Abstract

We present an overview of our results on the design, material growth, device characterization, and spectroscopic applications of MOVPE-grown quantum cascade lasers (QCLs). These devices are capable of room-temperature (RT) continuous-wave operation and high power emission. The first section focuses on growth of laser material, device fabrication, and quantum design The second section discusses RT pulsed operation, in particular the doping dependence of laser performance and broadband emission. Near-field measurements performed on the devices' facets correlating lateral modes to device size are also discussed. Section III deals with continuous-wave high-temperature operation from lasers with different active region designs, including their spectral characteristics and in the emergence of coherent phenomena at high power levels. Section IV analyses the devices thermal dissipation capabilities, while in Section V we report reliability data. The final section focuses on spectroscopic applications and tunability. Optofluidic narrow ridge lasers and their application to chemical sensing are reported along with recent data on a broadband on chip spectrometer consisting of individually addressable distributed feedback QCLs. Various spectroscopic techniques and in particular quartz-enhanced photoacoustic absorption spectroscopy and its use in gas sensing systems are discussed. Finally, optofluidic narrow ridge lasers and their applications to fluid sensing are presented.

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2007 (4)

M. A. Belkin, F. Capasso, A. Belyanin, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, D. C. Oakley, C. J. Vineis, G. W. Turner, "Terahertz quantum-cascade-laser source based on intracavity difference-frequency generation," Nature Photon. 1, 288-292 (2007).

V. Moreau, M. Barhiz, R. Colombelli, P. A. Lemoine, Y. De Wilde, L. R. Wilson, A. B. Krysa, "Direct imaging of a laser mode via midinfrared near-field microscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 201114-201116 (2007).

C. Y. Wang, L. Diehl, A. Gordon, C. Jirauschek, F. X. Kartner, A. Belyanin, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Hofler, M. Troccoli, J. Faist, F. Capasso, "Coherent instabilities in a semiconductor laser with fast gain recovery," Phys. Rev. A 75, 031802(R) (2007).

C. Monat, P. Domachuk, B. J. Eggleton, "Integrated optofluidics: A new river of light," Nature Photon. 1, 106-114 (2007).

2006 (17)

D. Psaltis, S. R. Quake, C. Yang, "Developing optofluidic technology through the fusion of microfluidics and optics," Nature 442, 381-386 (2006).

D. Richter, P. Weibring, "Ultra high precision mid-IR spectrometer: Design and analysis of an optical fiber pumped difference frequency generation source," Appl. Phys. B 82, 479-486 (2006).

M. Gomes Da Silva, A. Miklos, A. Falkenroth, P. Hess, "Photoacoustic measurement of N2O concentrations in ambient air with a pulsed optical parametric oscillator," Appl. Phys. B. 82, 329-336 (2006).

G. Wysocki, A. A. Kosterev, F. K. Tittel, "Influence of molecular relaxation dynamics on quartz-enhanced photoacoustic detection of CO2 at $\lambda=2\mu{\rm m}$," Appl. Phys. B 85, 301-306 (2006).

M. D. Wojcik, M. C. Phillips, B. D. Cannon, M. S. Taubman, "Gas phase photoacoustic sensor at 8.41 $\mu{\rm m}$ using quartz tuning forks and amplitude modulated quantum cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. B. 85, 307-313 (2006).

>A. A. Kosterev, T. S. Mosely, F. K. Tittel, "Impact of humidity on quartz enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy based detection of HCN," Appl. Phys. B 85, 295-300 (2006).

M. McCurdy, Y. A. Bakhirkin, F. K. Tittel, "Quantum cascade laser-based integrated cavity output spectroscopy of exhaled nitric oxide," Appl. Phys. B. 85, 445-452 (2006).

K. Namjou, C. B. Roller, T. E. Reich1, J. D. Jeffers, G. L. McMillen, P. J. McCann, M. A. Camp, "Determination of exhaled nitric oxide distributions in a diverse sample population using tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. B. 85, 427-435 (2006).

