131 (2003).

1999 (1)

Y. Liu, L. Zhang, I. Bennion, "Fabricating fibre edge filters with arbitrary spectral response based on titled chirped grating structures," Meas. Sci. Technol. 10, 1-3 (1999).

1998 (1)

R. W. Fallon, L. Zhang, L. A. Everall, J. A. R. Williams, I. Bennion, "All-fibre optical sensing system: Bragg grating sensor interrogated by a long-period grating," Meas. Sci. Technol. 9, 1969-1973 (1998).

1997 (2)

T. Erdogan, "Fiber grating spectra," J. Lightw. Technol. 15, 1277-1294 (1997).

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, "Fiber grating sensors," J. Lightw. Technol. 15, 1442-1463 (1997).

1996 (1)

A. B. L. Ribeiro, L. A. Ferreira, M. Tsvekov, J. L. Santos, "All-fiber interrogation technique for fiber Bragg sensors using a biconical fiber filter," Electron. Lett. 32, 382-383 (1996).

1992 (1)

S. M. Melle, K. Liu, R. M. Measures, "A passive wavelength demodulation system for guided-wave Bragg grating sensors," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 516-518 (1992).

1977 (1)

P. S. Cross, H. Kogelnik, "Sidelobe suppression in corrugated waveguide filters," Opt. Lett. 55, 43-45 (1977).

App. Opt. (1)

Q. Wang, G. Farrell, T. Freir, "Resolution investigation of a ratiometric wavelength measurement system," App. Opt. 46, 6362-6367 (2007).

App. Phys. B (1)

O. Schmidt, P. Kiesel, S. Motha, N. M. Johnson, "Resolving picometer wavelength shift in optical sensing," App. Phys. B 86, 593-600 (2007).

Electron. Lett. (1)

A. B. L. Ribeiro, L. A. Ferreira, M. Tsvekov, J. L. Santos, "All-fiber interrogation technique for fiber Bragg sensors using a biconical fiber filter," Electron. Lett. 32, 382-383 (1996).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

S. M. Melle, K. Liu, R. M. Measures, "A passive wavelength demodulation system for guided-wave Bragg grating sensors," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 516-518 (1992).

J. Lightw. Technol. (3)

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, "Fiber grating sensors," J. Lightw. Technol. 15, 1442-1463 (1997).

S. Abad, F. M. Araujo, L. A. Ferreira, J. L. Santos, M. Lopez-Amo, "Interrogation of wavelength multiplexed fiber Bragg gratings using spectral filtering and amplitude-to-phase optical conversion," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 127-131 (2003).

T. Erdogan, "Fiber grating spectra," J. Lightw. Technol. 15, 1277-1294 (1997).

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

Q. Wang, G. Rajan, G. Farrell, P. Wang, Y. Semenova, T. Freir, "Macrobending fibre loss filter, ratiometric wavelength measurement and application," Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 3082-3088 (2007).

Meas. Sci. Technol. (2)

Y. Liu, L. Zhang, I. Bennion, "Fabricating fibre edge filters with arbitrary spectral response based on titled chirped grating structures," Meas. Sci. Technol. 10, 1-3 (1999).

R. W. Fallon, L. Zhang, L. A. Everall, J. A. R. Williams, I. Bennion, "All-fibre optical sensing system: Bragg grating sensor interrogated by a long-period grating," Meas. Sci. Technol. 9, 1969-1973 (1998).

Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. (1)

Q. Wang, G. Farrell, "Multimode-fiber-based edge filter for optical wavelength measurement application and its design," Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 48, 900-902 (2006).

Opt. Commun. (1)

R. Huang, Y. Zhou, H. Cai, R. Qu, Z. Fang, "A fiber Bragg grating with triangular spectrum as wavelength readout in sensor system," Opt. Commun. 229, 197-201 (2004).

Opt. Fiber Technol. (1)

G. Breglio, A. Iracea, A. Cusanob, A. Cutolob, "Chirped-pulsed frequency modulation (C-PFM) for fiber Bragg grating sensors multiplexing," Opt. Fiber Technol. 12, 71-86 (2006).

Opt. Commun. (2)

G. Hongwei, L. Hongmin, L. Bo, Z. Hao, L. Jianhua, C. Ye, Y. Shuzhong, Z. Weigang, K. Guiyun, D. Xiaoyi, "A novel fiber Bragg grating sensors multiplexing technique," Opt. Commun. 251, 361-366 (2005).

S. Baskar, P. N. Suganthan, N. Q. Ngo, A. Alphones, R. T. Zheng, "Design of triangular FBG filter for sensor applications using covariance matrix adapted evolution algorithm," Opt. Commun. 260, 716-722 (2006).

Opt. Exp. (1)

J. C. C. Carvalho, M. J. Sousa, C. S. Sales, JuniorJ. C. W. A. Costa, C. R. L. Francês, M. E. V. Segatto, "A new acceleration technique for the design of fibre gratings," Opt. Exp. 14, 10715-10725 (2006).

Opt. Fiber Technol. (1)

B. Lee, "Review of the present status of optical fiber sensors," Opt. Fiber Technol. 9, 57-79 (2003).

Opt. Lasers Eng. (1)

J. C. C. da Silva, C. Martellia, H. J. Kalinowskia, E. Pennera, J. Canning, N. Groothoff, "Dynamic analysis and temperature measurements of concrete cantilever beam using fibre Bragg gratings," Opt. Lasers Eng. 45, 88-92 (2007).

Opt. Lett. (1)

P. S. Cross, H. Kogelnik, "Sidelobe suppression in corrugated waveguide filters," Opt. Lett. 55, 43-45 (1977).

Sensors Actuators A (1)

A. Cusano, A. Cutolo, B. Nasser, M. Giordano, A. Calabro, "Dynamic strain measurement by fibre Bragg grating sensor," Sensors Actuators A 110, 276-281 (2004).

Other (2)

Q. Jiang, Q. Sui, J. Wang, "Experimental and technical study of fiber Bragg grating vibration detection based on linear tilt filter method," Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Automation Logistics (2007) pp. 1295-1298.

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, T. Tsai, "Fiber optic Bragg grating strain sensor with direct reflectometric interrogation," Proc. 11th Int. Conf. Optical Fiber Sensor (1996) pp. 634-637.

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