Abstract

It is widely believed that dynamic operation of wavelength-routed optical networks will help overcome the inefficiencies of static allocation in terms of wavelength utilization. In this paper, this hypothesis is reviewed. The wavelength requirements of dynamic wavelength-routed optical networks are quantified and compared to static routing. To do so, new analytical and algorithmic lower bounds for the wavelength requirements of dynamic networks are proposed. They are used to evaluate the optimality of the already proposed algorithms whose wavelength requirements are quantified - by means of simulation- with and without the wavelength continuity constraint, as well as for uniform and nonuniform traffic demand. Results show that, without wavelength conversion capability, the benefit of dynamic wavelength-routed optical networks is not significant: lower wavelengths requirements than static networks are achieved only at low traffic loads $(<0.3-0.4)$. In wavelength convertible networks instead, dynamic operation leads to lower wavelength requirements than static operation over a wide traffic load range $(<0.7-0.8)$, making dynamic operation attractive in this type of network. Under nonuniform traffic it was found that dynamic operation achieves slightly higher wavelength savings than in the uniform traffic case. But the savings were not high enough as to impact on results of the uniform traffic case. These results can aid network operators in the design and optimization of optical WDM networks.

© 2008 IEEE

PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |

  1. E. Desurvire, "Capacity demand and technology challenges for lightwave systems in the next two decades," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 4697-4710 (2006).
  2. A. Odlyzko, Minnesota Internet Traffic Studies (MINTS). http://www.dtc.umn.edu/mints/home.html.
  3. G. Agrawal, Fiber-Optic Communication Systems (Wiley-Intersci., 2002).
  4. A. H. Gnauck, "25.6 Tb/s WDM transmission of polarization-multiplexed RZ-DQPSK signals," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 79-84 (2008).
  5. S. Baroni, P. Bayvel, "Wavelength requirements in arbitrarily connected wavelength-routed optical networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 15, 242-251 (1997).
  6. S. Baroni, Routing and wavelength allocation in WDM optical networks Ph.D. dissertation Univ. College LondonLondonU.K. (1998).
  7. C. Assi, A. Shami, M. Ali, Z. Zhang, X. Liu, "Impact of wavelength converters on the performance of optical networks," Opt. Netw. Mag. 3, 22-30 (2002).
  8. M. Düser, "Investigation of the impact of traffic growth and variability on future network architectures," Proc. 31st Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. (2005) pp. 27-30.
  9. H.-C. Leligou, K. Kanonakis, J. Angelopoulos, I. Pountourakis, T. Orphanoudakis, "Efficient burst aggregation for QOS-aware slotted OBS systems," Eur. Trans. Telecomm. 17, 93-98 (2006).
  10. O. Gerstel, H. Raza, "On the synergy between electrical and photonic switching," IEEE Commun. Mag. 41, 98-104 (2003).
  11. S. Sengupta, V. Kumar, D. Saha, "Switched optical backbone for cost-effective scalable core IP networks," IEEE Commun. Mag. 41, 60-70 (2003).
  12. C. Assi, A. Shami, M. Ali, "Optical networking and real-time provisioning: An integrated vision for the next-generation internet," IEEE Netw. 15, 36-45 (2001).
  13. M. J. O'Mahony, D. Simeonidou, D. K. Hunter, A. Tzanakaki, "The application of optical packet switching in future communication networks," IEEE Commun. Mag. 39, 128-135 (2001).
  14. H. Zang, J. Jue, L. Sahasrabuddhe, R. Ramamurthy, B. Mukherjee, "Dynamic lightpath establishment in wavelength routed WDM networks," IEEE Commun. Mag. 39, 100-108 (2001).
  15. D. K. Hunter, I. Andonovic, "Approaches to optical internet packet switching," IEEE Commun. Mag. 38, 116-122 (2000).
  16. J. Späth, "Dynamic routing and resource allocation in WDM transport networks," Comput. Netw. 32, 519-538 (2000).
  17. M. Düser, A. Zapata, P. Bayvel, "Investigation of the scalability of dynamic wavelength-routed optical networks," J. Opt. Netw. 3, 667-686 (2004).
  18. J. Yates, M. P. Rumsewicz, "Wavelength converters in dynamically-reconfigurable WDM networks," IEEE Commun. Surveys (1999) 2nd Quarter.
  19. N. Wauters, P. Demeester, "Design of the optical path layer in multiwavelength cross-connected networks," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 14, 881-892 (1996).
  20. I. Chlamtac, A. Ganz, G. Karmi, "Lightpath communications: An approach to high bandwidth optical WAN's," IEEE Trans. Commun. 40, 1171-1182 (1992).
  21. M. Düser, P. Bayvel, "Analysis of a dynamically wavelength-routed optical burst switched network architecture," J. Lightw. Technol. 20, 574-585 (2002).
  22. S. J. B. Yoo, "Optical packet and burst switching technologies for the future photonic internet," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 4468-4492 (2006).
