Abstract

We propose and experimentally demonstrate the use of an incoherent spectrally sliced amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) source as the pump for broadband stimulated Brillouin scattering-based slow light. Both 2.5-Gb/s on-off-keyed and differential-phase-shift-keyed signals are continuously delayed by as much as 170 ps, with less than 4-dB power penalty at $10^{-9}$ bit error rate. A 2-GHz and a 4-GHz spectrally sliced pump are compared, emphasizing the need of optimizing the slow-light spectral-width according to the signal bandwidth. Furthermore, independent and simultaneous delay on multiple data channels with different modulation formats within a single slow-light medium is proposed and experimentally demonstrated by using a periodically spectrally sliced ASE source. Our approach might be useful in future heterogeneous multiformat, multibit-rate, and multichannel fiber-optic communication systems and networks.

© 2008 IEEE

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  1. A. E. Willner, B. Zhang, L. Zhang, L.-S. Yan, I. Fazal, "Optical signal processing using tunable delay elements based on slow light," J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 14, 691-705 (2008) invited paper.
  2. S. A. Hamilton, B. S. Robinson, T. E. Murphy, S. J. Savage, E. P. Ippen, "100 Gb/s optical time-division multiplexed networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 20, 2086-2100 (2002).
  3. C. R. Doerr, S. Chandrasekhar, P. J. Winzer, A. R. Chraplyvy, A. H. Gnauck, L. W. Stulz, R. Pafchek, E. Burrows, "Simple multichannel optical equalizer mitigating intersymbol interference for 40-Gb/s nonreturn-to-zero signals," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 249-256 (2004).
  4. G. Lenz, B. J. Eggleton, C. K. Madsen, R. E. Slusher, "Optical delay lines based on optical filters," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 525-532 (2001).
  5. D. K. Hunter, M. C. Chia, I. Andonovic, "Buffering in optical packet switches," J. Lightwave Technol. 16, 2081-2094 (1998).
  6. L.-S. Yan, L. Lin, A. Belisle, S. Wey, X. S. Yao, "Programmable optical delay generator with uniform output and double-delay capability," J. Opt. Netw. 6, 13-18 (2007).
  7. R. W. Boyd, D. J. Gauthier, Progress in Optics (Elsevier, 2002) pp. 497-530.
  8. C. J. Chang-Hasnain, P. C. Ku, J. Kim, S. L. Chuang, "Variable optical buffer using slow light in semiconductor nanostructures," Proc. IEEE 91, 1884-1897 (2003).
  9. M. S. Bigelow, N. N. Lepeshkin, R. W. Boyd, "Observation of ultraslow light propagation in a ruby crystal at room temperature," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 113903-1-113903-4 (2003).
  10. K. Y. Song, M. G. Herráez, L. Thévenaz, "Observation of pulse delaying and advancement in optical fibers using stimulated Brillouin scattering," Opt. Exp. 13, 82-88 (2005).
  11. Y. Okawachi, M. S. Bigelow, J. E. Sharping, Z. Zhu, A. Schweinsberg, D. J. Gauthier, R. W. Boyd, A. L. Gaeta, "Tunable all-optical delays via brillouin slow light in an optical fiber," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 153902-153905 (2005).
  12. J. E. Sharping, Y. Okawachi, A. L. Gaeta, "Wide bandwidth slow light using a Raman fiber amplifier," Opt. Exp. 13, 6092-6098 (2005).
  13. D. Dahan, G. Eisenstein, "Tunable all optical delay via slow and fast light propagation in a Raman assisted fiber optical parametric amplifier: A route to all optical buffering," Opt. Exp. 13, 6234-6249 (2005).
  14. A. Melloni, F. Morichetti, M. Martinelli, "Linear and nonlinear pulse propagation in coupled resonator slow-wave optical structures," Opt. Quantum Electron. 35, 365-379 (2003).
