Abstract

We theoretically study the group-delay characteristics of a silicon microring resonator based on the coupled mode theory, and experimentally demonstrate error-free operations of an on-chip delay line using a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) microring resonator with a 20-$\mu{\hbox {m}}$ radius. Four signals of different modulation formats are examined at 5 Gb/s, including return-to-zero (RZ), carrier-suppressed return-to-zero (CSRZ), return-to-zero duobinary (RZ-DB), and return-to-zero alternate-mark-inversion (RZ-AMI). Bit error rate (BER) measurements show that the maximal delay times with error-free operations are 80, 95, 110, and 65 ps, respectively, corresponding to a fractional group delay of $\sim$0.4, $\sim$0.5, $\sim$0.55, and $\sim$0.35. The differences in delay and signal degradations have been investigated based on the signal spectra and pattern dependences. Although the delays are demonstrated in a single ring resonator, the analysis is applicable in slow-light resonance structures such as all-pass filters (APF) and coupled resonator optical waveguides (CROW).

© 2008 IEEE

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  1. C. J. Chang-Hasnain, P. C. Ku, J. Kim, S. L. Chuang, "Variable optical buffer using slow light in semiconductor nanostructures," Proc. IEEE 91, 1884-1897 (2003).
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  5. B. Zhang, L. S. Yan, J. Y. Yang, I. Fazal, A. E. Willner, "A single slow-light element for independent delay control and synchronization on multiple Gb/s data channels," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1081-1083 (2007).
  6. J. Scheuer, G. T. Paloczi, J. Poon, A. Yariv, "Coupled resonator optical waveguides: Toward the slowing and storage of light," Opt. Photon. News 16, 36-40 (2005).
  7. Y. Tanaka, J. Upham, T. Nagashima, T. Sugiya, T. Asano, S. Noda, "Dynamic control of the Q factor in a photonic crystal nanocavity," Nature Mater. 6, 862-865 (2007).
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  13. M. Lipson, "Guiding, modulating, and emitting light on silicon—Challenges and opportunities," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 4222-4238 (2005).
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  15. R. Soref, "The past, present and future of silicon photonics," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 12, 1678-1687 (2006).
  16. F. Xia, L. Sekaric, Y. Vlasov, "Ultracompact optical buffers on a silicon chip," Nature Photon. 1, 65-71 (2007).
  17. F. Liu, Y. Su, P. L. Voss, "Optimal operating conditions and modulation format for 160 Gb/s signals in a fiber parametric amplifier used as a slow-light delay line element," Proc. OFC AnaheimCA (2007) paper OWB5.
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  19. B. Zhang, L. Yan, I. Fazal, L. Zhang, A. E. Willner, Z. Zhu, D. J. Gauthier, "Slow light on Gbit/s differential-phase-shift-keying signals," Opt. Exp. 15, 1878-1883 (2007).
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  22. K. S. Cheng, J. Conradi, "Reduction of pulse-to-pulse interaction. using alternative RZ formats in 40-Gb/s systems," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 98-100 (2002).
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  25. C. Xie, L. Möller, R. Ryf, "Improvement of optical NRZ- and RZ-duobinary transmission systems with narrow bandwidth optical filters," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2162-2164 (2004).
  26. Y. Lu, Y. Su, "Conversions among binary optical modulation formats," Opt. Exp. 16, 3853-3858 (2008).
  27. J. E. Heebner, Nonlinear optical whispering gallery microresonators for photonics Ph.D. dissertation Inst. of Optics Univ. of RochesterRochesterNY http://www.optics.rochester.edu/workgroups/boyd/nonlinear.html.
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  30. M. F. Yanik, S. Fan, "Stopping light all optically," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 083901 (2004).
  31. F. Liu, Q. Li, Z. Zhang, M. Qiu, Y. Su, "Optically tunable delay line in silicon microring resonator based on thermal nonlinear effect," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 14, 706-712 (2008).
  32. Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, M. Lipson, "Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator," Nature 435, 325-327 (2005).
  33. T. Liang, L. Nunes, T. Sakamoto, K. Sasagawa, T. Kawanishi, M. Tsuchiya, G. Priem, D. Van Thourhout, P. Dumon, R. Baets, H. Tsang, "Ultrafast all-optical switching by cross-absorption modulation in silicon wire waveguides," Opt. Exp. 13, 7298-7303 (2005).
  34. S. Scheerlinck, J. Schrauwen, F. Van Laere, D. Taillaert, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, "Efficient, broadband and compact metal grating couplers for silicon-on-insulator waveguides," Opt. Exp. 15, 9639-9644 (2007).
  35. C. Manolatou, M. Lipson, "All-optical silicon modulators based on carrier injection by two-photon absorption," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 1433-1439 (2006).
  36. F. T. Hansen, P. B. Nielsen, T. N. Eskildsen, "Duobinary transmitter with low intersymbol interference," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 597-599 (1998).
  37. G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics (Academic, 2001).