  23. C. Qiao, M. Yoo, "Optical burst switching (OBS)—A new paradigm for an optical Internet," J. High Speed Netw. 8, 69-84 (1999).
  24. A. Zapata, I. de Miguel, M. Düser, J. Spencer, P. Bayvel, D. Breuer, N. Hanik, A. Gladish, "Next-generation 100-gigabit metro ethernet (100 GbME) using multiwavelength optical rings," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 2420-2434 (2004).
  25. A. Ge, F. Callegati, L. Tamil, "On optical burst switching and self-similar traffic," IEEE Commun. Lett. 4, 98-100 (2000).
  26. G. Hu, K. Dolzer, C. Gauger, "Does burst assembly really reduce the self-similarity?," Proc. Opt. Fiber Conf., OFC2003 (2003) pp. 124-126.
  27. X. Yu, Y. Chen, C. Qiao, "A study of traffic statistics of assembled burst traffic in optical burst switched networks," Proc. Opticommun. (2002) pp. 149-159.
  28. I. de Miguel, M. Düser, P. Bayvel, "Traffic load bounds for optical burst-switched networks with dynamic wavelength allocation," Proc. IFIP 5th Conf. Opt. Netw. Design Modell. (2001) pp. 209-224.
  29. A. Adas, "Traffic models in broadband networks," IEEE Commun. Mag. 35, 82-89 (1997).
  30. J. Y. Choi, H. L. Vu, C. W. Cameron, M. Zukerman, M. Kang, "The effect of burst assembly on performance of optical burst switched networks," Lecture Notes Comput. Sci. 3090, 729-739 (2004).
  31. M. Zukerman, E. Wong, Z. Rosberg, G. Lee, H. V. Lu, "On teletraffic applications to OBS," IEEE Commun. Lett. 8, 116-118 (2004).
  32. L. Tancevski, A. Bononi, L. A. Rusch, "Output power and SNR swings in cascades of EDFAs for circuit- and packet-switched optical networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 17, 733-742 (1999).
  33. J. Y. Choi, J. Choi, M. Kang, "Dimensioning burst assembly process in optical burst switching networks," IEICE Trans. Commun., E88-B 10, 3855-3863 (2005).
  34. X. Yu, J. Li, X. Cao, Y. Chen, C. Qiao, "Traffic statistics and performance evaluation in optical burst switched networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 2722-2738 (2004).
  35. J. Luo, Q. Zeng, H. Chi, Z. Zhang, H. Zhao, "The impacts of burst assembly on the traffic properties in optical burst switching networks," Proc. ICCT 2003 - Int. Conf. Commun. Technol. (2003) pp. 521-524.
  36. S. Ross, Stochastic Processes (Wiley, 1996) pp. 114-115.
  37. S. Ross, A First Course in Probability (Prentice-Hall, 2002) pp. 206.
  38. S. Keshav, An Engineering Approach to Computer Networking (Addison-Wesley, 1997).
  39. S. N. Dorogovtsev, A. V. Goltsev, J. F. Mendes, "Pseudofractal scale-free web," Phys. Rev. E 65, (2002).
  40. S. K. Korotky, "Network global expectation model: A statistical formalism for quickly quantifying network needs and costs," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 703-722 (2004).
  41. A. Mokhtar, M. Azizoglu, "Adaptive wavelength routing in all-optical networks," IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 6, (1998).
  42. X. Chu, J. Liu, B. Li, Z. Zhang, "Analytical model of sparse-partial wavelength conversion in wavelength-routed WDM networks," IEEE Commun. Lett. 9, 69-71 (2005).
  43. M. Kovacevic, A. Acampora, "Benefits of wavelength translation in all-optical clear-channel networks," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 14, 868-880 (1996).
  44. S. Bhattacharyya, C. Diot, J. Jetcheva, N. Taft, "POP-level and access-link-level traffic dynamics in a tier-1 POP," Proc. ACM SIGCOMM Internet Meas. Workshop (2001) pp. 39-53.
  45. A. Broido, Y. Hyun, K. C. Claffy, R. Gao, "Their share: Diversity and disparity in IP traffic," Lecture Notes Comput. Sci. 3015, 113-125 (2004).
  46. S. Sen, J. Wang, "Analyzing peer-to-peer traffic across large networks," IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 12, 219-232 (2004).
  47. C. Fraleigh, "Packet-level traffic measurements from the sprint IP backbone," IEEE Netw. 17, 6-16 (2003).
  48. C. Williamson, "Internet traffic measurement," IEEE Internet Comput. 5, 70-74 (2001).
  49. N. Taft, S. Bhattacharyya, J. Jetcheva, C. Diot, "Understanding traffic dynamics at a backbone POP," Proc. SPIE, Scalability Traffic Control IP Netw. (2001) pp. 150-156.
  50. W. Fang, L. Peterson, "Inter-AS traffic patterns and their implications," Proc. Seamless Interconnection For Universal Services. Global Telecommun. Conf. (GLOBECOM'99) (1999) pp. 1859-1868.
  51. R. J. Gibbens, F. P. Kelly, S. R. E. Turner, "Dynamic routing in multiparented networks," IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 1, 261-270 (1993).
  52. J. Misic, T. Y. Bun, "Adaptive admission control in wireless multimedia networks under non-uniform traffic conditions," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 18, 2429-2442 (2000).
  53. O. Komolafe, D. Harle, D. Cotter, "Impact of non-uniform traffic on the design of multi-hop regular virtual topologies for optical packet switching over arbitrary physical topologies," J. Lightw. Technol. 20, 1248-1263 (2002).

