Abstract

The characteristics of zero-biased InGaAs p-i-n photodiodes were studied for use as optical transducers in an in situ phased array radar calibrator. Radio frequency (RF) operation is especially important for the intended application in which the zero-biased photodiodes drive patch antennas embedded in a radome. The photodiodes act as sources for real-time calibration of the phase and amplitude of each array element and will operate with only optical input from a modulated optical fiber link. Unfortunately, little is known of the RF performance of photodiodes operated without voltage bias. In this paper, both the dc and RF performance of a particular photodiode were studied to determine the optimum operating conditions and to understand the type and severity of any limitations.

© 2008 IEEE

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2006

V. J. Urick, M. S. Rogge, F. Bucholtz, K. J. Williams, "The performance of analog photonic links employing highly compressed erbium-doped fiber amplifiers," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 54, 3141-3145 (2006).

2005

M. Puranen, P. Karha, P. Eskelinen, "Fiber-optic radar calibration," IEEE Aerosp. Electron. Syst. Mag. 20, 30-33 (2005).

2000

T. C. Banwell, A. Jayakumar, "Exact analytical solution for current flow through diode with series resistance," Electron. Lett. 36, 291-292 (2000).

1996

K. J. Williams, R. D. Esman, M. Dagenais, "Nonlinearities in p-i-n microwave photodetectors," J. Lightw. Technol. 14, 84-96 (1996).

R. Corless, G. Gonnet, D. Hare, D. Jeffrey, D. Knuth, "On the LambertW function," Adv. Computat. Math. 5, 329-359 (1996).

1994

K. J. Williams, R. D. Esman, M. Dagenais, "Effects of high space-charge fields on the response of microwave photodetectors," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 639-641 (1994).

M. M. Prcic, "Flyable fiber-optic radar target generator," IEEE Aerosp. Electron. Syst. Mag. 9, 17-20 (1994).

1993

D. Wake, N. G. Walker, I. C. Smith, "Zero-bias edge-coupled InGaAs photodiodes in millimetre-wave radio-fibre systems," Electron. Lett. 29, 1879-1881 (1993).

1992

K. J. Williams, R. D. Esman, "Observation of photodetector nonlinearities," Electron. Lett. 28, 731-733 (1992).

1990

R. D. Esman, K. J. Williams, "Measurement of harmonic distortion in microwave photodetectors," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 502-504 (1990).

Adv. Computat. Math.

R. Corless, G. Gonnet, D. Hare, D. Jeffrey, D. Knuth, "On the LambertW function," Adv. Computat. Math. 5, 329-359 (1996).

Electron. Lett.

T. C. Banwell, A. Jayakumar, "Exact analytical solution for current flow through diode with series resistance," Electron. Lett. 36, 291-292 (2000).

Electron. Lett.

K. J. Williams, R. D. Esman, "Observation of photodetector nonlinearities," Electron. Lett. 28, 731-733 (1992).

D. Wake, N. G. Walker, I. C. Smith, "Zero-bias edge-coupled InGaAs photodiodes in millimetre-wave radio-fibre systems," Electron. Lett. 29, 1879-1881 (1993).

IEEE Aerosp. Electron. Syst. Mag.

M. Puranen, P. Karha, P. Eskelinen, "Fiber-optic radar calibration," IEEE Aerosp. Electron. Syst. Mag. 20, 30-33 (2005).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

K. J. Williams, R. D. Esman, M. Dagenais, "Effects of high space-charge fields on the response of microwave photodetectors," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 639-641 (1994).

IEEE Aerosp. Electron. Syst. Mag.

M. M. Prcic, "Flyable fiber-optic radar target generator," IEEE Aerosp. Electron. Syst. Mag. 9, 17-20 (1994).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

R. D. Esman, K. J. Williams, "Measurement of harmonic distortion in microwave photodetectors," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 502-504 (1990).

IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech.

V. J. Urick, M. S. Rogge, F. Bucholtz, K. J. Williams, "The performance of analog photonic links employing highly compressed erbium-doped fiber amplifiers," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 54, 3141-3145 (2006).

J. Lightw. Technol.

K. J. Williams, R. D. Esman, M. Dagenais, "Nonlinearities in p-i-n microwave photodetectors," J. Lightw. Technol. 14, 84-96 (1996).

Other

M. G. Parent, E. G. Paek, F. Bucholtz, C. S. McDermitt, P. Knapp, "Phased-array calibration using radome embedded optical transducers," Antenna Appl. Symp. Robert Allerton Park, MonticelloIL (2005).

J. I. Pankove, Optical Processes in Semiconductors (Dover, 1971).

A. C. Newell, "Current state-of-the-art in near-field antenna measurements," Antennas Propag. Soc. Int. Symp. BostonMA (2001).

D. P. Woollen, J. M. Snow, A. R. Tillerson, W. Slowey, G Leaf, "Low-cost portable near-field antenna measurement system," Proc. Antenna Appl. Symp. (1998) pp. 310-314.

G. E. McAdams, R. Romanchuk, (1999)$14^{\prime}\times 14^{\prime}$ Portable Planar Near-Field Scanner System (PPNFSS) for the Aegis Array http://www.nearfield.com/amta/AMTA99_1_gma-rr.htm.

E. G. Paek, M. G. Parent, J. Y. Choe, "Photonic in-situ calibration of a phased array antenna using planar lightwave circuit," Proc. Int. Topical Meeting on Microwave Photon. (MWP 2005) (2005) pp. 351-354.

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