Abstract

A theoretical analysis of slow and fast light effects in semiconductor optical amplifiers based on coherent population oscillations and including the influence of optical filtering is presented. Optical filtering is shown to enable a significant increase of the controllable phase shift experienced by an intensity modulated signal traversing the waveguide. The theoretical model accounts for recent experimental results and is used to analyze and interpret the dependence on material and device parameters. Furthermore analytical approximations are derived using a perturbation approach and are used to gain a better physical understanding of the underlying phenomena.

© 2008 IEEE

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  1. C. Liu, Z. Dutton, C. H. Behroozi, L. V. Hau, "Observation of coherent optical information storage in an atomic medium using halted light pulses," Nature 409, 490-49 (2001).
  2. C. Chang-Hasnain, P.-C. Ku, J. Kim, S.-L. Chuang, "Variable optical buffer using slow-light in semiconductor nanostructures," Proc. IEEE 91, 1884 (2003).
  3. P. K. Nielsen, H. Thyrrestrup, J. Mørk, B. Tromborg, "Numerical investigation of electromagnetically induced transparency in a quantum dot structure," Opt. Exp. 15, 6396 (2007).
  4. M. S. Bigelow, N. N. Lepeshkin, R. W. Boyd, "Observation of ultra-slow light propagation in a ruby crystal at room temperature," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 113903 (2003).
  5. J. Mørk, R. Kjær, M. van der Poel, K. Yvind, "Slow light in a semiconductor waveguide at gigahertz frequencies," Opt. Exp. 13, 8136-8145 (2005).
  6. H. Su, P. K. Kondratko, S. L. Chuang, "Variable optical delay using population oscillation and four-wave-mixing in semiconductor optical amplifiers," Opt. Exp. 14, 4800-4807 (2006).
  7. P. Palinginis, S. Crankshaw, F. Sedgwick, E.-T. Kim, M. Moewe, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, "Ultra-slow light ( $<$200 m/s) propagation in a semiconductor nanostructure," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 171102 (2005).
  8. H. Su, S. L. Chuang, "Room temperature slow and fast light in quantum dot semiconductor optical amplifiers," Applied Phys. Lett. 88, 061102 (2006).
  9. P. K. Kondratko, S. L. Chuang, "Slow-to-fast light using absorption to gain switching in quantum-well semiconductor optical amplifier," Opt. Exp. 15, 9963-9969 (2007).
  10. C. Chang-Hasnain, S. L. Chuang, "Slow and fast light in semiconductor quantum-well and quantum-dot devices," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 4642 (2006).
  11. F. Öhman, K. Yvind, J. Mørk, "Slow light in a semiconductor waveguide for true-time delay applications in microwave photonics," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1145-1147 (2007).
  12. F. Öhman, K. Yvind, J. Mørk, "Voltage-controlled slow light in an integrated semiconductor structure with net gain," Opt. Exp. 14, 9955-9962 (2006).
  13. J. Capmany, B. Ortega, D. Pastor, S. Sales, "Discrete-time optical processing of microwave signals," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 702 (2005).
  14. R. S. Tucker, P.-C. Ku, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, "Slow-light optical buffers: Capabilities and fundamental limitations," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 4046 (2005).
  15. T. Liu, K. Obermann, K. Petermann, F. Girardin, G. Guekos, "Effect of saturation cased by amplified spontaneous emission on semiconductor optical amplifier performance," Opt. Lett. 33, 2042-2043 (1997).
  16. A. Uskov, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, "Slow and superluminal light in semiconductor optical amplifiers," Electron. Lett. 41, 922-924 (2005).
  17. A. Uskov, F. Sedgwick, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, "Delay limit of slow light in semiconductor optical amplifiers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 731-733 (2006).
  18. B. Pesala, Z. Cheng, A. V. Uskov, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, "Experimental demonstration of slow and superluminal light in the semiconductor optical amplifiers," Opt. Exp. 14, 12968-12975 (2006).
  19. Y. Chen, F. Öhman, W. Xue, J. Mørk, "Analysis of an effective optical filtering technique to enhance microwave phase shifts based on slow and fast light effects," CLEO 2008 Conf. Dig. .
  20. W. Xue, Y. Chen, F. Öhman, S. Sales, J. Mørk, "Enhancing light slow-down in semiconductor optical amplifiers by optical filtering," Opt. Lett. 21, 1084-1086 (2008).
  21. Y. Shi, L. Yan, A. E. Willner, "High-speed electrooptic modulator characterization using optical spectrum analysis," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 2358-2367 (2003).
  22. J. Mørk, A. Mecozzi, "Theory of ultrafast optical response of active semiconductor waveguides," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 13, 1803-1816 (1996).
  23. G. P. Agrawal, "Population pulsations and nondegenerated four-wave mixing in semiconductor lasers and amplifiers," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 14, 147-159 (1988).
  24. A. Uskov, J. Mørk, J. Mark, "Wave mixing in semiconductor laser amplifiers due to carrier heating and spectral-hole burning," IEEE J. Quantum Electon. 30, 1769-1781 (1994).
  25. M. van der Poel, J. Mørk, J. M. Hvam, "Controllable delay of ultrashort pulses in a quantum dot optical amplifier," Opt. Exp. 13, 8032-8037 (2005).