2008 (1)

A. H. Gnauck, "25.6 Tb/s WDM transmission of polarization-multiplexed RZ-DQPSK signals," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 79-84 (2008).

2006 (3)

E. Desurvire, "Capacity demand and technology challenges for lightwave systems in the next two decades," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 4697-4710 (2006).

H.-C. Leligou, K. Kanonakis, J. Angelopoulos, I. Pountourakis, T. Orphanoudakis, "Efficient burst aggregation for QOS-aware slotted OBS systems," Eur. Trans. Telecomm. 17, 93-98 (2006).

S. J. B. Yoo, "Optical packet and burst switching technologies for the future photonic internet," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 4468-4492 (2006).

2005 (2)

J. Y. Choi, J. Choi, M. Kang, "Dimensioning burst assembly process in optical burst switching networks," IEICE Trans. Commun., E88-B 10, 3855-3863 (2005).

X. Chu, J. Liu, B. Li, Z. Zhang, "Analytical model of sparse-partial wavelength conversion in wavelength-routed WDM networks," IEEE Commun. Lett. 9, 69-71 (2005).

2004 (8)

S. K. Korotky, "Network global expectation model: A statistical formalism for quickly quantifying network needs and costs," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 703-722 (2004).

A. Broido, Y. Hyun, K. C. Claffy, R. Gao, "Their share: Diversity and disparity in IP traffic," Lecture Notes Comput. Sci. 3015, 113-125 (2004).

S. Sen, J. Wang, "Analyzing peer-to-peer traffic across large networks," IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 12, 219-232 (2004).

X. Yu, J. Li, X. Cao, Y. Chen, C. Qiao, "Traffic statistics and performance evaluation in optical burst switched networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 2722-2738 (2004).

J. Y. Choi, H. L. Vu, C. W. Cameron, M. Zukerman, M. Kang, "The effect of burst assembly on performance of optical burst switched networks," Lecture Notes Comput. Sci. 3090, 729-739 (2004).

M. Zukerman, E. Wong, Z. Rosberg, G. Lee, H. V. Lu, "On teletraffic applications to OBS," IEEE Commun. Lett. 8, 116-118 (2004).

A. Zapata, I. de Miguel, M. Düser, J. Spencer, P. Bayvel, D. Breuer, N. Hanik, A. Gladish, "Next-generation 100-gigabit metro ethernet (100 GbME) using multiwavelength optical rings," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 2420-2434 (2004).

M. Düser, A. Zapata, P. Bayvel, "Investigation of the scalability of dynamic wavelength-routed optical networks," J. Opt. Netw. 3, 667-686 (2004).

2003 (3)

O. Gerstel, H. Raza, "On the synergy between electrical and photonic switching," IEEE Commun. Mag. 41, 98-104 (2003).

S. Sengupta, V. Kumar, D. Saha, "Switched optical backbone for cost-effective scalable core IP networks," IEEE Commun. Mag. 41, 60-70 (2003).