J. B. McManus, D. D. Nelson, S. C. Herndon, J. H. Shorter, M. S. Zahniser, S. Blaser, L. Hvozdara, A. Muller, M. Giovannini, J. Faist, "Comparison of cw and pulsed operation with a TE-cooled quantum cascade infrared laser for detection of nitric oxide at 1900 cm-1," Appl. Phys. B 85, 235-241 (2006).

R. Maulini, A. Mohan, M. Giovannini, J. Faist, E. Gini, "External cavity quantum-cascade lasers tunable from 8.2 to 10.4 $\mu{\rm m}$ using a gain element with a heterogeneous cascade," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 201113-201113 (2006).

L. Diehl, D. Bour, S. Corzine, J. Zhu, G. Höfler, M. Loncar, M. Troccoli, F. Capasso, "High-temperature continuous wave operation of strain-balanced quantum cascade lasers grown by metal organic vapor-phase epitaxy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 081101-081103 (2006).

L. Diehl, D. Bour, S. Corzine, J. Zhu, G. Höfler, M. Loncar, M. Troccoli, F. Capasso, "High-power quantum cascade lasers grown by low-pressure metal organic vapor-phase epitaxy operating in continuous wave above 400 K," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 201115-201117 (2006).

L. Diehl, D. Bour, S. Corzine, J. Zhu, G. Höfler, B. G. Lee, C. Y. Wang, M. Troccoli, F. Capasso, "Pulsed- and continuous-mode operation at high temperature of strained quantum-cascade lasers grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 41102-41104 (2006).

M. A. Belkin, M. Troccoli, L. Diehl, F. Capasso, A. A. Belyanin, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, "Quasiphase matching of second-harmonic generation in quantum cascade lasers by Stark shift of electronic resonances," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 201108-201110 (2006).

J. S. Yu, S. Slivken, A. Evans, S. R. Darvish, J. Nguyen, M. Razeghi, "High-power $\lambda\sim 9.5\ \mu{\rm m}$ quantum-cascade lasers operating above room temperature in continuous-wave mode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 091113-091115 (2006).

A. Lops, V. Spagnolo, G. Scarmacio, "Thermal modeling of GaInAs/AlInAs quantum cascade lasers," J. Appl. Phys. 100, 43109-43113 (2006).

J. Devenson, D. Barate, O. Cathabard, R. Teissier, A. N. Baranov, "Very short wavelength ( $\lambda=3.1$–3.3 $\mu{\rm m}$) quantum cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 191115-191117 (2006).

2005 (10)

A. Gomez-Iglesias, D. Wassermann, C. Gmachl, A. Belyanin, D. L. Sivco, "Electronic Anti-Stokes Raman emission in quantum cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 261113-261115 (2005).

S. Blaser, D. Yarekha, L. Hvozdara, Y. Bonetti, A. Muller, M. Giovannini, J. Faist, "Room-temperature, continuous-wave, single-mode quantum-cascade lasers at $\lambda\sim 5.4\ \mu{\rm m}$," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 41109-41111 (2005).

M. Troccoli, S. Corzine, D. Bour, J. Zhu, O. Assayag, L. Diehl, B. G. Lee, G. Hoefler, F. Capasso, "Room temperature continuous wave operation of quantum cascade lasers grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy," Electron. Lett. 41, 1059-1061 (2005).

A. A. Kosterev, Y. A. Bakhirkin, F. K. Tittel, "Ultrasensitive gas detection by quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy in the fundamental molecular absorption bands region," Appl. Phys. B 80, 133-138 (2005).

G. Wysocki, A. A. Kosterev, F. K. Tittel, "Spectroscopic trace-gas sensor with rapidly scanned wavelengths of a pulsed quantum cascade laser for in situ NO monitoring of industrial exhaust systems," App. Phys. B 80, 617-625 (2005).

A. A. Kosterev, F. K. Tittel, D. Serebryakov, A. Malinovsky, A. Morozov, "Applications of quartz tuning fork in spectroscopic gas sensing," Rev. Scientif. Instrum. 76, 043105 (2005).

G. Wysocki, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, R. Maulini, J. M. Bulliard, J. Faist, "Widely tunable mode-hop free external cavity quantum cascade laser for high resolution spectroscopic applications," Appl. Phys. B 81, 769-777 (2005).

