Abstract

This paper presents the latest progress toward fully embedded board-level optical interconnects in the aspect of waveguide fabrication and device integration. A one-step pattern transfer method is used to form a large cross-section multimode waveguide array with 45° micromirrors by silicon hard molding method. Optimized by a novel spin-coating surface smoothing method for the master mold, the waveguide propagation loss is reduced to 0.09 dB/cm. The coupling efficiency of the metal-coated reflecting mirror, which is embedded in the thin-film waveguide, is simulated by an M<sup>2</sup> factor revised Gaussian beam method and is experimentally measured to be 85%. The active optoelectronic devices, vertical surface emitter lasers and p-i-n photodiodes, are integrated with the mirror-ended waveguide array and successfully demonstrate a 10 Gbps signal transmission over the embeddable optical layer.

© 2008 IEEE

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2007 (2)

A. L. Glebov, M. G. Lee, K. Yokouchi, "Integration technologies for pluggable backplane optical interconnect systems," Opt. Eng. 46, 015403-015403 (2007).

X. Wang, L. Wang, W. Jiang, R. T. Chen, "51 cm-long hard-molded waveguide array with 150 GHz bandwidth for board level optical interconnects," Opt. Lett. 32, 677-679 (2007).

2006 (1)

M. Schneider, T. Kühner, "Optical interconnects on printed circuit boards using embedded optical fibers," Proc. SPIE 6185, 61850L-1 (2006).

2004 (1)

C. Choi, L. Lin, Y. Liu, J. Choi, L. Wang, D. Haas, J. Magera, R. T. Chen, "Flexible optical waveguide film fabrications and optoelectronic devices integration for fully embedded board-level optical interconnects," IEEE J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 2168-2176 (2004).

2003 (2)

D. Huang, T. Sze, A. Landin, R. Lytel, H. L. Davidson, "Optical interconnects: Out of the box forever?," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 9, 614-623 (2003).

J. H. Collet, F. Cagneit, F. Sellaye, D. Litaize, "Performance constraints for onchip optical interconnects," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 9, 425-432 (2003).

1993 (1)

A. E. Siegman, S. W. Townsend, "Output beam propagation and beam quality from a multimode stable-cavity laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 1212-1217 (1993).

1984 (1)

J. W. Goodman, F. I. Leonberger, S. Y. Kung, R. A. Athale, "Optical interconnections for VLSI systems," Proc. IEEE 72, 850-866 (1984).

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett (1)

L. Wang, X. Wang, W. Jiang, J. Choi, H. Bi, R. T. Chen, "45° polymer-based total internal reflection coupling mirrors for fully embedded intraboard guided wave optical interconnects," Appl. Phys. Lett 87, 141110-141110.

IEEE J. Lightw. Technol. (1)

C. Choi, L. Lin, Y. Liu, J. Choi, L. Wang, D. Haas, J. Magera, R. T. Chen, "Flexible optical waveguide film fabrications and optoelectronic devices integration for fully embedded board-level optical interconnects," IEEE J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 2168-2176 (2004).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

A. E. Siegman, S. W. Townsend, "Output beam propagation and beam quality from a multimode stable-cavity laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 1212-1217 (1993).

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (2)

J. H. Collet, F. Cagneit, F. Sellaye, D. Litaize, "Performance constraints for onchip optical interconnects," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 9, 425-432 (2003).

D. Huang, T. Sze, A. Landin, R. Lytel, H. L. Davidson, "Optical interconnects: Out of the box forever?," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 9, 614-623 (2003).

J. Micromech. Microeng. (1)

D. Nilsson, S. Jensen, A. Menon, "Fabrication of silicon molds for polymer optics," J. Micromech. Microeng. 13, S57-S61.

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

K. B. Yoon, C. G. Choi, S. P. Han, "Fabrication of multimode polymeric waveguides by hot embossing lithography," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, 3450-3451.

Opt. Eng. (1)

A. L. Glebov, M. G. Lee, K. Yokouchi, "Integration technologies for pluggable backplane optical interconnect systems," Opt. Eng. 46, 015403-015403 (2007).

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Proc. IEEE (2)

R. T. Chen, L. Lin, C. Choi, Y. Liu, B. Bihari, L. Wu, S. Tang, R. Wickman, B. Picor, M. K. Hibbs-brenner, J. Bristow, Y. S. Liu, "Fully embedded board-level guided wave optoelectronic interconnects," Proc. IEEE 88, 780-794.

J. W. Goodman, F. I. Leonberger, S. Y. Kung, R. A. Athale, "Optical interconnections for VLSI systems," Proc. IEEE 72, 850-866 (1984).

Proc. SPIE (1)

M. Schneider, T. Kühner, "Optical interconnects on printed circuit boards using embedded optical fibers," Proc. SPIE 6185, 61850L-1 (2006).

Other (2)

The National Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS)—Technology Needs (International SEMATECH, Semiconductor Industry Association, 2005).

S. Berry, Advanced Bus and Interface Market and Trends (Electronic Trend, 2003).

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