C. Fraleigh, "Packet-level traffic measurements from the sprint IP backbone," IEEE Netw. 17, 6-16 (2003).

2002 (4)

S. N. Dorogovtsev, A. V. Goltsev, J. F. Mendes, "Pseudofractal scale-free web," Phys. Rev. E 65, (2002).

C. Assi, A. Shami, M. Ali, Z. Zhang, X. Liu, "Impact of wavelength converters on the performance of optical networks," Opt. Netw. Mag. 3, 22-30 (2002).

M. Düser, P. Bayvel, "Analysis of a dynamically wavelength-routed optical burst switched network architecture," J. Lightw. Technol. 20, 574-585 (2002).

O. Komolafe, D. Harle, D. Cotter, "Impact of non-uniform traffic on the design of multi-hop regular virtual topologies for optical packet switching over arbitrary physical topologies," J. Lightw. Technol. 20, 1248-1263 (2002).

2001 (4)

C. Assi, A. Shami, M. Ali, "Optical networking and real-time provisioning: An integrated vision for the next-generation internet," IEEE Netw. 15, 36-45 (2001).

M. J. O'Mahony, D. Simeonidou, D. K. Hunter, A. Tzanakaki, "The application of optical packet switching in future communication networks," IEEE Commun. Mag. 39, 128-135 (2001).

H. Zang, J. Jue, L. Sahasrabuddhe, R. Ramamurthy, B. Mukherjee, "Dynamic lightpath establishment in wavelength routed WDM networks," IEEE Commun. Mag. 39, 100-108 (2001).

C. Williamson, "Internet traffic measurement," IEEE Internet Comput. 5, 70-74 (2001).

2000 (4)

A. Ge, F. Callegati, L. Tamil, "On optical burst switching and self-similar traffic," IEEE Commun. Lett. 4, 98-100 (2000).

D. K. Hunter, I. Andonovic, "Approaches to optical internet packet switching," IEEE Commun. Mag. 38, 116-122 (2000).

J. Späth, "Dynamic routing and resource allocation in WDM transport networks," Comput. Netw. 32, 519-538 (2000).

J. Misic, T. Y. Bun, "Adaptive admission control in wireless multimedia networks under non-uniform traffic conditions," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 18, 2429-2442 (2000).

1999 (3)

J. Yates, M. P. Rumsewicz, "Wavelength converters in dynamically-reconfigurable WDM networks," IEEE Commun. Surveys (1999) 2nd Quarter.

C. Qiao, M. Yoo, "Optical burst switching (OBS)—A new paradigm for an optical Internet," J. High Speed Netw. 8, 69-84 (1999).

L. Tancevski, A. Bononi, L. A. Rusch, "Output power and SNR swings in cascades of EDFAs for circuit- and packet-switched optical networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 17, 733-742 (1999).

1998 (1)

A. Mokhtar, M. Azizoglu, "Adaptive wavelength routing in all-optical networks," IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 6, (1998).

1997 (2)

A. Adas, "Traffic models in broadband networks," IEEE Commun. Mag. 35, 82-89 (1997).

S. Baroni, P. Bayvel, "Wavelength requirements in arbitrarily connected wavelength-routed optical networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 15, 242-251 (1997).

1996 (2)

N. Wauters, P. Demeester, "Design of the optical path layer in multiwavelength cross-connected networks," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 14, 881-892 (1996).

M. Kovacevic, A. Acampora, "Benefits of wavelength translation in all-optical clear-channel networks," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 14, 868-880 (1996).

1993 (1)

R. J. Gibbens, F. P. Kelly, S. R. E. Turner, "Dynamic routing in multiparented networks," IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 1, 261-270 (1993).

1992 (1)

I. Chlamtac, A. Ganz, G. Karmi, "Lightpath communications: An approach to high bandwidth optical WAN's," IEEE Trans. Commun. 40, 1171-1182 (1992).

Comput. Netw. (1)

J. Späth, "Dynamic routing and resource allocation in WDM transport networks," Comput. Netw. 32, 519-538 (2000).

Eur. Trans. Telecomm. (1)

H.-C. Leligou, K. Kanonakis, J. Angelopoulos, I. Pountourakis, T. Orphanoudakis, "Efficient burst aggregation for QOS-aware slotted OBS systems," Eur. Trans. Telecomm. 17, 93-98 (2006).

IEEE Commun. Mag. (1)

D. K. Hunter, I. Andonovic, "Approaches to optical internet packet switching," IEEE Commun. Mag. 38, 116-122 (2000).

IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. (2)

N. Wauters, P. Demeester, "Design of the optical path layer in multiwavelength cross-connected networks," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 14, 881-892 (1996).