2008 (3)

Y. Lu, Y. Su, "Conversions among binary optical modulation formats," Opt. Exp. 16, 3853-3858 (2008).

F. Liu, Q. Li, Z. Zhang, M. Qiu, Y. Su, "Optically tunable delay line in silicon microring resonator based on thermal nonlinear effect," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 14, 706-712 (2008).

B. Zhang, L. Yan, L. Zhang, S. Nuccio, L. Christen, T. Wu, A. E. Willner, "Spectrally efficient slow light using multilevel phase-modulated formats," Opt. Lett. 33, 55-57 (2008).

2007 (9)

S. Scheerlinck, J. Schrauwen, F. Van Laere, D. Taillaert, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, "Efficient, broadband and compact metal grating couplers for silicon-on-insulator waveguides," Opt. Exp. 15, 9639-9644 (2007).

B. Zhang, L. Zhang, L. S. Yan, I. Fazal, J. Y. Yang, A. E. Willner, "Continuously-tunable, bit-rate variable OTDM using broadband SBS slow-light delay line," Opt. Exp. 15, 8317-8322 (2007).

B. Zhang, L. S. Yan, J. Y. Yang, I. Fazal, A. E. Willner, "A single slow-light element for independent delay control and synchronization on multiple Gb/s data channels," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1081-1083 (2007).

Y. Tanaka, J. Upham, T. Nagashima, T. Sugiya, T. Asano, S. Noda, "Dynamic control of the Q factor in a photonic crystal nanocavity," Nature Mater. 6, 862-865 (2007).

F. Morichetti, A. Melloni, A. Breda, A. Canciamilla, C. Ferrari, M. Martinelli, "A reconfigurable architecture for continuously variable optical slow-wave delay lines," Opt. Exp. 15, 17273-17282 (2007).

B. Jalali, "Teaching silicon new tricks," Nature Photon. 1, 193-195 (2007).

F. Xia, L. Sekaric, Y. Vlasov, "Ultracompact optical buffers on a silicon chip," Nature Photon. 1, 65-71 (2007).

B. Zhang, L. Yan, I. Fazal, L. Zhang, A. E. Willner, Z. Zhu, D. J. Gauthier, "Slow light on Gbit/s differential-phase-shift-keying signals," Opt. Exp. 15, 1878-1883 (2007).

L. Zhang, T. Luo, C. Yu, W. Zhang, A. E. Willner, "Pattern dependence of data distortion in slow-light elements," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 1754-1760 (2007).

2006 (6)

P. J. Winzer, R. J. Essiambre, "Advanced optical modulation formats," Proc. IEEE 94, 952-985 (2006).

R. Soref, "The past, present and future of silicon photonics," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 12, 1678-1687 (2006).

R. Boyd, D. Gauthier, A. Gaeta, "Applications of slow-light in telecommunications," Opt. Photon. News 17, 19-23 (2006).

B. Jalali, S. Fathpour, "Silicon photonics," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 4600-4615 (2006).

C. Manolatou, M. Lipson, "All-optical silicon modulators based on carrier injection by two-photon absorption," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 1433-1439 (2006).

J. K. S. Poon, L. Zhu, G. A. D. Rose, A. Yariv, "Transmission and group delay of microring coupled-resonator optical waveguides," Opt. Lett. 31, 456-458 (2006).

2005 (4)

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, M. Lipson, "Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator," Nature 435, 325-327 (2005).

T. Liang, L. Nunes, T. Sakamoto, K. Sasagawa, T. Kawanishi, M. Tsuchiya, G. Priem, D. Van Thourhout, P. Dumon, R. Baets, H. Tsang, "Ultrafast all-optical switching by cross-absorption modulation in silicon wire waveguides," Opt. Exp. 13, 7298-7303 (2005).

J. Scheuer, G. T. Paloczi, J. Poon, A. Yariv, "Coupled resonator optical waveguides: Toward the slowing and storage of light," Opt. Photon. News 16, 36-40 (2005).

