Abstract

We discuss the generation, detection, and long-haul transmission of single-polarization differential quadrature phase shift keying (DQPSK) signals at a line rate of 53.5 Gbaud to support a net information bit rate of 100 Gb/s. In the laboratory, we demonstrate 10-channel wavelength-division multiplexed (WDM) point-to-point transmission over 2000 km on a 150-GHz WDM grid, and 1200-km optically routed networking including 6 reconfigurable optical add/drop multiplexers (ROADMs) on a 100-GHz grid. We then report transmission over the commercial, 50-GHz spaced long-haul optical transport platform LambdaXtreme®. In a straight-line laboratory testbed, we demonstrate single-channel 700-km transmission, including an intermediate ROADM. On a field-deployed, live traffic bearing Verizon installation between Tampa and Miami, Florida, we achieve 500-km transmission, with no changes to the commercial system hardware or software and with 6 dB system margin. On the same operational system, we finally demonstrate 100-Gb/s DQPSK encoding on a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) and the transmission of real-time video traffic.

© 2008 IEEE

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  1. P. J. Winzer, G. Raybon, C. R. Doerr, M. Duelk, C. Dorrer, "107-Gb/s optical signal generation using electronic time-division multiplexing," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, (2006).
  2. K. Schuh, E. Lach, B. Junginger, G. Veith, J. Renaudier, G. Charlet, P. Tran, "8 tbit/s (80$\,\times\,$107 gbit/s) DWDM ASK-NRZ VSB transmission over 510 km NZDSF with 1 bit/s/hz spectral efficiency," Proc. ECOC'07 (2007) PD1.8.
  3. R. H. Derksen, G. Lehmann, C.-J. Weiske, C. Schubert, R. Ludwig, S. Ferber, C. Schmidt-Langenhorst, M. Moeller, J. Lutz, "Integrated 100 gbit/s ETDM receiver in a transmission experiment over 480 km DMF," Proc. OFC'06 (2006) PDP37.
  4. J. H. Sinsky, A. Adamiecki, L. Buhl, G. Raybon, P. Winzer, O. Wohlgemuth, M. Duelk, C. R. Doerr, A. Umbach, H.-G. Bach, D. Schmidt, "107-Gbit/s optoelectronic receiver with hybrid photodetector and demultiplexer," Proc. OFC'07 (2007) PDP30.
  5. G. Raybon, P. J. Winzer, C. R. Doerr, "1-Tb/s (10$\,\times\,$107 gb/s) electronically multiplexed optical signal generation and WDM transmission," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, (2007).
  6. M. Daikoku, I. Morita, H. Taga, H. Tanaka, T. Kawanishi, T. Sakamoto, T. Miyazaki, T. Fujita, "10-Gbit/s DQPSK transmission experiment without OTDM for 100 G ethernet transport," Proc.OFC'06 (2006) PDP36.
  7. P. J. Winzer, G. Raybon, C. R. Doerr, L. L. Buhl, T. Kawanishi, T. Sakamoto, M. Izutsu, K. Higuma, "2000-km WDM transmission of 10$\,\times\,$107-gb/s RZ-DQPSK," Proc. ECOC'06 (2006) Th 4.1.3.
  8. H. Masuda, A. Sano, T. Kobayashi, E. Yoshida, Y. Miyamoto, Y. Hibino, K. Hagimoto, T. Yamada, T. Furuta, H. Fukuyama, "20.4-Tb/s (204$\,\times\,$111 gb/s) transmission over 240 km using hybrid raman/edfas," Proc. OFC'07 (2007) PDP20.
  9. P. J. Winzer, G. Raybon, S. Chandrasekhar, C. R. Doerr, "10$\,\times\,$107-gb/s NRZ-DQPSK transmission over 12$\,\times\,$100 km including 6 routing nodes," Proc. OFC'07 (2007) PDP24.