2008 (1)

2007 (3)

P. K. Nielsen, H. Thyrrestrup, J. Mørk, B. Tromborg, "Numerical investigation of electromagnetically induced transparency in a quantum dot structure," Opt. Exp. 15, 6396 (2007).

F. Öhman, K. Yvind, J. Mørk, "Slow light in a semiconductor waveguide for true-time delay applications in microwave photonics," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1145-1147 (2007).

P. K. Kondratko, S. L. Chuang, "Slow-to-fast light using absorption to gain switching in quantum-well semiconductor optical amplifier," Opt. Exp. 15, 9963-9969 (2007).

2006 (6)

C. Chang-Hasnain, S. L. Chuang, "Slow and fast light in semiconductor quantum-well and quantum-dot devices," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 4642 (2006).

A. Uskov, F. Sedgwick, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, "Delay limit of slow light in semiconductor optical amplifiers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 731-733 (2006).

B. Pesala, Z. Cheng, A. V. Uskov, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, "Experimental demonstration of slow and superluminal light in the semiconductor optical amplifiers," Opt. Exp. 14, 12968-12975 (2006).

F. Öhman, K. Yvind, J. Mørk, "Voltage-controlled slow light in an integrated semiconductor structure with net gain," Opt. Exp. 14, 9955-9962 (2006).

H. Su, P. K. Kondratko, S. L. Chuang, "Variable optical delay using population oscillation and four-wave-mixing in semiconductor optical amplifiers," Opt. Exp. 14, 4800-4807 (2006).

H. Su, S. L. Chuang, "Room temperature slow and fast light in quantum dot semiconductor optical amplifiers," Applied Phys. Lett. 88, 061102 (2006).

2005 (6)

J. Mørk, R. Kjær, M. van der Poel, K. Yvind, "Slow light in a semiconductor waveguide at gigahertz frequencies," Opt. Exp. 13, 8136-8145 (2005).

P. Palinginis, S. Crankshaw, F. Sedgwick, E.-T. Kim, M. Moewe, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, "Ultra-slow light ( $<$200 m/s) propagation in a semiconductor nanostructure," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 171102 (2005).

J. Capmany, B. Ortega, D. Pastor, S. Sales, "Discrete-time optical processing of microwave signals," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 702 (2005).

R. S. Tucker, P.-C. Ku, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, "Slow-light optical buffers: Capabilities and fundamental limitations," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 4046 (2005).

A. Uskov, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, "Slow and superluminal light in semiconductor optical amplifiers," Electron. Lett. 41, 922-924 (2005).

M. van der Poel, J. Mørk, J. M. Hvam, "Controllable delay of ultrashort pulses in a quantum dot optical amplifier," Opt. Exp. 13, 8032-8037 (2005).

2003 (3)

Y. Shi, L. Yan, A. E. Willner, "High-speed electrooptic modulator characterization using optical spectrum analysis," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 2358-2367 (2003).

M. S. Bigelow, N. N. Lepeshkin, R. W. Boyd, "Observation of ultra-slow light propagation in a ruby crystal at room temperature," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 113903 (2003).

C. Chang-Hasnain, P.-C. Ku, J. Kim, S.-L. Chuang, "Variable optical buffer using slow-light in semiconductor nanostructures," Proc. IEEE 91, 1884 (2003).

2001 (1)

C. Liu, Z. Dutton, C. H. Behroozi, L. V. Hau, "Observation of coherent optical information storage in an atomic medium using halted light pulses," Nature 409, 490-49 (2001).

1997 (1)

T. Liu, K. Obermann, K. Petermann, F. Girardin, G. Guekos, "Effect of saturation cased by amplified spontaneous emission on semiconductor optical amplifier performance," Opt. Lett. 33, 2042-2043 (1997).

1996 (1)

J. Mørk, A. Mecozzi, "Theory of ultrafast optical response of active semiconductor waveguides," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 13, 1803-1816 (1996).

1994 (1)

A. Uskov, J. Mørk, J. Mark, "Wave mixing in semiconductor laser amplifiers due to carrier heating and spectral-hole burning," IEEE J. Quantum Electon. 30, 1769-1781 (1994).

1988 (1)

G. P. Agrawal, "Population pulsations and nondegenerated four-wave mixing in semiconductor lasers and amplifiers," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 14, 147-159 (1988).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

P. Palinginis, S. Crankshaw, F. Sedgwick, E.-T. Kim, M. Moewe, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, "Ultra-slow light ( $<$200 m/s) propagation in a semiconductor nanostructure," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 171102 (2005).