M. Lipson, "Guiding, modulating, and emitting light on silicon—Challenges and opportunities," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 4222-4238 (2005).

2004 (4)

G. T. Reed, "The optical age of silicon," Nature 427, 595-596 (2004).

C. Xie, L. Möller, R. Ryf, "Improvement of optical NRZ- and RZ-duobinary transmission systems with narrow bandwidth optical filters," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2162-2164 (2004).

M. F. Yanik, S. Fan, "Stopping light all optically," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 083901 (2004).

A. H. Gnauck, X. Liu, X. Wei, D. M. Gill, E. C. Burrows, "Comparison of modulation formats for 42.7-Gb/s single-channel transmission through 1980 km of SSMF," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 909-911 (2004).

2003 (2)

A. Agarwal, S. Banerjee, D. F. Grosz, A. P. Küng, D. N. Maywar, A. Gurevich, T. H. Wood, "Ultra-high-capacity long-haul 40-Gb/s WDM transmission with 0.8-b/s/Hz spectral efficiency by means of strong optical filtering," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 470-472 (2003).

C. J. Chang-Hasnain, P. C. Ku, J. Kim, S. L. Chuang, "Variable optical buffer using slow light in semiconductor nanostructures," Proc. IEEE 91, 1884-1897 (2003).

2002 (2)

K. S. Cheng, J. Conradi, "Reduction of pulse-to-pulse interaction. using alternative RZ formats in 40-Gb/s systems," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 98-100 (2002).

J. E. Heebner, R. W. Boyd, "‘Slow’ and ‘fast’ light in resonator coupled waveguides," J. Mod. Opt. 49, 2629-2636 (2002).

1998 (2)

F. T. Hansen, P. B. Nielsen, T. N. Eskildsen, "Duobinary transmitter with low intersymbol interference," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 597-599 (1998).

W. Zhong, R. S. Tucker, "Wavelength routing-based photonic packet buffers and their applications in photonic packet switching systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 16, 1737-1745 (1998).

1997 (1)

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, J. S. Foresi, J. P. Laine, "Microring resonator channel dropping filters," J. Lightw. Technol. 15, 99-1005 (1997).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

K. S. Cheng, J. Conradi, "Reduction of pulse-to-pulse interaction. using alternative RZ formats in 40-Gb/s systems," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 98-100 (2002).

A. H. Gnauck, X. Liu, X. Wei, D. M. Gill, E. C. Burrows, "Comparison of modulation formats for 42.7-Gb/s single-channel transmission through 1980 km of SSMF," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 909-911 (2004).

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (1)

F. Liu, Q. Li, Z. Zhang, M. Qiu, Y. Su, "Optically tunable delay line in silicon microring resonator based on thermal nonlinear effect," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 14, 706-712 (2008).

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (1)

R. Soref, "The past, present and future of silicon photonics," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 12, 1678-1687 (2006).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (4)

B. Zhang, L. S. Yan, J. Y. Yang, I. Fazal, A. E. Willner, "A single slow-light element for independent delay control and synchronization on multiple Gb/s data channels," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1081-1083 (2007).

F. T. Hansen, P. B. Nielsen, T. N. Eskildsen, "Duobinary transmitter with low intersymbol interference," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 597-599 (1998).

A. Agarwal, S. Banerjee, D. F. Grosz, A. P. Küng, D. N. Maywar, A. Gurevich, T. H. Wood, "Ultra-high-capacity long-haul 40-Gb/s WDM transmission with 0.8-b/s/Hz spectral efficiency by means of strong optical filtering," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 470-472 (2003).

C. Xie, L. Möller, R. Ryf, "Improvement of optical NRZ- and RZ-duobinary transmission systems with narrow bandwidth optical filters," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2162-2164 (2004).

J. Lightw. Technol. (2)

L. Zhang, T. Luo, C. Yu, W. Zhang, A. E. Willner, "Pattern dependence of data distortion in slow-light elements," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 1754-1760 (2007).

M. Lipson, "Guiding, modulating, and emitting light on silicon—Challenges and opportunities," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 4222-4238 (2005).

J. Lightw. Technol. (4)

B. Jalali, S. Fathpour, "Silicon photonics," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 4600-4615 (2006).

W. Zhong, R. S. Tucker, "Wavelength routing-based photonic packet buffers and their applications in photonic packet switching systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 16, 1737-1745 (1998).