  10. C. R. S. Fludger, T. Duthel, D. van den Borne, C. Schulien, E.-D. Scmidt, T. Wuth, E. d. Man, G. D. Khoe, H. d. Waardt, "10$\,\times\,$111 gbit/s, 50 GHz spaced, POLMUX-RZ-DQPSK transmission over 2375 km employing coherent equalisation," Proc. OFC'07 (2007) PDP22.
  11. S. Chandrasekhar, X. Liu, E. C. Burrows, L. L. Buhl, "Hybrid 107-gb/s polarization-multiplexed DQPSK and 42.7 DQPSK transmission at 1.4-bits/s/hz spectral efficiency over 1280 km of SSMF and 4 bandwidth-managed roadms," Proc. ECOC'07 (2007) PD 1.9.
  12. G. Raybon, P. J. Winzer, A. H. Gnauck, A. Adamiecki, D. A. Fishman, N. M. Denkin, Y.-H. Kao, S. Scrudato, T. Downs, C. R. Doerr, T. Kawanishi, K. Higuma, Y. Painchaud, C. Paquet, "107-Gb/s transmission over 700 km and one intermediate ROADM using lambdaxtreme® transport system," Proc. OFC'08 (2008) OMQ4.
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  14. ITU-T study group 15 http://www.itu.int/ITU-T/studygroups/com15/.
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  16. D. F. Welch, F. A. Kish, S. Melle, R. Nagarajan, M. Kato, C. H. Joyner, J. L. Pleumeekers, R. P. Schneider, J. Back, A. G. Dentai, V. G. Dominic, P. W. Evans, M. Kauffman, D. J. H. Lambert, S. K. Hurtt, A. Mathur, M. L. Mitchell, M. Missey, S. Murthy, A. C. Nilsson, R. A. Salvatore, M. F. Van. Leeuwen, J. Webjorn, M. Ziari, S. G. Grubb, D. Perkins, M. Reffle, D. G. Mehuys, "Large-Scale inp photonic integrated circuits," J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13, 22-122 (2007).
  17. A. D. Ellis, F. C. G. Gunning, T. Healy, "Coherent WDM: The achievement of high information spectral density through phase control within the transmitter," Proc. OFC'06 (2006) OThR4.
  18. A. Sano, H. Masuda, E. Yoshida, T. Kobayashi, E. Yamada, Y. Miyamoto, F. Inuzuka, Y. Hibino, Y. Takatori, K. Hagimoto, T. Yamada, Y. Sakamaki, "30$\,\times\,$100-gb/s all-optical OFDM transmission over 1300 km SMF with 10 ROADM nodes," Proc. ECOC'07 (2007) PD1.7.
  19. A. J. Lowery, L. B. Du, J. Armstrong, "Performance of optical OFDM in ultralong-haul WDM lightwave systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, (2007).
  20. S. L. Jansen, I. Morito, H. Tanaka, "16$\,\times\,$52.5-gb/s, 50-ghz spaced, POLMUX-CO-OFDM transmission over 4,160 km of SSMF enabled by MIMO processing," Proc. ECOC'07 (2007) PD1.3.
  21. H. Song, A. Adamiecki, P. J. Winzer, C. Woodworth, S. Corteselli, G. Raybon, "Multiplexing and DQPSK precoding of 10.7-Gb/s client signals to 107 Gb/s using an FPGA," OFC 2008 Paper OTuG3.
  22. T. J. Xia, G. Wellbrock, W. Lee, G. Lyons, P. Hofmann, T. Fisk, B. Basch, W. Kluge, J. Gatewood, P. J. Winzer, G. Raybon, T. Kissel, T. Carenza, A. H. Gnauck, A. Adamiecki, D. A. Fishman, N. M. Denkin, C. R. Doerr, M. Duelk, T. Kawanishi, K. Higuma, Y. Painchaud, C. Paquet, "Transmission of 107-gb/s DQPSK over verizon 504-km commercial lambdaxtreme transport system," OFC/NFOEC'2008 Paper NMC2.
  23. P. J. Winzer, R.-J. Essiambre, "Advanced optical modulation formats," Proc. IEEE 94 (2006).
  24. M. Serbay, C. Wree, W. Rosenkranz, "Implementation of differential precoder for high-speed optical DQPSK transmission," Electron. Lett. 40, 1288-1289 (2004).