M. Kovacevic, A. Acampora, "Benefits of wavelength translation in all-optical clear-channel networks," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 14, 868-880 (1996).

IEEE Netw. (2)

C. Fraleigh, "Packet-level traffic measurements from the sprint IP backbone," IEEE Netw. 17, 6-16 (2003).

C. Assi, A. Shami, M. Ali, "Optical networking and real-time provisioning: An integrated vision for the next-generation internet," IEEE Netw. 15, 36-45 (2001).

IEEE Commun. Lett. (1)

M. Zukerman, E. Wong, Z. Rosberg, G. Lee, H. V. Lu, "On teletraffic applications to OBS," IEEE Commun. Lett. 8, 116-118 (2004).

IEEE Commun. Lett. (2)

A. Ge, F. Callegati, L. Tamil, "On optical burst switching and self-similar traffic," IEEE Commun. Lett. 4, 98-100 (2000).

X. Chu, J. Liu, B. Li, Z. Zhang, "Analytical model of sparse-partial wavelength conversion in wavelength-routed WDM networks," IEEE Commun. Lett. 9, 69-71 (2005).

IEEE Commun. Mag. (5)

A. Adas, "Traffic models in broadband networks," IEEE Commun. Mag. 35, 82-89 (1997).

M. J. O'Mahony, D. Simeonidou, D. K. Hunter, A. Tzanakaki, "The application of optical packet switching in future communication networks," IEEE Commun. Mag. 39, 128-135 (2001).

H. Zang, J. Jue, L. Sahasrabuddhe, R. Ramamurthy, B. Mukherjee, "Dynamic lightpath establishment in wavelength routed WDM networks," IEEE Commun. Mag. 39, 100-108 (2001).

O. Gerstel, H. Raza, "On the synergy between electrical and photonic switching," IEEE Commun. Mag. 41, 98-104 (2003).

S. Sengupta, V. Kumar, D. Saha, "Switched optical backbone for cost-effective scalable core IP networks," IEEE Commun. Mag. 41, 60-70 (2003).

IEEE Commun. Surveys (1)

J. Yates, M. P. Rumsewicz, "Wavelength converters in dynamically-reconfigurable WDM networks," IEEE Commun. Surveys (1999) 2nd Quarter.

IEEE Internet Comput. (1)

C. Williamson, "Internet traffic measurement," IEEE Internet Comput. 5, 70-74 (2001).

IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. (1)

J. Misic, T. Y. Bun, "Adaptive admission control in wireless multimedia networks under non-uniform traffic conditions," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 18, 2429-2442 (2000).

IEEE Trans. Commun. (1)

I. Chlamtac, A. Ganz, G. Karmi, "Lightpath communications: An approach to high bandwidth optical WAN's," IEEE Trans. Commun. 40, 1171-1182 (1992).

IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. (1)

A. Mokhtar, M. Azizoglu, "Adaptive wavelength routing in all-optical networks," IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 6, (1998).

IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. (2)

S. Sen, J. Wang, "Analyzing peer-to-peer traffic across large networks," IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 12, 219-232 (2004).

R. J. Gibbens, F. P. Kelly, S. R. E. Turner, "Dynamic routing in multiparented networks," IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. 1, 261-270 (1993).

IEICE Trans. Commun., E88-B (1)

J. Y. Choi, J. Choi, M. Kang, "Dimensioning burst assembly process in optical burst switching networks," IEICE Trans. Commun., E88-B 10, 3855-3863 (2005).

J. Lightw. Technol. (3)

A. Zapata, I. de Miguel, M. Düser, J. Spencer, P. Bayvel, D. Breuer, N. Hanik, A. Gladish, "Next-generation 100-gigabit metro ethernet (100 GbME) using multiwavelength optical rings," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 2420-2434 (2004).

S. J. B. Yoo, "Optical packet and burst switching technologies for the future photonic internet," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 4468-4492 (2006).

A. H. Gnauck, "25.6 Tb/s WDM transmission of polarization-multiplexed RZ-DQPSK signals," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 79-84 (2008).

J. Opt. Netw. (1)

M. Düser, A. Zapata, P. Bayvel, "Investigation of the scalability of dynamic wavelength-routed optical networks," J. Opt. Netw. 3, 667-686 (2004).

J. High Speed Netw. (1)

C. Qiao, M. Yoo, "Optical burst switching (OBS)—A new paradigm for an optical Internet," J. High Speed Netw. 8, 69-84 (1999).