T. Yanagawa, H. Kanbara, O. Tadanaga, M. Asobe, H. Suzuki, J. Yumoto, "Broadband difference frequency generation around phase-match singularity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 161106 (2005).

W. W. Bewley, J. R. Lindle, C. S. Kim, I. Vurgaftman, J. R. Meyer, A. J. Evans, J. S. Yu, S. Slivken, M. Razeghi, "Beam steering in high-power CW quantum-cascade lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 833-841 (2005).

M. L. Silva, D. M. Sonnenfroh, D. I. Rosen, M. G. Allen, A. O'Keefe, "Integrated cavity output spectroscopy measurements of nitric oxide levels in breath with a pulsed room-temperature quantum cascade laser," Appl. Phys B. 81, 705-710 (2005).

2004 (11)

V. Spagnolo, G. Scamarcio, H. Page, C. Sirtori, "Simultaneous measurement of the electronic and lattice temperatures in GaAs/Al0.45Ga0.55As quantum-cascade lasers: Influence on the optical performance," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3690-3692 (2004).

R. Maulini, M. Beck, J. Faist, E. Gini, "2004: Broadband tuning of external cavity bound-to-continuum quantum-cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1659 (2004).

A. A. Kosterev, F. K. Tittel, "Ammonia detection by use of quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy with a near-IR telecommunication diode laser," Appl. Opt. 43, 6213-6217 (2004).

D. Weidmann, A. A. Kosterev, F. K. Tittel, N. Ryan, D. McDonald, "2004: Application of widely electrically tunable diode laser to chemical gas sensing with quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy," Opt. Lett. 29, 1837-1839 (2004).

Y. A. Bakhirkin, A. A. Kosterev, C. Roller, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, "Mid-infrared quantum cascade laser based off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy for biogenic NO detection," Appl. Opt. 43, 2257-2266 (2004).

A. A. Kosterev, Y. A. Bakhirkin, F. K. Tittel, S. Blaser, Y. Bonetti, L. Hvozdara, "Photoacoustic phase shift as a chemically selective spectroscopic parameter," Appl. Phys. B (Rapid Communications) 78, 673-676 (2004).

M. Horstjann, Y. A. Bakhirkin, A. A. Kosterev, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, "Formaldehyde sensor using interband cascade laser based quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. B 79, 799-803 (2004).

D. Erickson, D. Li, "Integrated microfluidic devices," Anal. Chim. Acta 507, 11-26 (2004).

M. Troccoli, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Hoefler, A. Tandon, D. Mars, L Diehl, F. Capasso, "High-temperature, high power, continuous wave operation of quantum cascade lasers grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5842-5844 (2004).

A. Evans, J. S. Yu, J. David, L. Doris, K. Mi, S. Slivken, M. Razeghi, "High-temperature, high-power, continuous-wave operation of buried heterostructure quantum-cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 314-316 (2004).

D. Bour, M. Troccoli, F. Capasso, S. Corzine, A. Tandon, D. Mars, G. Hofler, "Metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy of room temperature, low threshold, InGaAs/AlInAs quantum cascade lasers," J. Cryst. Growth 272, 526-530 (2004).

2003 (4)

R. P. Green, A. Krysa, J. S. Roberts, D. G. Revin, L. R. Wilson, E. A. Zibik, W. H. Ng, J. W. Cockburn, "Room-temperature operation of InGaAs/AlInAs quantum cascade lasers grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1921-1923 (2003).

R. Colombelli, K. Srinivasan, M. Troccoli, O. Painter, C. Gmachl, D. M. Tennant, A. M. Sergent, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, F. Capasso, "Quantum cascade surface-emitting photonic crystal laser," Science 302, 1374-1377 (2003).

C. Peng, G. Luo, H. Q. Le, "Broadband, continous, and fine-tune properties of external-cavity thermoelectric-stabilized mid-infrared quantum-cascade lasers," Appl. Opt. 42, 4877-4882 (2003).

