Abstract

Atomic vapors of alkali metals are widely used to slow and stop light in tabletop experiments. In order to take advantage of the underlying quantum interference effects in future commercial devices, highly reactive alkali atoms must be incorporated into small volumes with integrated optical access. With integration in mind, we describe the development of a hollow-core waveguide technology based on the combination of vapor-filled hollow waveguides and conventional solid-core waveguides on a silicon chip. We discuss the underlying principles of the waveguide design, the development of different approaches to building on-chip vapor cells, the demonstration of linear and nonlinear rubidium spectroscopy on a chip, and the prospects for quantum interference effects such as slow light and giant Kerr nonlinearities using this approach. Ultrasmall active vapor volumes on the order of 100 picoliters with simultaneously high optical density in excess of two illustrate the potential of planar hollow-core waveguides for linear and nonlinear optical spectroscopy of atoms confined on a chip.

© 2008 IEEE

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  3. Y. Okawachi, M. S. Bigelow, J. E. Sharping, Z. Zhu, A. Schweinsberg, D. J. Gauthier, R. W. Boyd, A. L. Gaeta, "Tunable all-optical delays via Brillouin slow light in an optical fiber," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 113903-113903 (2005).
  4. J. Sharping, Y. Okawachi, A. Gaeta, "Wide bandwidth slow light using a Raman fiber amplifier," Opt. Exp. 13, 6092-6098 (2005).
  5. S. Sarkar, Y. Guo, H. Wang, "Tunable optical delay via carrier induced exciton dephasing in semiconductor quantum wells," Opt. Exp. 14, 2845-2850 (2006).
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  7. R. M. Camacho, M. V. Pack, J. C. Howell, A. Schweinsberg, R. W. Boyd, "Wide-bandwidth, and tunable, and multiple-pulse-width optical delays using slow light in cesium vapor," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 153601-153601 (2007).
  8. A. Kasapi, M. Jain, G. Y. Yin, S. E. Harris, "Electromagnetically induced transparency: Propagation dynamics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2447-2450 (1995).
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  10. D. F. Phillips, A. Fleischhauer, A. Mair, R. L. Walsworth, "Storage of light in atomic vapor," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 783-786 (2001).
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  12. A. Imamoglu, S. Harris, "Lasers without inversion: Interference of dressed lifetime-broadened states," Opt. Lett. 14, 1344-1344 (1989).
  13. S. Harris, Y. Yamamoto, "Photon switching by quantum interference," Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 3611-3611 (1998).
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  15. M. Lukin, P. Hemmer, M. Loffler, M. Scully, "Resonant enhancement of parametric processes via radiative interference and induced coherence," Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 2675-2675 (1998).
  16. H. Schmidt, A. Imamoglu, "Giant Kerr nonlinearities using electromagnetically induced transparency," Opt. Lett. 21, 1936-1936 (1996).
  17. A. Imamoglu, "High efficiency photon counting using stored light," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 3602-3602 (2002).
  18. H. Schmidt, A. R. Hawkins, "Electromagnetically induced transparency in alkali atoms integrated on a semiconductor chip," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 032106-032106 (2005).
  19. P. Schwindt, S. Knappe, V. Shah, L. Hollberg, J. Kitching, L. L. Moreland, "Compact, and stable and efficient all-fibre gas cells using hollow-core photonic crystal fibers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 6409-6411 (2004).
  20. F. Benabid, F. Couny, T. B. J. C. Knight, P. Russell, "Compact, and stable and efficient all-fibre gas cells using hollow-core photonic crystal fibers," Nature 434, 488-488 (2005).
  21. D. Yin, J. Barber, A. Hawkins, H. Schmidt, "Integrated arrow waveguides with hollow cores," Opt. Exp. 12, 2710-2710 (2004).
  22. Q. Xu, V. R. Almeida, M. Lipson, "Experimental demonstration of guiding and confining light in nanometer-size low-refractive-index material," Opt. Lett. 29, 1626-1626 (2004).
  23. S. Ghosh, J. Sharping, D. Ouzonov, A. Gaeta, "Coherent resonant interactions and slow light with molecules confined in photonic bandgap fibers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 093902-093902 (2005).
  24. R. Thapa, K. Knabe, M. Faheem, A. Naweed, O. L. Weaver, K. L. Corwin, "Saturated absorption spectroscopy of acetylene gas inside large-core photonic bandgap fiber," Opt. Lett. 31, 2489-2489 (2006).
  25. F. Benabid, G. Antonopoulos, J. Knight, P. Russell, "Stokes amplification regimes in quasi-CW pumped hydrogen-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 2139031-2139031 (2005).
  26. F. Couny, P. Light, F. Benabid, P. Russell, "Electromagnetically induced transparency and saturable absorption in all-fiber devices based on $\hbox{C}_{2}\hbox{H}_{2}$-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Commun. 263, 28-28 (2006).
  27. S. Ghosh, A. Bhagwat, C. Renshaw, S. Goh, A. Gaeta, B. Kirby, "Low-light-level optical interactions with rubidium vapor in a photonic bandgap fiber," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 023603-023603 (2006).
  28. W. Yang, D. B. Conkey, B. Wu, D. Yin, A. R. Hawkins, H. Schmidt, "Atomic spectroscopy on a chip," Nature Photon. 1, 331-335 (2007).
  29. D. Yin, J. Barber, A. Hawkins, H. Schmidt, "Waveguide loss optimization in hollow-core arrow waveguides," Opt. Exp. 13, 9331-9331 (2005).
  30. M. Duguay, Y. Kokubun, T. Koch, L. Pfeiffer, "Antiresonant reflecting optical waveguides in $\hbox{SiO}_{2}$-Si multilayer structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 13-13 (1986).
  31. J. Barber, D. Conkey, J. Lee, N. Hubbard, L. Howell, H. S. Hawkins, "Fabrication of hollow waveguides with sacrificial aluminum cores," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 363-363 (2005).
  32. H. Schmidt, D. Yin, J. Barber, A. Hawkins, "Hollow-core waveguides and 2-D waveguide arrays for integrated optics of gases and liquids," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 11, 519-527 (2005).
  33. P. Schwindt, L. Hollberg, J. Kitching, "Self-oscillating Rb magnetometer using non-linear magneto-optic rotation," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 126103-126103 (2005).
  34. M. D. Lukin, A. Imamoglu, "Controlling photons using electromagnetically induced transparency," Nature 413, 273-276 (2001).
  35. W. Demtroder, Laser Spectroscopy (Springer-Verlag, 2003).
  36. Y. Li, M. Xiao, "Electromagnetically induced transparency in a three-level -type system in rubidium atoms," Phys. Rev. A 51, 2703-2703 (1995).
  37. J. Vanier, J. Simard, J. Boulanger, "Relaxation and frequency shifts in the ground state of $\hbox{Rb}^{85}$," Phys. Rev. A 9, 1031-1031 (1974).
  38. J. Camparo, R. Frueholz, B. Jaduszliwer, "Alkali reactions with wall coating materials used in atomic resonance cells," J. Appl. Phys. 62, 676-676 (1987).
  39. E. Alexandrov, M. Balabas, D. Budker, D. English, D. Kimball, C. L. Yashchuk, "Light-induced desorption of alkali-metal atoms from paraffin coating," Phys. Rev. A 66, 042903-042903 (2002).
  40. M. Graf, D. Kimball, S. Rochester, K. Kerner, C. Wong, D. B. E. Alexandrov, M. Balabas, V. Yashchuk, "Relaxation of atomic polarization in paraffin-coated cesium vapor cells," Phys. Rev. A 72, 023401-023401 (2002).