J. Lightw. Technol. (7)

L. Tancevski, A. Bononi, L. A. Rusch, "Output power and SNR swings in cascades of EDFAs for circuit- and packet-switched optical networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 17, 733-742 (1999).

X. Yu, J. Li, X. Cao, Y. Chen, C. Qiao, "Traffic statistics and performance evaluation in optical burst switched networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 2722-2738 (2004).

M. Düser, P. Bayvel, "Analysis of a dynamically wavelength-routed optical burst switched network architecture," J. Lightw. Technol. 20, 574-585 (2002).

S. Baroni, P. Bayvel, "Wavelength requirements in arbitrarily connected wavelength-routed optical networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 15, 242-251 (1997).

E. Desurvire, "Capacity demand and technology challenges for lightwave systems in the next two decades," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 4697-4710 (2006).

O. Komolafe, D. Harle, D. Cotter, "Impact of non-uniform traffic on the design of multi-hop regular virtual topologies for optical packet switching over arbitrary physical topologies," J. Lightw. Technol. 20, 1248-1263 (2002).

S. K. Korotky, "Network global expectation model: A statistical formalism for quickly quantifying network needs and costs," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 703-722 (2004).

Lecture Notes Comput. Sci. (2)

A. Broido, Y. Hyun, K. C. Claffy, R. Gao, "Their share: Diversity and disparity in IP traffic," Lecture Notes Comput. Sci. 3015, 113-125 (2004).

J. Y. Choi, H. L. Vu, C. W. Cameron, M. Zukerman, M. Kang, "The effect of burst assembly on performance of optical burst switched networks," Lecture Notes Comput. Sci. 3090, 729-739 (2004).

Opt. Netw. Mag. (1)

C. Assi, A. Shami, M. Ali, Z. Zhang, X. Liu, "Impact of wavelength converters on the performance of optical networks," Opt. Netw. Mag. 3, 22-30 (2002).

Phys. Rev. E (1)

S. N. Dorogovtsev, A. V. Goltsev, J. F. Mendes, "Pseudofractal scale-free web," Phys. Rev. E 65, (2002).

Other (14)

J. Luo, Q. Zeng, H. Chi, Z. Zhang, H. Zhao, "The impacts of burst assembly on the traffic properties in optical burst switching networks," Proc. ICCT 2003 - Int. Conf. Commun. Technol. (2003) pp. 521-524.

S. Ross, Stochastic Processes (Wiley, 1996) pp. 114-115.

S. Ross, A First Course in Probability (Prentice-Hall, 2002) pp. 206.

S. Keshav, An Engineering Approach to Computer Networking (Addison-Wesley, 1997).

G. Hu, K. Dolzer, C. Gauger, "Does burst assembly really reduce the self-similarity?," Proc. Opt. Fiber Conf., OFC2003 (2003) pp. 124-126.

X. Yu, Y. Chen, C. Qiao, "A study of traffic statistics of assembled burst traffic in optical burst switched networks," Proc. Opticommun. (2002) pp. 149-159.

I. de Miguel, M. Düser, P. Bayvel, "Traffic load bounds for optical burst-switched networks with dynamic wavelength allocation," Proc. IFIP 5th Conf. Opt. Netw. Design Modell. (2001) pp. 209-224.

M. Düser, "Investigation of the impact of traffic growth and variability on future network architectures," Proc. 31st Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. (2005) pp. 27-30.

A. Odlyzko, Minnesota Internet Traffic Studies (MINTS). http://www.dtc.umn.edu/mints/home.html.

G. Agrawal, Fiber-Optic Communication Systems (Wiley-Intersci., 2002).

S. Baroni, Routing and wavelength allocation in WDM optical networks Ph.D. dissertation Univ. College LondonLondonU.K. (1998).

S. Bhattacharyya, C. Diot, J. Jetcheva, N. Taft, "POP-level and access-link-level traffic dynamics in a tier-1 POP," Proc. ACM SIGCOMM Internet Meas. Workshop (2001) pp. 39-53.

N. Taft, S. Bhattacharyya, J. Jetcheva, C. Diot, "Understanding traffic dynamics at a backbone POP," Proc. SPIE, Scalability Traffic Control IP Netw. (2001) pp. 150-156.

W. Fang, L. Peterson, "Inter-AS traffic patterns and their implications," Proc. Seamless Interconnection For Universal Services. Global Telecommun. Conf. (GLOBECOM'99) (1999) pp. 1859-1868.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.