E. Verpoorte, "Chip vision—Optics for microchips," Lab Chip 3, 42N-52N (2003).

2002 (9)

A. A. Kosterev, Y. A. Bakhirkin, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, "Quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy," Opt. Lett. 27, 1902-1904 (2002).

A. A. Kosterev, F. K. Tittel, "Chemical sensors based on quantum cascade lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, Special Issue on QC Lasers582-591 (2002).

J. Faist, D. Hofstetter, M. Beck, T. Aellen, M. Rochat, S. Blaser, "Bound-to-continuum and two-phonon resonance quantum cascade lasers for high duty cycle, high temperature operation," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 533-546 (2002).

R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, "Tunable infrared laser spectroscopy," Annu. Rep. Prog. Chemistry 98, 219-272 (2002) sec. C.

R. Kohler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. Beere, E. Linfield, A. Giles Davies, D. Ritchie, R. Iotti, F. Rossi, "Terahertz semiconductor heterostructure laser," Nature 417, 156-159 (2002).

M. Beck, D. Hofstetter, T. Aellen, J. Faist, U. Oesterle, M. Ilegems, E. Gini, H. Melchior, "Continuous wave operation of a mid-infrared semiconductor laser at room temperature," Science 295, 301-305 (2002).

F. Capasso, R. Paiella, R. Martini, R. Colombelli, C. Gmachl, T. L. Myers, M. S. Taubman, R. M. Williams, C. G. Bethea, K. Unterrainer, H. Y. Hwang, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, A. M. Sergent, H. C. Liu, E. A. Whittaker, "Quantum cascade lasers: Ultrahigh-speed operation, optical wireless communication, narrow linewidth, and far-infrared emission," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 511-514 (2002).

F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, "Quantum cascade lasers," Physics Today 55, 34-38 (2002).

C. Gmachl, D. L. Sivco, R. Colombelli, F. Capasso, A. Y. Cho, "Ultra-broadband semiconductor laser," Nature 415, 883-887 (2002).

2001 (5)

J. Faist, M. Beck, T. Aellen, E. Gini, "Quantum cascade lasers based on a bound-to-continuum transition," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 147-149 (2001).

C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, "Recent progress in quantum cascade lasers and applications," Rep. Prog. Phys. 64, 1533-1601 (2001).

R. Colombelli, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, A. L. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, A. Tredicucci, M. C. Wanke, A. M. Sergent, A. Y. Cho, "Far-infrared surface-plasmon quantum-cascade lasers at 21.5 $\mu{\rm m}$ and 24 $\mu{\rm m}$ wavelengths," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2620-2622 (2001).

C. Sirtori, H. Page, C. Becker, "GaAs-based quantum cascade lasers," Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. Lond. A 359, 505-522 (2001).

A. A. Kosterev, A. L. Malinovsky, F. K. Tittel, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, "Cavity ring-down spectroscopy of NO with a single frequency quantum cascade laser," Appl. Opt. 40, 5522-5529 (2001).

2000 (5)

G. Berden, R. Peeters, G. Meijer, "Cavity ring-down spectroscopy, Experimental schemes and applications," Int. Rev. Phys. Chem. 19, 565-607 (2000).

R. Paiella, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, H. C. Liu, "Self-mode-locking of quantum cascade lasers with giant ultrafast optical nonlinearities," Science 290, 1739-1742 (2000).

G. C. Liang, H.-H. Liu, A. H. Kung, A. Mohacsi, A. Miklos, P. Hess, "Photoacoustic trace detection of methane using compact solid-state lasers," J. Phys. Chem. A 104, 10179-10183 (2000).

G. Dehlinger, L. Diehl, U. Gennser, H. Sigg, J. Faist, K. Ennslin, D. Grutzmacher, E. Muller, "Intersubband electroluminescence from silicon-based quantum cascade structures," Science 290, 2277-2280 (2000).

B. Knoll, F. Keilmann, "Enhanced dielectric contrast in scattering-type scanning near-field optical microscopy," Opt. Commun. 182, 321-328 (2000).

1999 (1)

V. M. Baev, T. Latz, P. E. Toschek, "Laser intracavity absorption spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. B 69, 171-202 (1999).