2007 (3)

E. Parra, J. R. Lowell, "Toward applications of slow light technology," Opt. Photon. News 18, 40-45 (2007).

R. M. Camacho, M. V. Pack, J. C. Howell, A. Schweinsberg, R. W. Boyd, "Wide-bandwidth, and tunable, and multiple-pulse-width optical delays using slow light in cesium vapor," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 153601-153601 (2007).

W. Yang, D. B. Conkey, B. Wu, D. Yin, A. R. Hawkins, H. Schmidt, "Atomic spectroscopy on a chip," Nature Photon. 1, 331-335 (2007).

2006 (4)

R. Thapa, K. Knabe, M. Faheem, A. Naweed, O. L. Weaver, K. L. Corwin, "Saturated absorption spectroscopy of acetylene gas inside large-core photonic bandgap fiber," Opt. Lett. 31, 2489-2489 (2006).

F. Couny, P. Light, F. Benabid, P. Russell, "Electromagnetically induced transparency and saturable absorption in all-fiber devices based on $\hbox{C}_{2}\hbox{H}_{2}$-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Commun. 263, 28-28 (2006).

S. Ghosh, A. Bhagwat, C. Renshaw, S. Goh, A. Gaeta, B. Kirby, "Low-light-level optical interactions with rubidium vapor in a photonic bandgap fiber," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 023603-023603 (2006).

S. Sarkar, Y. Guo, H. Wang, "Tunable optical delay via carrier induced exciton dephasing in semiconductor quantum wells," Opt. Exp. 14, 2845-2850 (2006).

