Abstract

A coupler-type transverse electric/transverse magnetic (TE/TM) polarization splitter, in which a metal-loaded core is slightly widened, is analyzed using the three-dimensional beam-propagation method. Before analyzing the splitter with the slightly different core widths, the performance of a splitter with two identical cores is evaluated. The use of the two identical cores results in a high crosstalk and a low extinction ratio due to the phase mismatch between the waveguides with and without the metal for the TE mode. Therefore, the core width in the metal-loaded waveguide is slightly widened so as to restore the phase-matching condition. In contrast to the conventional splitter with the two identical cores, the present splitter is found to offer a low crosstalk of less than $-$30 dB and a high extinction ratio of more than 30 dB with a coupling efficiency of more than 97% at a wavelength of 1.55 $\mu{\rm m}$. In addition, the wideband operation is demonstrated over a wavelength range of 1.50 to 1.61 $\mu{\rm m}$.

© 2008 IEEE

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2007 (2)

T. Barwicz, M. R. Watts, M. A. Popović, P. T. Rakich, L. Socci, F. X. Kärtner, E. P. Ippen, H. I. Smith, "Polarization-transparent microphotonic devices in the strong confinement limit," Nature Photon. 1, 57-60 (2007).

T. Yamazaki, J. Yamauchi, H. Nakano, "A branch-type TE/TM wave splitter using a light-guiding metal line," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 922-928 (2007).

2006 (1)

J. Yamauchi, K. Sumida, H. Nakano, "Analysis of a polarization splitter with a multilayer filter using a Padé operator-based power-conserving fourth-order accurate beam-propagation method," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1858-1860 (2006).

2005 (2)

I. Kiyat, A. Aydinli, N. Dagli, "A compact silicon-on-insulator polarization splitter," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 100-102 (2005).

J. Shibayama, T. Yamazaki, J. Yamauchi, H. Nakano, "Eigenmode analysis of a light-guiding metal line loaded on a dielectric substrate using the imaginary-distance beam-propagation method," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 1533-1539 (2005).

2004 (2)

S. J. Al-Bader, "Optical transmission on metallic wires—Fundamental modes," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 325-329 (2004).

V. Magnin, J. Harari, D. Decoster, "Numerical study of polarisation-selective side-illuminated pin photodetectors grown on InP substrate for hybridisation on silicon platform," Inst. Elect. Eng. Optoelectron. 151, 171-176 (2004).

2003 (1)

J. M. Hong, H. H. Ryu, S. R. Park, J. W. Jeong, S. G. Lee, E. H. Lee, S. G. Park, D. Woo, S. Kim, B. H. O, "Design and fabrication of a significantly shortened multimode interference coupler for polarization splitter application," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 72-74 (2003).

2001 (1)

B. M. A. Rahman, N. Somasiri, C. Themistos, K. T. V. Grattan, "Design of optical polarization splitters in a single-section deeply etched MMI waveguide," Appl. Phys. B, Photophys. Laser Chem. 73, 613-618 (2001).

1999 (1)

M. C. Oh, M. H. Lee, H. J. Lee, "Polymeric waveguide polarization splitter with a buried birefringent polymer," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1144-1146 (1999).

1997 (2)

M. Rajarajan, C. Themistos, B. M. A. Rahman, K. T. V. Grattan, "Characterization of metal-clad TE/TM mode splitters using the finite element method," J. Lightw. Technol. 15, 2264-2269 (1997).

J. Yamauchi, M. Sekiguchi, O. Uchiyama, J. Shibayama, H. Nakano, "Modified finite-difference formula for the analysis of semivectorial modes in step-index optical waveguides," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 961-963 (1997).

1994 (2)

J. P. Berenger, "A perfectly matched layer for the absorption of electromagnetic-waves," J. Comput. Phys. 114, 185-200 (1994).

J. C. Chen, S. Jüngling, "Computation of higher-order waveguide modes by the imaginary-distance beam propagation method," Opt. Quantum Electron. 29, S199-S205 (1994).

1993 (1)

C. L. Xu, W. P. Huang, S. K. Chaudhuri, "Efficient and accurate vector mode calculations by beam propagation method," J. Lightw. Technol. 11, 1209-1215 (1993).

1992 (1)

1991 (1)

R. J. Deri, R. J. Hawkins, C. Caneau, E. C. M. Pennings, N. C. Andreadakis, "Ultracompact monolithic integration of polarization diversity waveguide/photodiodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 1823-1825 (1991).

1990 (3)

M. Kawachi, "Silica waveguides on silicon and their application to integrated-optic components," Opt. Quantum Electron. 22, 391-416 (1990).

P. Albrecht, M. Hamacher, H. Heidrich, D. Hoffmann, H.-P. Nolting, C. M. Weinert, "TE/TM mode splitters on InGaAsP/InP," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 114-115 (1990).

R. A. Betts, F. Lui, "Broadband polarisation splitting couplers in ion-exchanged glass," Electron. Lett. 26, 450-452 (1990).

1989 (1)

N. Goto, G. L. Yip, "A TE-TM mode splitter in ${\rm LiNbO}_{3}$ by proton exchange and Ti diffusion," J. Lightw. Technol. 7, 1567-1574 (1989).

1988 (1)

W. Warzanskyj, F. Heismann, R. C. Alferness, "Polarization-independent electro-optically tunable narrow-band wavelength filter," Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 13-15 (1988).

1975 (1)

H. F. Mahlein, R. Oberbacher, W. Rauscher, "An integrated optical TE-TM mode splitter," Appl. Phys. 7, 15-20 (1975).

1972 (1)

P. B. Johnsona, R. W. Christy, "Optical constants of the noble metals," Phys. Rev. B, Condens. Matter 6, 4370-4379 (1972).