1998 (3)

C. Sirtori, F. Capasso, J. Faist, A. L. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, "Resonant tunneling in quantum cascade lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 1722-1729 (1998).

C. Gmachl, A. Tredicucci, F. Capasso, A. L. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. Y. Cho, "High-power $\lambda=8{\rm mm}$ quantum cascade lasers with near optimum performance," Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 3130-3133 (1998).

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. Sivco, A. L. Hutchinson, S. N. G. Chu, A. Y. Cho, "Short wavelength $(\lambda\sim 3.4\ \mu{\rm m})$ quantum cascade laser based on strained compensated InGaAs/AlInAs," Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 680-682 (1998).

1996 (1)

1995 (2)

M. F. C. Schemmann, C. J. van der Poel, B. A. H. van Bakel, H. P. M. M. Ambrosius, A. Valster, J. A. M. van den Heijkant, G. A. Acket, "Kink power in weakly index guided semiconductor lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 920-922 (1995).

C. Sirtori, J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, "Quantum cascade laser with plasmon-enhanced waveguide operating at 8.4 $\mu{\rm m}$ wavelength," Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 3242-3244 (1995).

1994 (2)

F. Zenhausern, M. P. O'Boyle, H. K. Wickramasinghe, "Apertureless near-field optical microscope," Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 1623-1625 (1994).

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, "Quantum cascade laser," Science 264, 553-556 (1994).

1968 (2)

H. Risken, K. Nummedal, "Self-pulsing in lasers," J. Appl. Phys. 39, 4662-4672 (1968).

P. Graham, H. Haken, Z. Phys. 213, 420 (1968).

Anal. Chim. Acta (1)

D. Erickson, D. Li, "Integrated microfluidic devices," Anal. Chim. Acta 507, 11-26 (2004).

Annu. Rep. Prog. Chemistry (1)

R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, "Tunable infrared laser spectroscopy," Annu. Rep. Prog. Chemistry 98, 219-272 (2002) sec. C.

App. Phys. B (1)

G. Wysocki, A. A. Kosterev, F. K. Tittel, "Spectroscopic trace-gas sensor with rapidly scanned wavelengths of a pulsed quantum cascade laser for in situ NO monitoring of industrial exhaust systems," App. Phys. B 80, 617-625 (2005).

Appl. Opt. (2)

A. A. Kosterev, A. L. Malinovsky, F. K. Tittel, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, "Cavity ring-down spectroscopy of NO with a single frequency quantum cascade laser," Appl. Opt. 40, 5522-5529 (2001).

C. Peng, G. Luo, H. Q. Le, "Broadband, continous, and fine-tune properties of external-cavity thermoelectric-stabilized mid-infrared quantum-cascade lasers," Appl. Opt. 42, 4877-4882 (2003).

Appl. Phys. B (2)

G. Wysocki, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, R. Maulini, J. M. Bulliard, J. Faist, "Widely tunable mode-hop free external cavity quantum cascade laser for high resolution spectroscopic applications," Appl. Phys. B 81, 769-777 (2005).

>A. A. Kosterev, T. S. Mosely, F. K. Tittel, "Impact of humidity on quartz enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy based detection of HCN," Appl. Phys. B 85, 295-300 (2006).

Appl. Phys. B. (2)

M. Gomes Da Silva, A. Miklos, A. Falkenroth, P. Hess, "Photoacoustic measurement of N2O concentrations in ambient air with a pulsed optical parametric oscillator," Appl. Phys. B. 82, 329-336 (2006).

M. McCurdy, Y. A. Bakhirkin, F. K. Tittel, "Quantum cascade laser-based integrated cavity output spectroscopy of exhaled nitric oxide," Appl. Phys. B. 85, 445-452 (2006).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

R. P. Green, A. Krysa, J. S. Roberts, D. G. Revin, L. R. Wilson, E. A. Zibik, W. H. Ng, J. W. Cockburn, "Room-temperature operation of InGaAs/AlInAs quantum cascade lasers grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1921-1923 (2003).