2005 (11)

Y. A. Vlasov, M. O'Boyle, H. F. Hamann, S. J. McNab, "Active control of slow light on a chip with photonic crystal waveguides," Nature 438, 65-69 (2005).

Y. Okawachi, M. S. Bigelow, J. E. Sharping, Z. Zhu, A. Schweinsberg, D. J. Gauthier, R. W. Boyd, A. L. Gaeta, "Tunable all-optical delays via Brillouin slow light in an optical fiber," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 113903-113903 (2005).

J. Sharping, Y. Okawachi, A. Gaeta, "Wide bandwidth slow light using a Raman fiber amplifier," Opt. Exp. 13, 6092-6098 (2005).

H. Schmidt, A. R. Hawkins, "Electromagnetically induced transparency in alkali atoms integrated on a semiconductor chip," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 032106-032106 (2005).

F. Benabid, G. Antonopoulos, J. Knight, P. Russell, "Stokes amplification regimes in quasi-CW pumped hydrogen-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 2139031-2139031 (2005).

F. Benabid, F. Couny, T. B. J. C. Knight, P. Russell, "Compact, and stable and efficient all-fibre gas cells using hollow-core photonic crystal fibers," Nature 434, 488-488 (2005).

S. Ghosh, J. Sharping, D. Ouzonov, A. Gaeta, "Coherent resonant interactions and slow light with molecules confined in photonic bandgap fibers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 093902-093902 (2005).

D. Yin, J. Barber, A. Hawkins, H. Schmidt, "Waveguide loss optimization in hollow-core arrow waveguides," Opt. Exp. 13, 9331-9331 (2005).

J. Barber, D. Conkey, J. Lee, N. Hubbard, L. Howell, H. S. Hawkins, "Fabrication of hollow waveguides with sacrificial aluminum cores," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 363-363 (2005).

H. Schmidt, D. Yin, J. Barber, A. Hawkins, "Hollow-core waveguides and 2-D waveguide arrays for integrated optics of gases and liquids," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 11, 519-527 (2005).

P. Schwindt, L. Hollberg, J. Kitching, "Self-oscillating Rb magnetometer using non-linear magneto-optic rotation," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 126103-126103 (2005).

2004 (3)

D. Yin, J. Barber, A. Hawkins, H. Schmidt, "Integrated arrow waveguides with hollow cores," Opt. Exp. 12, 2710-2710 (2004).

Q. Xu, V. R. Almeida, M. Lipson, "Experimental demonstration of guiding and confining light in nanometer-size low-refractive-index material," Opt. Lett. 29, 1626-1626 (2004).

P. Schwindt, S. Knappe, V. Shah, L. Hollberg, J. Kitching, L. L. Moreland, "Compact, and stable and efficient all-fibre gas cells using hollow-core photonic crystal fibers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 6409-6411 (2004).

2003 (2)

D. Braje, V. Balic, G. Yin, S. Harris, "Low-light-level nonlinear optics with slow light," Phys. Rev. A 68, 041801-041801 (2003).

M. S. Bigelow, N. N. Lepeshkin, R. W. Boyd, "Observation of ultraslow light propagation in a ruby crystal at room temperature," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 113903-113903 (2003).

2002 (3)

A. Imamoglu, "High efficiency photon counting using stored light," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 3602-3602 (2002).

E. Alexandrov, M. Balabas, D. Budker, D. English, D. Kimball, C. L. Yashchuk, "Light-induced desorption of alkali-metal atoms from paraffin coating," Phys. Rev. A 66, 042903-042903 (2002).

M. Graf, D. Kimball, S. Rochester, K. Kerner, C. Wong, D. B. E. Alexandrov, M. Balabas, V. Yashchuk, "Relaxation of atomic polarization in paraffin-coated cesium vapor cells," Phys. Rev. A 72, 023401-023401 (2002).

2001 (2)

M. D. Lukin, A. Imamoglu, "Controlling photons using electromagnetically induced transparency," Nature 413, 273-276 (2001).

D. F. Phillips, A. Fleischhauer, A. Mair, R. L. Walsworth, "Storage of light in atomic vapor," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 783-786 (2001).

1999 (1)

L. V. Hau, S. E. Harris, Z. Dutton, C. H. Behroozi, "Light speed reduction to 17 metres per second in an ultracold atomic gas," Nature 397, 594-598 (1999).

1998 (2)

S. Harris, Y. Yamamoto, "Photon switching by quantum interference," Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 3611-3611 (1998).

M. Lukin, P. Hemmer, M. Loffler, M. Scully, "Resonant enhancement of parametric processes via radiative interference and induced coherence," Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 2675-2675 (1998).