  15. M. F. Yanik, S. Fan, "Stopping light all optically," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 083901-1-083901-4 (2004).
  16. M. Povinelli, S. Johnson, J. Joannopoulos, "Slow-light, band-edge waveguides for tunable time delays," Opt. Exp. 13, 7145-7159 (2005).
  17. Y. A. Vlasov, M. O'Boyle, H. F. Hamann, S. J. McNab, "Active control of slow light on a chip with photonic crystal waveguides," Nature 438, 65-69 (2005).
  18. X. Zhao, P. Palinginis, B. Pesala, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, P. Hemmer, "Tunable ultraslow light in vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser amplifier," Opt. Exp. 13, 7899-7904 (2005).
  19. J. T. Mok, C. M. de Sterke, I. C. M. Littler, B. J. Eggleton, "Dispersionless slow light using gap solitons," Nature Physics 2, 775-780 (2006).
  20. M. G. Herráez, K. Y. Song, L. Thévenaz, "Arbitrary-bandwidth Brillouin slow light in optical fibers," Opt. Express 14, 1395-1400 (2006).
  21. Z. Zhu, A. M. C. Dawes, D. J. Gauthier, L. Zhang, A. E. Willner, "12-GHz-bandwidth SBS slow light in optical fibers," J. Lightwave Technol. 25, 201-206 (2007).
  22. K. Y. Song, K. Hotate, "25 GHz bandwidth Brillouin slow light in optical fibers," Opt. Lett. 32, 217-219 (2007).
  23. B. Zhang, L. Yan, I. Fazal, L. Zhang, A. E. Willner, Z. Zhu, D. J. Gauthier, "Slow light on Gbit/s differential-phase-shift-keying signals," Opt. Exp. 15, 1878-1883 (2007).
  24. L. Yi, L. Zhan, W. Hu, Y. Xia, "Delay of broadband signals using slow light in stimulated brillouin scattering with phase-modulated pump," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 619-621 (2007).
  25. B. Zhang, L.-S. Yan, J.-Y. Yang, I. Fazal, A. E. Willner, "A single slow-light element for independent delay control and synchronization on multiple Gbit/s data channels," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1081-1083 (2007).
  26. A. H. Gnauck, P. J. Winzer, "Optical phase-shift-keyed transmission," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 115-130 (2005).
  27. H. Kim, S. Kim, S. Hwang, Y. Oh, "Impact of dispersion, PMD, and PDL on the performance of spectrum-sliced incoherent light sources using gain-saturated semiconductor optical amplifiers," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 775-785 (2006).
  28. B. Zhang, L. Zhang, L.-S. Yan, I. Fazal, J. -Y. Yang, A. E. Willner, "Continuously-tunable, bit-rate variable OTDM using broadband SBS slow-light delay line," Opt. Exp. 15, 8317-8322 (2007).
  29. M. Vasilyev, T. I. Lakoba, "All-optical multichannel 2R regeneration in a fiber-based device," Opt. Lett. 30, 1458-1460 (2005).
  30. P. K. A. Wai, L. Xu, L. F. K. Lui, L. Y. Chan, C. C. Lee, H. Y. Tam, M. S. Demokan, "All-optical add-drop node for optical packet-switched networks," Opt. Lett. 30, 1515-1517 (2005).
  31. B. Zhang, L.-S. Yan, L. Zhang, S. Nuccio, L. Christen, T. Wu, A. E. Willner, "Spectrally-efficient slow light using multi-level phase- modulated formats," Opt. Lett. 33, (2008).
  32. A. Zadok, A. Eyal, M. Tur, "Extended delay of broadband signals in stimulated Brillouin scattering slow light using synthesized pump chirp," Opt. Exp. 14, 8498-8505 (2006).

2008

B. Zhang, L.-S. Yan, L. Zhang, S. Nuccio, L. Christen, T. Wu, A. E. Willner, "Spectrally-efficient slow light using multi-level phase- modulated formats," Opt. Lett. 33, (2008).

A. E. Willner, B. Zhang, L. Zhang, L.-S. Yan, I. Fazal, "Optical signal processing using tunable delay elements based on slow light," J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 14, 691-705 (2008) invited paper.

2007

B. Zhang, L. Zhang, L.-S. Yan, I. Fazal, J. -Y. Yang, A. E. Willner, "Continuously-tunable, bit-rate variable OTDM using broadband SBS slow-light delay line," Opt. Exp. 15, 8317-8322 (2007).