R. Colombelli, F. Capasso, C. Gmachl, A. L. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, A. Tredicucci, M. C. Wanke, A. M. Sergent, A. Y. Cho, "Far-infrared surface-plasmon quantum-cascade lasers at 21.5 $\mu{\rm m}$ and 24 $\mu{\rm m}$ wavelengths," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2620-2622 (2001).

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys B. (1)

M. L. Silva, D. M. Sonnenfroh, D. I. Rosen, M. G. Allen, A. O'Keefe, "Integrated cavity output spectroscopy measurements of nitric oxide levels in breath with a pulsed room-temperature quantum cascade laser," Appl. Phys B. 81, 705-710 (2005).

Appl. Phys. B (1)

G. Wysocki, A. A. Kosterev, F. K. Tittel, "Influence of molecular relaxation dynamics on quartz-enhanced photoacoustic detection of CO2 at $\lambda=2\mu{\rm m}$," Appl. Phys. B 85, 301-306 (2006).

Appl. Phys. B (Rapid Communications) (1)

A. A. Kosterev, Y. A. Bakhirkin, F. K. Tittel, S. Blaser, Y. Bonetti, L. Hvozdara, "Photoacoustic phase shift as a chemically selective spectroscopic parameter," Appl. Phys. B (Rapid Communications) 78, 673-676 (2004).

Appl. Phys. B. (1)

M. D. Wojcik, M. C. Phillips, B. D. Cannon, M. S. Taubman, "Gas phase photoacoustic sensor at 8.41 $\mu{\rm m}$ using quartz tuning forks and amplitude modulated quantum cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. B. 85, 307-313 (2006).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

L. Diehl, D. Bour, S. Corzine, J. Zhu, G. Höfler, B. G. Lee, C. Y. Wang, M. Troccoli, F. Capasso, "Pulsed- and continuous-mode operation at high temperature of strained quantum-cascade lasers grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 41102-41104 (2006).

Appl. Phys. B (5)

M. Horstjann, Y. A. Bakhirkin, A. A. Kosterev, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, "Formaldehyde sensor using interband cascade laser based quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. B 79, 799-803 (2004).

A. A. Kosterev, Y. A. Bakhirkin, F. K. Tittel, "Ultrasensitive gas detection by quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy in the fundamental molecular absorption bands region," Appl. Phys. B 80, 133-138 (2005).

D. Richter, P. Weibring, "Ultra high precision mid-IR spectrometer: Design and analysis of an optical fiber pumped difference frequency generation source," Appl. Phys. B 82, 479-486 (2006).

J. B. McManus, D. D. Nelson, S. C. Herndon, J. H. Shorter, M. S. Zahniser, S. Blaser, L. Hvozdara, A. Muller, M. Giovannini, J. Faist, "Comparison of cw and pulsed operation with a TE-cooled quantum cascade infrared laser for detection of nitric oxide at 1900 cm-1," Appl. Phys. B 85, 235-241 (2006).

V. M. Baev, T. Latz, P. E. Toschek, "Laser intracavity absorption spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. B 69, 171-202 (1999).

Appl. Phys. B. (1)

K. Namjou, C. B. Roller, T. E. Reich1, J. D. Jeffers, G. L. McMillen, P. J. McCann, M. A. Camp, "Determination of exhaled nitric oxide distributions in a diverse sample population using tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. B. 85, 427-435 (2006).

Appl. Phys. Lett (1)

B. G. Lee, R. Audet, J. MacArthur, M. A. Belkin, L. Diehl, C. Pflugl, F. Capasso, D. C. Oakley, D. Chapman, A. Napoleone, G. Turner, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Hofler, "Widely tunable single mode quantum cascade laser source for mid-infrared spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett .

Appl. Phys. Lett. (20)

T. Yanagawa, H. Kanbara, O. Tadanaga, M. Asobe, H. Suzuki, J. Yumoto, "Broadband difference frequency generation around phase-match singularity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 161106 (2005).

R. Maulini, A. Mohan, M. Giovannini, J. Faist, E. Gini, "External cavity quantum-cascade lasers tunable from 8.2 to 10.4 $\mu{\rm m}$ using a gain element with a heterogeneous cascade," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 201113-201113 (2006).