1997 (1)

S. E. Harris, "Electromagnetically induced transparency," Phys. Today 50, 36-42 (1997).

1996 (1)

H. Schmidt, A. Imamoglu, "Giant Kerr nonlinearities using electromagnetically induced transparency," Opt. Lett. 21, 1936-1936 (1996).

1995 (2)

A. Kasapi, M. Jain, G. Y. Yin, S. E. Harris, "Electromagnetically induced transparency: Propagation dynamics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2447-2450 (1995).

Y. Li, M. Xiao, "Electromagnetically induced transparency in a three-level -type system in rubidium atoms," Phys. Rev. A 51, 2703-2703 (1995).

1989 (1)

A. Imamoglu, S. Harris, "Lasers without inversion: Interference of dressed lifetime-broadened states," Opt. Lett. 14, 1344-1344 (1989).

1987 (1)

J. Camparo, R. Frueholz, B. Jaduszliwer, "Alkali reactions with wall coating materials used in atomic resonance cells," J. Appl. Phys. 62, 676-676 (1987).

1986 (1)

M. Duguay, Y. Kokubun, T. Koch, L. Pfeiffer, "Antiresonant reflecting optical waveguides in $\hbox{SiO}_{2}$-Si multilayer structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 13-13 (1986).

1974 (1)

J. Vanier, J. Simard, J. Boulanger, "Relaxation and frequency shifts in the ground state of $\hbox{Rb}^{85}$," Phys. Rev. A 9, 1031-1031 (1974).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

P. Schwindt, S. Knappe, V. Shah, L. Hollberg, J. Kitching, L. L. Moreland, "Compact, and stable and efficient all-fibre gas cells using hollow-core photonic crystal fibers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 6409-6411 (2004).

M. Duguay, Y. Kokubun, T. Koch, L. Pfeiffer, "Antiresonant reflecting optical waveguides in $\hbox{SiO}_{2}$-Si multilayer structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 13-13 (1986).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

H. Schmidt, A. R. Hawkins, "Electromagnetically induced transparency in alkali atoms integrated on a semiconductor chip," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 032106-032106 (2005).

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (1)

H. Schmidt, D. Yin, J. Barber, A. Hawkins, "Hollow-core waveguides and 2-D waveguide arrays for integrated optics of gases and liquids," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 11, 519-527 (2005).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

J. Barber, D. Conkey, J. Lee, N. Hubbard, L. Howell, H. S. Hawkins, "Fabrication of hollow waveguides with sacrificial aluminum cores," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 363-363 (2005).

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

J. Camparo, R. Frueholz, B. Jaduszliwer, "Alkali reactions with wall coating materials used in atomic resonance cells," J. Appl. Phys. 62, 676-676 (1987).

Nature Photon. (1)

W. Yang, D. B. Conkey, B. Wu, D. Yin, A. R. Hawkins, H. Schmidt, "Atomic spectroscopy on a chip," Nature Photon. 1, 331-335 (2007).

Nature (4)

M. D. Lukin, A. Imamoglu, "Controlling photons using electromagnetically induced transparency," Nature 413, 273-276 (2001).

F. Benabid, F. Couny, T. B. J. C. Knight, P. Russell, "Compact, and stable and efficient all-fibre gas cells using hollow-core photonic crystal fibers," Nature 434, 488-488 (2005).

Y. A. Vlasov, M. O'Boyle, H. F. Hamann, S. J. McNab, "Active control of slow light on a chip with photonic crystal waveguides," Nature 438, 65-69 (2005).

L. V. Hau, S. E. Harris, Z. Dutton, C. H. Behroozi, "Light speed reduction to 17 metres per second in an ultracold atomic gas," Nature 397, 594-598 (1999).

Opt. Lett. (3)

A. Imamoglu, S. Harris, "Lasers without inversion: Interference of dressed lifetime-broadened states," Opt. Lett. 14, 1344-1344 (1989).

H. Schmidt, A. Imamoglu, "Giant Kerr nonlinearities using electromagnetically induced transparency," Opt. Lett. 21, 1936-1936 (1996).

R. Thapa, K. Knabe, M. Faheem, A. Naweed, O. L. Weaver, K. L. Corwin, "Saturated absorption spectroscopy of acetylene gas inside large-core photonic bandgap fiber," Opt. Lett. 31, 2489-2489 (2006).

Opt. Commun. (1)

F. Couny, P. Light, F. Benabid, P. Russell, "Electromagnetically induced transparency and saturable absorption in all-fiber devices based on $\hbox{C}_{2}\hbox{H}_{2}$-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Commun. 263, 28-28 (2006).