L.-S. Yan, L. Lin, A. Belisle, S. Wey, X. S. Yao, "Programmable optical delay generator with uniform output and double-delay capability," J. Opt. Netw. 6, 13-18 (2007).

K. Y. Song, K. Hotate, "25 GHz bandwidth Brillouin slow light in optical fibers," Opt. Lett. 32, 217-219 (2007).

Z. Zhu, A. M. C. Dawes, D. J. Gauthier, L. Zhang, A. E. Willner, "12-GHz-bandwidth SBS slow light in optical fibers," J. Lightwave Technol. 25, 201-206 (2007).

B. Zhang, L. Yan, I. Fazal, L. Zhang, A. E. Willner, Z. Zhu, D. J. Gauthier, "Slow light on Gbit/s differential-phase-shift-keying signals," Opt. Exp. 15, 1878-1883 (2007).

L. Yi, L. Zhan, W. Hu, Y. Xia, "Delay of broadband signals using slow light in stimulated brillouin scattering with phase-modulated pump," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 619-621 (2007).

B. Zhang, L.-S. Yan, J.-Y. Yang, I. Fazal, A. E. Willner, "A single slow-light element for independent delay control and synchronization on multiple Gbit/s data channels," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1081-1083 (2007).

2006

J. T. Mok, C. M. de Sterke, I. C. M. Littler, B. J. Eggleton, "Dispersionless slow light using gap solitons," Nature Physics 2, 775-780 (2006).

M. G. Herráez, K. Y. Song, L. Thévenaz, "Arbitrary-bandwidth Brillouin slow light in optical fibers," Opt. Express 14, 1395-1400 (2006).

H. Kim, S. Kim, S. Hwang, Y. Oh, "Impact of dispersion, PMD, and PDL on the performance of spectrum-sliced incoherent light sources using gain-saturated semiconductor optical amplifiers," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 775-785 (2006).

A. Zadok, A. Eyal, M. Tur, "Extended delay of broadband signals in stimulated Brillouin scattering slow light using synthesized pump chirp," Opt. Exp. 14, 8498-8505 (2006).

2005

M. Vasilyev, T. I. Lakoba, "All-optical multichannel 2R regeneration in a fiber-based device," Opt. Lett. 30, 1458-1460 (2005).

P. K. A. Wai, L. Xu, L. F. K. Lui, L. Y. Chan, C. C. Lee, H. Y. Tam, M. S. Demokan, "All-optical add-drop node for optical packet-switched networks," Opt. Lett. 30, 1515-1517 (2005).

A. H. Gnauck, P. J. Winzer, "Optical phase-shift-keyed transmission," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 115-130 (2005).

K. Y. Song, M. G. Herráez, L. Thévenaz, "Observation of pulse delaying and advancement in optical fibers using stimulated Brillouin scattering," Opt. Exp. 13, 82-88 (2005).

Y. Okawachi, M. S. Bigelow, J. E. Sharping, Z. Zhu, A. Schweinsberg, D. J. Gauthier, R. W. Boyd, A. L. Gaeta, "Tunable all-optical delays via brillouin slow light in an optical fiber," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 153902-153905 (2005).

J. E. Sharping, Y. Okawachi, A. L. Gaeta, "Wide bandwidth slow light using a Raman fiber amplifier," Opt. Exp. 13, 6092-6098 (2005).

D. Dahan, G. Eisenstein, "Tunable all optical delay via slow and fast light propagation in a Raman assisted fiber optical parametric amplifier: A route to all optical buffering," Opt. Exp. 13, 6234-6249 (2005).

M. Povinelli, S. Johnson, J. Joannopoulos, "Slow-light, band-edge waveguides for tunable time delays," Opt. Exp. 13, 7145-7159 (2005).

Y. A. Vlasov, M. O'Boyle, H. F. Hamann, S. J. McNab, "Active control of slow light on a chip with photonic crystal waveguides," Nature 438, 65-69 (2005).