Appl. Phys. B, Photophys. Laser Chem. (1)

B. M. A. Rahman, N. Somasiri, C. Themistos, K. T. V. Grattan, "Design of optical polarization splitters in a single-section deeply etched MMI waveguide," Appl. Phys. B, Photophys. Laser Chem. 73, 613-618 (2001).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

W. Warzanskyj, F. Heismann, R. C. Alferness, "Polarization-independent electro-optically tunable narrow-band wavelength filter," Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 13-15 (1988).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

R. J. Deri, R. J. Hawkins, C. Caneau, E. C. M. Pennings, N. C. Andreadakis, "Ultracompact monolithic integration of polarization diversity waveguide/photodiodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 1823-1825 (1991).

Appl. Phys. (1)

H. F. Mahlein, R. Oberbacher, W. Rauscher, "An integrated optical TE-TM mode splitter," Appl. Phys. 7, 15-20 (1975).

Electron. Lett. (1)

R. A. Betts, F. Lui, "Broadband polarisation splitting couplers in ion-exchanged glass," Electron. Lett. 26, 450-452 (1990).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

J. M. Hong, H. H. Ryu, S. R. Park, J. W. Jeong, S. G. Lee, E. H. Lee, S. G. Park, D. Woo, S. Kim, B. H. O, "Design and fabrication of a significantly shortened multimode interference coupler for polarization splitter application," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 72-74 (2003).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

S. J. Al-Bader, "Optical transmission on metallic wires—Fundamental modes," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 325-329 (2004).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

J. Yamauchi, K. Sumida, H. Nakano, "Analysis of a polarization splitter with a multilayer filter using a Padé operator-based power-conserving fourth-order accurate beam-propagation method," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1858-1860 (2006).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

M. C. Oh, M. H. Lee, H. J. Lee, "Polymeric waveguide polarization splitter with a buried birefringent polymer," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1144-1146 (1999).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (3)

P. Albrecht, M. Hamacher, H. Heidrich, D. Hoffmann, H.-P. Nolting, C. M. Weinert, "TE/TM mode splitters on InGaAsP/InP," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 114-115 (1990).

I. Kiyat, A. Aydinli, N. Dagli, "A compact silicon-on-insulator polarization splitter," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 100-102 (2005).

J. Yamauchi, M. Sekiguchi, O. Uchiyama, J. Shibayama, H. Nakano, "Modified finite-difference formula for the analysis of semivectorial modes in step-index optical waveguides," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 961-963 (1997).

Inst. Elect. Eng. Optoelectron. (1)

V. Magnin, J. Harari, D. Decoster, "Numerical study of polarisation-selective side-illuminated pin photodetectors grown on InP substrate for hybridisation on silicon platform," Inst. Elect. Eng. Optoelectron. 151, 171-176 (2004).

J. Lightw. Technol. (2)

N. Goto, G. L. Yip, "A TE-TM mode splitter in ${\rm LiNbO}_{3}$ by proton exchange and Ti diffusion," J. Lightw. Technol. 7, 1567-1574 (1989).

M. Rajarajan, C. Themistos, B. M. A. Rahman, K. T. V. Grattan, "Characterization of metal-clad TE/TM mode splitters using the finite element method," J. Lightw. Technol. 15, 2264-2269 (1997).

J. Comput. Phys. (1)

J. P. Berenger, "A perfectly matched layer for the absorption of electromagnetic-waves," J. Comput. Phys. 114, 185-200 (1994).

J. Lightw. Technol. (3)

J. Shibayama, T. Yamazaki, J. Yamauchi, H. Nakano, "Eigenmode analysis of a light-guiding metal line loaded on a dielectric substrate using the imaginary-distance beam-propagation method," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 1533-1539 (2005).

C. L. Xu, W. P. Huang, S. K. Chaudhuri, "Efficient and accurate vector mode calculations by beam propagation method," J. Lightw. Technol. 11, 1209-1215 (1993).

T. Yamazaki, J. Yamauchi, H. Nakano, "A branch-type TE/TM wave splitter using a light-guiding metal line," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 922-928 (2007).

Nature Photon. (1)

T. Barwicz, M. R. Watts, M. A. Popović, P. T. Rakich, L. Socci, F. X. Kärtner, E. P. Ippen, H. I. Smith, "Polarization-transparent microphotonic devices in the strong confinement limit," Nature Photon. 1, 57-60 (2007).

Opt. Quantum Electron. (1)

J. C. Chen, S. Jüngling, "Computation of higher-order waveguide modes by the imaginary-distance beam propagation method," Opt. Quantum Electron. 29, S199-S205 (1994).

Opt. Lett. (1)

Opt. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. Kawachi, "Silica waveguides on silicon and their application to integrated-optic components," Opt. Quantum Electron. 22, 391-416 (1990).

Phys. Rev. B, Condens. Matter (1)

P. B. Johnsona, R. W. Christy, "Optical constants of the noble metals," Phys. Rev. B, Condens. Matter 6, 4370-4379 (1972).

Other (3)

T. Yamazaki, H. Aono, J. Yamauchi, H. Nakano, "BPM simulation of a metal-clad TE/TM mode splitter using a silica-based embedded waveguide," Proc. Int. Symp. Contemporary Photonic Technologies (2005) pp. 111-112.

T. Yamazaki, H. Aono, J. Yamauchi, H. Nakano, "Metal-loaded TE/TM polarization splitter consisting of embedded waveguides with slightly different core widths," Optical Society of America Integr. Photon. Res. Appl. Uncasville, CT (2006) JWB3.

J. Yamauchi, Propagating Beam Analysis of Optical Waveguides (Research Studies Press, 2003).

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