  25. M. Serbay, C. Wree, A. Schopflin, C.-J. Weiske, D. van den Borne, S. L. Jansen, G.-D. Khoe, P. Krummrich, P. Leisching, W. Rosenkranz, "Coding gain of FEC encoded 21.42 Gb/s RZ-DQPSK using an electrical differential quaternary precoder," Proc. ECOC'05 (2005) We4.P.010.
  26. Y. Konishi, K. Ishida, K. Kubo, T. Mizuochi, "True PRBS transmission of DQPSK by differential precoder employing parallel prefix network," Proc. OFC'06, OThR3 (2006).
  27. P. J. Winzer, C. Woodworth, F. Fidler, P. K. Reddy, H. Song, A. Adamiecki, "Temporal alignment of high-speed transmit channels of an FPGA," Electron. Lett. (2008).
  28. C. R. Doerr, D. M. Gill, A. H. Gnauck, L. L. Buhl, P. J. Winzer, M. A. Cappuzzo, A. Wong-Foy, E. Y. Chen, L. T. Gomez, "Simultaneous reception of both quadratures of 40-gb/s DQPSK using a simple monolithic demodulator," Proc. OFC'05 (2005) PDP12.
  29. C. R. Doerr, S. Chandrasekhar, P. J. Winzer, A. R. Chraplyvy, A. H. Gnauck, L. W. Stulz, R. Pafchek, E. Burrows, "Simple multi-channel optical equalizer mitigating intersymbol interference for 40-gb/s non return-to-zero signals," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, (2004).
  30. H. Kim, P. J. Winzer, "Robustness to laser frequency offset in direct-detection DPSK and DQPSK systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, (2003).
  31. U. Dumler, M. Moller, A. Bielik, T. Ellermeyer, H. Langenhagen, W. Walthes, J. Mejri, "86 gbit/s sige receiver module with high sensitivity for 160$\,\times\,$86 gbit/s DWDM system," Electron. Lett. 42, (2006).
  32. A. H. Gnauck, G. Charlet, P. Tran, P. J. Winzer, C. R. Doerr, J. Centanni, E. Burrows, T. Kawanishi, T. Sakamoto, K. Higuma, "25.6-Tb/s $c+l$-band transmission of polarization-multiplexed RZ-DQPSK signals," Proc. OFC'07 (2007) PDP19.
  33. S. Frisken, H. Zhou, D. Abakoumov, G. Baxter, S. Poole, H. Ereifej, P. Hallemeier, "High performance 'drop and continue' functionality in a wavelength selective switch," Proc. OFC'06 (2006) PDP14.
  34. B. Clouet, B. L. Guyader, S. Lobo, F. Merlaud, J. C. Simon, T. Ducellier, "Cascadability of 16 1$\,\times\,$9 wavelength selective switches with 5$\,\times\,$42.6 Gb/s CSRZ," Proc. ECOC'05 (2005) We4.P.117.
  35. D. A. Fishman, J. Ying, X. Liu, S. Chandrasekhar, A. H. Gnauck, "Optical add/drop multiplexer with asymmetric bandwidth allocation and dispersion compensation for hybrid 10-gb/s and 40-gb/s DWDM transmission," Proc. OFC'06 (2006) OWI64.
  36. S. Chandrasekhar, X. Liu, D. Kilper, C. R. Doerr, A. H. Gnauck, E. C. Burrows, L. L. Buhl, "Terabit transmission at 42.7-gb/s on 50-ghz grid using hybrid RZ-DQPSK and NRZ-DBPSK formats over 16$\,\times\,$80 km SSMF spans and 4 bandwidth-managed roadms," J. Lightw. Technol. (2008).
  37. D. A. Fishman, "LambdaXtreme® transport system: R&D of a high capacity system for low cost, ultra long haul DWDM transport," Bell Labs Tech. J. 11, (2006).
  38. Y. Painchaud, M. Lapointe, F. Trepanier, R. L. Lachance, C. Paquet, M. Guy, "Recent progress on fbg-based tunable dispersion compensators for 40-gb/s applications," Proc. OFC'07 (2007) OThP3.