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, J. S. Foresi, J. P. Laine, "Microring resonator channel dropping filters," J. Lightw. Technol. 15, 99-1005 (1997).

C. Manolatou, M. Lipson, "All-optical silicon modulators based on carrier injection by two-photon absorption," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 1433-1439 (2006).

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

J. E. Heebner, R. W. Boyd, "‘Slow’ and ‘fast’ light in resonator coupled waveguides," J. Mod. Opt. 49, 2629-2636 (2002).

Nature (2)

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, M. Lipson, "Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator," Nature 435, 325-327 (2005).

G. T. Reed, "The optical age of silicon," Nature 427, 595-596 (2004).

Nature Mater. (1)

Y. Tanaka, J. Upham, T. Nagashima, T. Sugiya, T. Asano, S. Noda, "Dynamic control of the Q factor in a photonic crystal nanocavity," Nature Mater. 6, 862-865 (2007).

Nature Photon. (2)

B. Jalali, "Teaching silicon new tricks," Nature Photon. 1, 193-195 (2007).

F. Xia, L. Sekaric, Y. Vlasov, "Ultracompact optical buffers on a silicon chip," Nature Photon. 1, 65-71 (2007).

Opt. Exp. (3)

F. Morichetti, A. Melloni, A. Breda, A. Canciamilla, C. Ferrari, M. Martinelli, "A reconfigurable architecture for continuously variable optical slow-wave delay lines," Opt. Exp. 15, 17273-17282 (2007).

S. Scheerlinck, J. Schrauwen, F. Van Laere, D. Taillaert, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, "Efficient, broadband and compact metal grating couplers for silicon-on-insulator waveguides," Opt. Exp. 15, 9639-9644 (2007).

Y. Lu, Y. Su, "Conversions among binary optical modulation formats," Opt. Exp. 16, 3853-3858 (2008).

Opt. Exp. (3)

T. Liang, L. Nunes, T. Sakamoto, K. Sasagawa, T. Kawanishi, M. Tsuchiya, G. Priem, D. Van Thourhout, P. Dumon, R. Baets, H. Tsang, "Ultrafast all-optical switching by cross-absorption modulation in silicon wire waveguides," Opt. Exp. 13, 7298-7303 (2005).

B. Zhang, L. Zhang, L. S. Yan, I. Fazal, J. Y. Yang, A. E. Willner, "Continuously-tunable, bit-rate variable OTDM using broadband SBS slow-light delay line," Opt. Exp. 15, 8317-8322 (2007).

B. Zhang, L. Yan, I. Fazal, L. Zhang, A. E. Willner, Z. Zhu, D. J. Gauthier, "Slow light on Gbit/s differential-phase-shift-keying signals," Opt. Exp. 15, 1878-1883 (2007).

Opt. Lett. (2)

Opt. Photon. News (2)

R. Boyd, D. Gauthier, A. Gaeta, "Applications of slow-light in telecommunications," Opt. Photon. News 17, 19-23 (2006).

J. Scheuer, G. T. Paloczi, J. Poon, A. Yariv, "Coupled resonator optical waveguides: Toward the slowing and storage of light," Opt. Photon. News 16, 36-40 (2005).

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

M. F. Yanik, S. Fan, "Stopping light all optically," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 083901 (2004).

Proc. IEEE (2)

C. J. Chang-Hasnain, P. C. Ku, J. Kim, S. L. Chuang, "Variable optical buffer using slow light in semiconductor nanostructures," Proc. IEEE 91, 1884-1897 (2003).

P. J. Winzer, R. J. Essiambre, "Advanced optical modulation formats," Proc. IEEE 94, 952-985 (2006).

Other (4)

F. Liu, Y. Su, P. L. Voss, "Optimal operating conditions and modulation format for 160 Gb/s signals in a fiber parametric amplifier used as a slow-light delay line element," Proc. OFC AnaheimCA (2007) paper OWB5.

J. Yang, A. O. Karalar, S. S. Djordjevic, N. K. Fontaine1, C. Yang, W. Chen, S. Chu, B. E. Little, S. J. B. Yool, "Variable slowlight buffers in all-optical packet switching routers," Proc. OFC AnaheimCA (2008) Paper OTuF2E.

J. E. Heebner, Nonlinear optical whispering gallery microresonators for photonics Ph.D. dissertation Inst. of Optics Univ. of RochesterRochesterNY http://www.optics.rochester.edu/workgroups/boyd/nonlinear.html.

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics (Academic, 2001).

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