F. Zenhausern, M. P. O'Boyle, H. K. Wickramasinghe, "Apertureless near-field optical microscope," Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 1623-1625 (1994).

V. Moreau, M. Barhiz, R. Colombelli, P. A. Lemoine, Y. De Wilde, L. R. Wilson, A. B. Krysa, "Direct imaging of a laser mode via midinfrared near-field microscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 201114-201116 (2007).

M. F. C. Schemmann, C. J. van der Poel, B. A. H. van Bakel, H. P. M. M. Ambrosius, A. Valster, J. A. M. van den Heijkant, G. A. Acket, "Kink power in weakly index guided semiconductor lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 920-922 (1995).

V. Spagnolo, G. Scamarcio, H. Page, C. Sirtori, "Simultaneous measurement of the electronic and lattice temperatures in GaAs/Al0.45Ga0.55As quantum-cascade lasers: Influence on the optical performance," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3690-3692 (2004).

R. Maulini, M. Beck, J. Faist, E. Gini, "2004: Broadband tuning of external cavity bound-to-continuum quantum-cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1659 (2004).

C. Gmachl, A. Tredicucci, F. Capasso, A. L. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. Y. Cho, "High-power $\lambda=8{\rm mm}$ quantum cascade lasers with near optimum performance," Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 3130-3133 (1998).

S. Blaser, D. Yarekha, L. Hvozdara, Y. Bonetti, A. Muller, M. Giovannini, J. Faist, "Room-temperature, continuous-wave, single-mode quantum-cascade lasers at $\lambda\sim 5.4\ \mu{\rm m}$," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 41109-41111 (2005).

M. Troccoli, D. Bour, S. Corzine, G. Hoefler, A. Tandon, D. Mars, L Diehl, F. Capasso, "High-temperature, high power, continuous wave operation of quantum cascade lasers grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5842-5844 (2004).

L. Diehl, D. Bour, S. Corzine, J. Zhu, G. Höfler, M. Loncar, M. Troccoli, F. Capasso, "High-temperature continuous wave operation of strain-balanced quantum cascade lasers grown by metal organic vapor-phase epitaxy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 081101-081103 (2006).

L. Diehl, D. Bour, S. Corzine, J. Zhu, G. Höfler, M. Loncar, M. Troccoli, F. Capasso, "High-power quantum cascade lasers grown by low-pressure metal organic vapor-phase epitaxy operating in continuous wave above 400 K," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 201115-201117 (2006).

J. Faist, M. Beck, T. Aellen, E. Gini, "Quantum cascade lasers based on a bound-to-continuum transition," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 147-149 (2001).

C. Sirtori, J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, "Quantum cascade laser with plasmon-enhanced waveguide operating at 8.4 $\mu{\rm m}$ wavelength," Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 3242-3244 (1995).

J. S. Yu, S. Slivken, A. Evans, S. R. Darvish, J. Nguyen, M. Razeghi, "High-power $\lambda\sim 9.5\ \mu{\rm m}$ quantum-cascade lasers operating above room temperature in continuous-wave mode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 091113-091115 (2006).

A. Gomez-Iglesias, D. Wassermann, C. Gmachl, A. Belyanin, D. L. Sivco, "Electronic Anti-Stokes Raman emission in quantum cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 261113-261115 (2005).

M. A. Belkin, M. Troccoli, L. Diehl, F. Capasso, A. A. Belyanin, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, "Quasiphase matching of second-harmonic generation in quantum cascade lasers by Stark shift of electronic resonances," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 201108-201110 (2006).

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. Sivco, A. L. Hutchinson, S. N. G. Chu, A. Y. Cho, "Short wavelength $(\lambda\sim 3.4\ \mu{\rm m})$ quantum cascade laser based on strained compensated InGaAs/AlInAs," Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 680-682 (1998).

A. Evans, J. S. Yu, J. David, L. Doris, K. Mi, S. Slivken, M. Razeghi, "High-temperature, high-power, continuous-wave operation of buried heterostructure quantum-cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 314-316 (2004).