2008 (2)

P. J. Winzer, C. Woodworth, F. Fidler, P. K. Reddy, H. Song, A. Adamiecki, "Temporal alignment of high-speed transmit channels of an FPGA," Electron. Lett. (2008).

S. Chandrasekhar, X. Liu, D. Kilper, C. R. Doerr, A. H. Gnauck, E. C. Burrows, L. L. Buhl, "Terabit transmission at 42.7-gb/s on 50-ghz grid using hybrid RZ-DQPSK and NRZ-DBPSK formats over 16$\,\times\,$80 km SSMF spans and 4 bandwidth-managed roadms," J. Lightw. Technol. (2008).

2007 (3)

G. Raybon, P. J. Winzer, C. R. Doerr, "1-Tb/s (10$\,\times\,$107 gb/s) electronically multiplexed optical signal generation and WDM transmission," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, (2007).

D. F. Welch, F. A. Kish, S. Melle, R. Nagarajan, M. Kato, C. H. Joyner, J. L. Pleumeekers, R. P. Schneider, J. Back, A. G. Dentai, V. G. Dominic, P. W. Evans, M. Kauffman, D. J. H. Lambert, S. K. Hurtt, A. Mathur, M. L. Mitchell, M. Missey, S. Murthy, A. C. Nilsson, R. A. Salvatore, M. F. Van. Leeuwen, J. Webjorn, M. Ziari, S. G. Grubb, D. Perkins, M. Reffle, D. G. Mehuys, "Large-Scale inp photonic integrated circuits," J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13, 22-122 (2007).

A. J. Lowery, L. B. Du, J. Armstrong, "Performance of optical OFDM in ultralong-haul WDM lightwave systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, (2007).

2006 (4)

P. J. Winzer, G. Raybon, C. R. Doerr, M. Duelk, C. Dorrer, "107-Gb/s optical signal generation using electronic time-division multiplexing," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, (2006).

Y. Konishi, K. Ishida, K. Kubo, T. Mizuochi, "True PRBS transmission of DQPSK by differential precoder employing parallel prefix network," Proc. OFC'06, OThR3 (2006).

D. A. Fishman, "LambdaXtreme® transport system: R&D of a high capacity system for low cost, ultra long haul DWDM transport," Bell Labs Tech. J. 11, (2006).

U. Dumler, M. Moller, A. Bielik, T. Ellermeyer, H. Langenhagen, W. Walthes, J. Mejri, "86 gbit/s sige receiver module with high sensitivity for 160$\,\times\,$86 gbit/s DWDM system," Electron. Lett. 42, (2006).

2004 (2)

C. R. Doerr, S. Chandrasekhar, P. J. Winzer, A. R. Chraplyvy, A. H. Gnauck, L. W. Stulz, R. Pafchek, E. Burrows, "Simple multi-channel optical equalizer mitigating intersymbol interference for 40-gb/s non return-to-zero signals," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, (2004).

M. Serbay, C. Wree, W. Rosenkranz, "Implementation of differential precoder for high-speed optical DQPSK transmission," Electron. Lett. 40, 1288-1289 (2004).

2003 (1)

H. Kim, P. J. Winzer, "Robustness to laser frequency offset in direct-detection DPSK and DQPSK systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, (2003).

Bell Labs Tech. J. (1)

D. A. Fishman, "LambdaXtreme® transport system: R&D of a high capacity system for low cost, ultra long haul DWDM transport," Bell Labs Tech. J. 11, (2006).

Electron. Lett. (3)

U. Dumler, M. Moller, A. Bielik, T. Ellermeyer, H. Langenhagen, W. Walthes, J. Mejri, "86 gbit/s sige receiver module with high sensitivity for 160$\,\times\,$86 gbit/s DWDM system," Electron. Lett. 42, (2006).

M. Serbay, C. Wree, W. Rosenkranz, "Implementation of differential precoder for high-speed optical DQPSK transmission," Electron. Lett. 40, 1288-1289 (2004).

P. J. Winzer, C. Woodworth, F. Fidler, P. K. Reddy, H. Song, A. Adamiecki, "Temporal alignment of high-speed transmit channels of an FPGA," Electron. Lett. (2008).

J. Lightw. Technol. (6)

C. R. Doerr, S. Chandrasekhar, P. J. Winzer, A. R. Chraplyvy, A. H. Gnauck, L. W. Stulz, R. Pafchek, E. Burrows, "Simple multi-channel optical equalizer mitigating intersymbol interference for 40-gb/s non return-to-zero signals," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, (2004).

H. Kim, P. J. Winzer, "Robustness to laser frequency offset in direct-detection DPSK and DQPSK systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, (2003).

S. Chandrasekhar, X. Liu, D. Kilper, C. R. Doerr, A. H. Gnauck, E. C. Burrows, L. L. Buhl, "Terabit transmission at 42.7-gb/s on 50-ghz grid using hybrid RZ-DQPSK and NRZ-DBPSK formats over 16$\,\times\,$80 km SSMF spans and 4 bandwidth-managed roadms," J. Lightw. Technol. (2008).

G. Raybon, P. J. Winzer, C. R. Doerr, "1-Tb/s (10$\,\times\,$107 gb/s) electronically multiplexed optical signal generation and WDM transmission," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, (2007).

P. J. Winzer, G. Raybon, C. R. Doerr, M. Duelk, C. Dorrer, "107-Gb/s optical signal generation using electronic time-division multiplexing," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, (2006).

A. J. Lowery, L. B. Du, J. Armstrong, "Performance of optical OFDM in ultralong-haul WDM lightwave systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, (2007).