Opt. Exp. (4)

D. Yin, J. Barber, A. Hawkins, H. Schmidt, "Waveguide loss optimization in hollow-core arrow waveguides," Opt. Exp. 13, 9331-9331 (2005).

D. Yin, J. Barber, A. Hawkins, H. Schmidt, "Integrated arrow waveguides with hollow cores," Opt. Exp. 12, 2710-2710 (2004).

J. Sharping, Y. Okawachi, A. Gaeta, "Wide bandwidth slow light using a Raman fiber amplifier," Opt. Exp. 13, 6092-6098 (2005).

S. Sarkar, Y. Guo, H. Wang, "Tunable optical delay via carrier induced exciton dephasing in semiconductor quantum wells," Opt. Exp. 14, 2845-2850 (2006).

Opt. Lett. (1)

Opt. Photon. News (1)

E. Parra, J. R. Lowell, "Toward applications of slow light technology," Opt. Photon. News 18, 40-45 (2007).

Phys. Rev. A (2)

Y. Li, M. Xiao, "Electromagnetically induced transparency in a three-level -type system in rubidium atoms," Phys. Rev. A 51, 2703-2703 (1995).

E. Alexandrov, M. Balabas, D. Budker, D. English, D. Kimball, C. L. Yashchuk, "Light-induced desorption of alkali-metal atoms from paraffin coating," Phys. Rev. A 66, 042903-042903 (2002).

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

M. S. Bigelow, N. N. Lepeshkin, R. W. Boyd, "Observation of ultraslow light propagation in a ruby crystal at room temperature," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 113903-113903 (2003).

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

Y. Okawachi, M. S. Bigelow, J. E. Sharping, Z. Zhu, A. Schweinsberg, D. J. Gauthier, R. W. Boyd, A. L. Gaeta, "Tunable all-optical delays via Brillouin slow light in an optical fiber," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 113903-113903 (2005).

Phys. Rev. A (3)

D. Braje, V. Balic, G. Yin, S. Harris, "Low-light-level nonlinear optics with slow light," Phys. Rev. A 68, 041801-041801 (2003).

J. Vanier, J. Simard, J. Boulanger, "Relaxation and frequency shifts in the ground state of $\hbox{Rb}^{85}$," Phys. Rev. A 9, 1031-1031 (1974).

M. Graf, D. Kimball, S. Rochester, K. Kerner, C. Wong, D. B. E. Alexandrov, M. Balabas, V. Yashchuk, "Relaxation of atomic polarization in paraffin-coated cesium vapor cells," Phys. Rev. A 72, 023401-023401 (2002).

Phys. Rev. Lett. (9)

S. Ghosh, A. Bhagwat, C. Renshaw, S. Goh, A. Gaeta, B. Kirby, "Low-light-level optical interactions with rubidium vapor in a photonic bandgap fiber," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 023603-023603 (2006).

F. Benabid, G. Antonopoulos, J. Knight, P. Russell, "Stokes amplification regimes in quasi-CW pumped hydrogen-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 2139031-2139031 (2005).

A. Imamoglu, "High efficiency photon counting using stored light," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 3602-3602 (2002).

M. Lukin, P. Hemmer, M. Loffler, M. Scully, "Resonant enhancement of parametric processes via radiative interference and induced coherence," Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 2675-2675 (1998).

S. Harris, Y. Yamamoto, "Photon switching by quantum interference," Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 3611-3611 (1998).

S. Ghosh, J. Sharping, D. Ouzonov, A. Gaeta, "Coherent resonant interactions and slow light with molecules confined in photonic bandgap fibers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 093902-093902 (2005).

D. F. Phillips, A. Fleischhauer, A. Mair, R. L. Walsworth, "Storage of light in atomic vapor," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 783-786 (2001).

R. M. Camacho, M. V. Pack, J. C. Howell, A. Schweinsberg, R. W. Boyd, "Wide-bandwidth, and tunable, and multiple-pulse-width optical delays using slow light in cesium vapor," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 153601-153601 (2007).

A. Kasapi, M. Jain, G. Y. Yin, S. E. Harris, "Electromagnetically induced transparency: Propagation dynamics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2447-2450 (1995).

Phys. Today (1)

S. E. Harris, "Electromagnetically induced transparency," Phys. Today 50, 36-42 (1997).

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

P. Schwindt, L. Hollberg, J. Kitching, "Self-oscillating Rb magnetometer using non-linear magneto-optic rotation," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 126103-126103 (2005).

Other (1)

W. Demtroder, Laser Spectroscopy (Springer-Verlag, 2003).

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