J. Devenson, D. Barate, O. Cathabard, R. Teissier, A. N. Baranov, "Very short wavelength ( $\lambda=3.1$–3.3 $\mu{\rm m}$) quantum cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 191115-191117 (2006).

Electron. Lett. (1)

M. Troccoli, S. Corzine, D. Bour, J. Zhu, O. Assayag, L. Diehl, B. G. Lee, G. Hoefler, F. Capasso, "Room temperature continuous wave operation of quantum cascade lasers grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy," Electron. Lett. 41, 1059-1061 (2005).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (5)

C. Sirtori, F. Capasso, J. Faist, A. L. Hutchinson, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, "Resonant tunneling in quantum cascade lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 1722-1729 (1998).

F. Capasso, R. Paiella, R. Martini, R. Colombelli, C. Gmachl, T. L. Myers, M. S. Taubman, R. M. Williams, C. G. Bethea, K. Unterrainer, H. Y. Hwang, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, A. M. Sergent, H. C. Liu, E. A. Whittaker, "Quantum cascade lasers: Ultrahigh-speed operation, optical wireless communication, narrow linewidth, and far-infrared emission," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 511-514 (2002).

J. Faist, D. Hofstetter, M. Beck, T. Aellen, M. Rochat, S. Blaser, "Bound-to-continuum and two-phonon resonance quantum cascade lasers for high duty cycle, high temperature operation," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 533-546 (2002).

W. W. Bewley, J. R. Lindle, C. S. Kim, I. Vurgaftman, J. R. Meyer, A. J. Evans, J. S. Yu, S. Slivken, M. Razeghi, "Beam steering in high-power CW quantum-cascade lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 833-841 (2005).

A. A. Kosterev, F. K. Tittel, "Chemical sensors based on quantum cascade lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, Special Issue on QC Lasers582-591 (2002).

Int. Rev. Phys. Chem. (1)

G. Berden, R. Peeters, G. Meijer, "Cavity ring-down spectroscopy, Experimental schemes and applications," Int. Rev. Phys. Chem. 19, 565-607 (2000).

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

H. Risken, K. Nummedal, "Self-pulsing in lasers," J. Appl. Phys. 39, 4662-4672 (1968).

A. Lops, V. Spagnolo, G. Scarmacio, "Thermal modeling of GaInAs/AlInAs quantum cascade lasers," J. Appl. Phys. 100, 43109-43113 (2006).

J. Cryst. Growth (1)

D. Bour, M. Troccoli, F. Capasso, S. Corzine, A. Tandon, D. Mars, G. Hofler, "Metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy of room temperature, low threshold, InGaAs/AlInAs quantum cascade lasers," J. Cryst. Growth 272, 526-530 (2004).

J. Phys. Chem. A (1)

G. C. Liang, H.-H. Liu, A. H. Kung, A. Mohacsi, A. Miklos, P. Hess, "Photoacoustic trace detection of methane using compact solid-state lasers," J. Phys. Chem. A 104, 10179-10183 (2000).

Lab Chip (1)

E. Verpoorte, "Chip vision—Optics for microchips," Lab Chip 3, 42N-52N (2003).

Nature Photon. (1)

M. A. Belkin, F. Capasso, A. Belyanin, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, D. C. Oakley, C. J. Vineis, G. W. Turner, "Terahertz quantum-cascade-laser source based on intracavity difference-frequency generation," Nature Photon. 1, 288-292 (2007).

Nature (3)

R. Kohler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. Beere, E. Linfield, A. Giles Davies, D. Ritchie, R. Iotti, F. Rossi, "Terahertz semiconductor heterostructure laser," Nature 417, 156-159 (2002).

C. Gmachl, D. L. Sivco, R. Colombelli, F. Capasso, A. Y. Cho, "Ultra-broadband semiconductor laser," Nature 415, 883-887 (2002).

D. Psaltis, S. R. Quake, C. Yang, "Developing optofluidic technology through the fusion of microfluidics and optics," Nature 442, 381-386 (2006).

Nature Photon. (1)

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