J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

D. F. Welch, F. A. Kish, S. Melle, R. Nagarajan, M. Kato, C. H. Joyner, J. L. Pleumeekers, R. P. Schneider, J. Back, A. G. Dentai, V. G. Dominic, P. W. Evans, M. Kauffman, D. J. H. Lambert, S. K. Hurtt, A. Mathur, M. L. Mitchell, M. Missey, S. Murthy, A. C. Nilsson, R. A. Salvatore, M. F. Van. Leeuwen, J. Webjorn, M. Ziari, S. G. Grubb, D. Perkins, M. Reffle, D. G. Mehuys, "Large-Scale inp photonic integrated circuits," J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13, 22-122 (2007).

Proc. OFC'06, OThR3 (1)

Y. Konishi, K. Ishida, K. Kubo, T. Mizuochi, "True PRBS transmission of DQPSK by differential precoder employing parallel prefix network," Proc. OFC'06, OThR3 (2006).

Other (26)

Y. Painchaud, M. Lapointe, F. Trepanier, R. L. Lachance, C. Paquet, M. Guy, "Recent progress on fbg-based tunable dispersion compensators for 40-gb/s applications," Proc. OFC'07 (2007) OThP3.

A. H. Gnauck, G. Charlet, P. Tran, P. J. Winzer, C. R. Doerr, J. Centanni, E. Burrows, T. Kawanishi, T. Sakamoto, K. Higuma, "25.6-Tb/s $c+l$-band transmission of polarization-multiplexed RZ-DQPSK signals," Proc. OFC'07 (2007) PDP19.

S. Frisken, H. Zhou, D. Abakoumov, G. Baxter, S. Poole, H. Ereifej, P. Hallemeier, "High performance 'drop and continue' functionality in a wavelength selective switch," Proc. OFC'06 (2006) PDP14.

B. Clouet, B. L. Guyader, S. Lobo, F. Merlaud, J. C. Simon, T. Ducellier, "Cascadability of 16 1$\,\times\,$9 wavelength selective switches with 5$\,\times\,$42.6 Gb/s CSRZ," Proc. ECOC'05 (2005) We4.P.117.

D. A. Fishman, J. Ying, X. Liu, S. Chandrasekhar, A. H. Gnauck, "Optical add/drop multiplexer with asymmetric bandwidth allocation and dispersion compensation for hybrid 10-gb/s and 40-gb/s DWDM transmission," Proc. OFC'06 (2006) OWI64.

A. D. Ellis, F. C. G. Gunning, T. Healy, "Coherent WDM: The achievement of high information spectral density through phase control within the transmitter," Proc. OFC'06 (2006) OThR4.

A. Sano, H. Masuda, E. Yoshida, T. Kobayashi, E. Yamada, Y. Miyamoto, F. Inuzuka, Y. Hibino, Y. Takatori, K. Hagimoto, T. Yamada, Y. Sakamaki, "30$\,\times\,$100-gb/s all-optical OFDM transmission over 1300 km SMF with 10 ROADM nodes," Proc. ECOC'07 (2007) PD1.7.

M. Serbay, C. Wree, A. Schopflin, C.-J. Weiske, D. van den Borne, S. L. Jansen, G.-D. Khoe, P. Krummrich, P. Leisching, W. Rosenkranz, "Coding gain of FEC encoded 21.42 Gb/s RZ-DQPSK using an electrical differential quaternary precoder," Proc. ECOC'05 (2005) We4.P.010.

C. R. Doerr, D. M. Gill, A. H. Gnauck, L. L. Buhl, P. J. Winzer, M. A. Cappuzzo, A. Wong-Foy, E. Y. Chen, L. T. Gomez, "Simultaneous reception of both quadratures of 40-gb/s DQPSK using a simple monolithic demodulator," Proc. OFC'05 (2005) PDP12.

S. L. Jansen, I. Morito, H. Tanaka, "16$\,\times\,$52.5-gb/s, 50-ghz spaced, POLMUX-CO-OFDM transmission over 4,160 km of SSMF enabled by MIMO processing," Proc. ECOC'07 (2007) PD1.3.

H. Song, A. Adamiecki, P. J. Winzer, C. Woodworth, S. Corteselli, G. Raybon, "Multiplexing and DQPSK precoding of 10.7-Gb/s client signals to 107 Gb/s using an FPGA," OFC 2008 Paper OTuG3.