Applied Phys. Lett. (1)

H. Su, S. L. Chuang, "Room temperature slow and fast light in quantum dot semiconductor optical amplifiers," Applied Phys. Lett. 88, 061102 (2006).

Electron. Lett. (1)

A. Uskov, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, "Slow and superluminal light in semiconductor optical amplifiers," Electron. Lett. 41, 922-924 (2005).

IEEE J. Quantum Electon. (1)

A. Uskov, J. Mørk, J. Mark, "Wave mixing in semiconductor laser amplifiers due to carrier heating and spectral-hole burning," IEEE J. Quantum Electon. 30, 1769-1781 (1994).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

A. Uskov, F. Sedgwick, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, "Delay limit of slow light in semiconductor optical amplifiers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 731-733 (2006).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

F. Öhman, K. Yvind, J. Mørk, "Slow light in a semiconductor waveguide for true-time delay applications in microwave photonics," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1145-1147 (2007).

J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B (1)

J. Mørk, A. Mecozzi, "Theory of ultrafast optical response of active semiconductor waveguides," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 13, 1803-1816 (1996).

J. Lightw. Technol. (2)

C. Chang-Hasnain, S. L. Chuang, "Slow and fast light in semiconductor quantum-well and quantum-dot devices," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 4642 (2006).

Y. Shi, L. Yan, A. E. Willner, "High-speed electrooptic modulator characterization using optical spectrum analysis," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 2358-2367 (2003).

J. Lightw. Technol. (2)

J. Capmany, B. Ortega, D. Pastor, S. Sales, "Discrete-time optical processing of microwave signals," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 702 (2005).

R. S. Tucker, P.-C. Ku, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, "Slow-light optical buffers: Capabilities and fundamental limitations," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 4046 (2005).

J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B (1)

G. P. Agrawal, "Population pulsations and nondegenerated four-wave mixing in semiconductor lasers and amplifiers," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 14, 147-159 (1988).

Nature (1)

C. Liu, Z. Dutton, C. H. Behroozi, L. V. Hau, "Observation of coherent optical information storage in an atomic medium using halted light pulses," Nature 409, 490-49 (2001).

Opt. Exp. (2)

F. Öhman, K. Yvind, J. Mørk, "Voltage-controlled slow light in an integrated semiconductor structure with net gain," Opt. Exp. 14, 9955-9962 (2006).

B. Pesala, Z. Cheng, A. V. Uskov, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, "Experimental demonstration of slow and superluminal light in the semiconductor optical amplifiers," Opt. Exp. 14, 12968-12975 (2006).

Opt. Exp. (4)

P. K. Nielsen, H. Thyrrestrup, J. Mørk, B. Tromborg, "Numerical investigation of electromagnetically induced transparency in a quantum dot structure," Opt. Exp. 15, 6396 (2007).

P. K. Kondratko, S. L. Chuang, "Slow-to-fast light using absorption to gain switching in quantum-well semiconductor optical amplifier," Opt. Exp. 15, 9963-9969 (2007).

J. Mørk, R. Kjær, M. van der Poel, K. Yvind, "Slow light in a semiconductor waveguide at gigahertz frequencies," Opt. Exp. 13, 8136-8145 (2005).

H. Su, P. K. Kondratko, S. L. Chuang, "Variable optical delay using population oscillation and four-wave-mixing in semiconductor optical amplifiers," Opt. Exp. 14, 4800-4807 (2006).

Opt. Lett. (2)

T. Liu, K. Obermann, K. Petermann, F. Girardin, G. Guekos, "Effect of saturation cased by amplified spontaneous emission on semiconductor optical amplifier performance," Opt. Lett. 33, 2042-2043 (1997).

W. Xue, Y. Chen, F. Öhman, S. Sales, J. Mørk, "Enhancing light slow-down in semiconductor optical amplifiers by optical filtering," Opt. Lett. 21, 1084-1086 (2008).

Opt. Exp. (1)

M. van der Poel, J. Mørk, J. M. Hvam, "Controllable delay of ultrashort pulses in a quantum dot optical amplifier," Opt. Exp. 13, 8032-8037 (2005).

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

M. S. Bigelow, N. N. Lepeshkin, R. W. Boyd, "Observation of ultra-slow light propagation in a ruby crystal at room temperature," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 113903 (2003).

Proc. IEEE (1)

C. Chang-Hasnain, P.-C. Ku, J. Kim, S.-L. Chuang, "Variable optical buffer using slow-light in semiconductor nanostructures," Proc. IEEE 91, 1884 (2003).

Other (1)

Y. Chen, F. Öhman, W. Xue, J. Mørk, "Analysis of an effective optical filtering technique to enhance microwave phase shifts based on slow and fast light effects," CLEO 2008 Conf. Dig. .

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