X. Zhao, P. Palinginis, B. Pesala, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, P. Hemmer, "Tunable ultraslow light in vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser amplifier," Opt. Exp. 13, 7899-7904 (2005).

2004

M. F. Yanik, S. Fan, "Stopping light all optically," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 083901-1-083901-4 (2004).

C. R. Doerr, S. Chandrasekhar, P. J. Winzer, A. R. Chraplyvy, A. H. Gnauck, L. W. Stulz, R. Pafchek, E. Burrows, "Simple multichannel optical equalizer mitigating intersymbol interference for 40-Gb/s nonreturn-to-zero signals," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 249-256 (2004).

2003

C. J. Chang-Hasnain, P. C. Ku, J. Kim, S. L. Chuang, "Variable optical buffer using slow light in semiconductor nanostructures," Proc. IEEE 91, 1884-1897 (2003).

M. S. Bigelow, N. N. Lepeshkin, R. W. Boyd, "Observation of ultraslow light propagation in a ruby crystal at room temperature," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 113903-1-113903-4 (2003).

A. Melloni, F. Morichetti, M. Martinelli, "Linear and nonlinear pulse propagation in coupled resonator slow-wave optical structures," Opt. Quantum Electron. 35, 365-379 (2003).

2002

S. A. Hamilton, B. S. Robinson, T. E. Murphy, S. J. Savage, E. P. Ippen, "100 Gb/s optical time-division multiplexed networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 20, 2086-2100 (2002).

2001

G. Lenz, B. J. Eggleton, C. K. Madsen, R. E. Slusher, "Optical delay lines based on optical filters," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 525-532 (2001).

1998

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

G. Lenz, B. J. Eggleton, C. K. Madsen, R. E. Slusher, "Optical delay lines based on optical filters," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 525-532 (2001).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

L. Yi, L. Zhan, W. Hu, Y. Xia, "Delay of broadband signals using slow light in stimulated brillouin scattering with phase-modulated pump," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 619-621 (2007).

B. Zhang, L.-S. Yan, J.-Y. Yang, I. Fazal, A. E. Willner, "A single slow-light element for independent delay control and synchronization on multiple Gbit/s data channels," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1081-1083 (2007).

J. Lightw. Technol.

H. Kim, S. Kim, S. Hwang, Y. Oh, "Impact of dispersion, PMD, and PDL on the performance of spectrum-sliced incoherent light sources using gain-saturated semiconductor optical amplifiers," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 775-785 (2006).

S. A. Hamilton, B. S. Robinson, T. E. Murphy, S. J. Savage, E. P. Ippen, "100 Gb/s optical time-division multiplexed networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 20, 2086-2100 (2002).

J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron.

A. E. Willner, B. Zhang, L. Zhang, L.-S. Yan, I. Fazal, "Optical signal processing using tunable delay elements based on slow light," J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 14, 691-705 (2008) invited paper.

J. Lightw. Technol.

A. H. Gnauck, P. J. Winzer, "Optical phase-shift-keyed transmission," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 115-130 (2005).

J. Lightw. Technol.

C. R. Doerr, S. Chandrasekhar, P. J. Winzer, A. R. Chraplyvy, A. H. Gnauck, L. W. Stulz, R. Pafchek, E. Burrows, "Simple multichannel optical equalizer mitigating intersymbol interference for 40-Gb/s nonreturn-to-zero signals," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 249-256 (2004).

J. Lightwave Technol.

Z. Zhu, A. M. C. Dawes, D. J. Gauthier, L. Zhang, A. E. Willner, "12-GHz-bandwidth SBS slow light in optical fibers," J. Lightwave Technol. 25, 201-206 (2007).

J. Lightwave Technol.

J. Opt. Netw.

Nature

Y. A. Vlasov, M. O'Boyle, H. F. Hamann, S. J. McNab, "Active control of slow light on a chip with photonic crystal waveguides," Nature 438, 65-69 (2005).

Nature Physics

J. T. Mok, C. M. de Sterke, I. C. M. Littler, B. J. Eggleton, "Dispersionless slow light using gap solitons," Nature Physics 2, 775-780 (2006).