T. J. Xia, G. Wellbrock, W. Lee, G. Lyons, P. Hofmann, T. Fisk, B. Basch, W. Kluge, J. Gatewood, P. J. Winzer, G. Raybon, T. Kissel, T. Carenza, A. H. Gnauck, A. Adamiecki, D. A. Fishman, N. M. Denkin, C. R. Doerr, M. Duelk, T. Kawanishi, K. Higuma, Y. Painchaud, C. Paquet, "Transmission of 107-gb/s DQPSK over verizon 504-km commercial lambdaxtreme transport system," OFC/NFOEC'2008 Paper NMC2.

P. J. Winzer, R.-J. Essiambre, "Advanced optical modulation formats," Proc. IEEE 94 (2006).

K. Schuh, E. Lach, B. Junginger, G. Veith, J. Renaudier, G. Charlet, P. Tran, "8 tbit/s (80$\,\times\,$107 gbit/s) DWDM ASK-NRZ VSB transmission over 510 km NZDSF with 1 bit/s/hz spectral efficiency," Proc. ECOC'07 (2007) PD1.8.

R. H. Derksen, G. Lehmann, C.-J. Weiske, C. Schubert, R. Ludwig, S. Ferber, C. Schmidt-Langenhorst, M. Moeller, J. Lutz, "Integrated 100 gbit/s ETDM receiver in a transmission experiment over 480 km DMF," Proc. OFC'06 (2006) PDP37.

J. H. Sinsky, A. Adamiecki, L. Buhl, G. Raybon, P. Winzer, O. Wohlgemuth, M. Duelk, C. R. Doerr, A. Umbach, H.-G. Bach, D. Schmidt, "107-Gbit/s optoelectronic receiver with hybrid photodetector and demultiplexer," Proc. OFC'07 (2007) PDP30.

M. Daikoku, I. Morita, H. Taga, H. Tanaka, T. Kawanishi, T. Sakamoto, T. Miyazaki, T. Fujita, "10-Gbit/s DQPSK transmission experiment without OTDM for 100 G ethernet transport," Proc.OFC'06 (2006) PDP36.

P. J. Winzer, G. Raybon, C. R. Doerr, L. L. Buhl, T. Kawanishi, T. Sakamoto, M. Izutsu, K. Higuma, "2000-km WDM transmission of 10$\,\times\,$107-gb/s RZ-DQPSK," Proc. ECOC'06 (2006) Th 4.1.3.

H. Masuda, A. Sano, T. Kobayashi, E. Yoshida, Y. Miyamoto, Y. Hibino, K. Hagimoto, T. Yamada, T. Furuta, H. Fukuyama, "20.4-Tb/s (204$\,\times\,$111 gb/s) transmission over 240 km using hybrid raman/edfas," Proc. OFC'07 (2007) PDP20.

P. J. Winzer, G. Raybon, S. Chandrasekhar, C. R. Doerr, "10$\,\times\,$107-gb/s NRZ-DQPSK transmission over 12$\,\times\,$100 km including 6 routing nodes," Proc. OFC'07 (2007) PDP24.

C. R. S. Fludger, T. Duthel, D. van den Borne, C. Schulien, E.-D. Scmidt, T. Wuth, E. d. Man, G. D. Khoe, H. d. Waardt, "10$\,\times\,$111 gbit/s, 50 GHz spaced, POLMUX-RZ-DQPSK transmission over 2375 km employing coherent equalisation," Proc. OFC'07 (2007) PDP22.

S. Chandrasekhar, X. Liu, E. C. Burrows, L. L. Buhl, "Hybrid 107-gb/s polarization-multiplexed DQPSK and 42.7 DQPSK transmission at 1.4-bits/s/hz spectral efficiency over 1280 km of SSMF and 4 bandwidth-managed roadms," Proc. ECOC'07 (2007) PD 1.9.

G. Raybon, P. J. Winzer, A. H. Gnauck, A. Adamiecki, D. A. Fishman, N. M. Denkin, Y.-H. Kao, S. Scrudato, T. Downs, C. R. Doerr, T. Kawanishi, K. Higuma, Y. Painchaud, C. Paquet, "107-Gb/s transmission over 700 km and one intermediate ROADM using lambdaxtreme® transport system," Proc. OFC'08 (2008) OMQ4.

IEEE 802.3 higher speed study group http://grouper.ieee.org/groups/802/3/hssg/.

ITU-T study group 15 http://www.itu.int/ITU-T/studygroups/com15/.

P. J. Winzer, G. Raybon, "100G ethernet—a review of serial transport options," LEOS Annu. Meeting 2007, (2007) MA2.2.

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