Opt. Exp.

X. Zhao, P. Palinginis, B. Pesala, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, P. Hemmer, "Tunable ultraslow light in vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser amplifier," Opt. Exp. 13, 7899-7904 (2005).

Opt. Express

M. G. Herráez, K. Y. Song, L. Thévenaz, "Arbitrary-bandwidth Brillouin slow light in optical fibers," Opt. Express 14, 1395-1400 (2006).

Opt. Lett.

M. Vasilyev, T. I. Lakoba, "All-optical multichannel 2R regeneration in a fiber-based device," Opt. Lett. 30, 1458-1460 (2005).

P. K. A. Wai, L. Xu, L. F. K. Lui, L. Y. Chan, C. C. Lee, H. Y. Tam, M. S. Demokan, "All-optical add-drop node for optical packet-switched networks," Opt. Lett. 30, 1515-1517 (2005).

Opt. Exp.

A. Zadok, A. Eyal, M. Tur, "Extended delay of broadband signals in stimulated Brillouin scattering slow light using synthesized pump chirp," Opt. Exp. 14, 8498-8505 (2006).

B. Zhang, L. Zhang, L.-S. Yan, I. Fazal, J. -Y. Yang, A. E. Willner, "Continuously-tunable, bit-rate variable OTDM using broadband SBS slow-light delay line," Opt. Exp. 15, 8317-8322 (2007).

B. Zhang, L. Yan, I. Fazal, L. Zhang, A. E. Willner, Z. Zhu, D. J. Gauthier, "Slow light on Gbit/s differential-phase-shift-keying signals," Opt. Exp. 15, 1878-1883 (2007).

M. Povinelli, S. Johnson, J. Joannopoulos, "Slow-light, band-edge waveguides for tunable time delays," Opt. Exp. 13, 7145-7159 (2005).

K. Y. Song, M. G. Herráez, L. Thévenaz, "Observation of pulse delaying and advancement in optical fibers using stimulated Brillouin scattering," Opt. Exp. 13, 82-88 (2005).

J. E. Sharping, Y. Okawachi, A. L. Gaeta, "Wide bandwidth slow light using a Raman fiber amplifier," Opt. Exp. 13, 6092-6098 (2005).

D. Dahan, G. Eisenstein, "Tunable all optical delay via slow and fast light propagation in a Raman assisted fiber optical parametric amplifier: A route to all optical buffering," Opt. Exp. 13, 6234-6249 (2005).

Opt. Lett.

B. Zhang, L.-S. Yan, L. Zhang, S. Nuccio, L. Christen, T. Wu, A. E. Willner, "Spectrally-efficient slow light using multi-level phase- modulated formats," Opt. Lett. 33, (2008).

K. Y. Song, K. Hotate, "25 GHz bandwidth Brillouin slow light in optical fibers," Opt. Lett. 32, 217-219 (2007).

Opt. Quantum Electron.

A. Melloni, F. Morichetti, M. Martinelli, "Linear and nonlinear pulse propagation in coupled resonator slow-wave optical structures," Opt. Quantum Electron. 35, 365-379 (2003).

Phys. Rev. Lett.

M. F. Yanik, S. Fan, "Stopping light all optically," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 083901-1-083901-4 (2004).

Phys. Rev. Lett.

Y. Okawachi, M. S. Bigelow, J. E. Sharping, Z. Zhu, A. Schweinsberg, D. J. Gauthier, R. W. Boyd, A. L. Gaeta, "Tunable all-optical delays via brillouin slow light in an optical fiber," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 153902-153905 (2005).

M. S. Bigelow, N. N. Lepeshkin, R. W. Boyd, "Observation of ultraslow light propagation in a ruby crystal at room temperature," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 113903-1-113903-4 (2003).

Proc. IEEE

C. J. Chang-Hasnain, P. C. Ku, J. Kim, S. L. Chuang, "Variable optical buffer using slow light in semiconductor nanostructures," Proc. IEEE 91, 1884-1897 (2003).

Other

R. W. Boyd, D. J. Gauthier, Progress in Optics (Elsevier, 2002) pp. 497-530.

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