Abstract

We demonstrate a universal reconfigurable add–drop optical filter based on arrays of digital micromirrors. Our approach allows for reconfiguration of the device parameters for operation in different sets of channel wavelengths, even or uneven channel-to-channel separation, adjustable channel passband, and dynamic add–drop of optical signals. The proposed device shows insertion loss at the center wavelength in the all-pass configuration of 7.6 dB, extinction ratio of 35 dB, channel isolation better than 24dB, negligible loss ripple, and possibility of reconfiguration time in the order of microseconds. Although designed for demonstration on optical telecommunication frequencies, the high-flexibility features of the proposed add–drop filter allow it to be used for other optical wavelength-based filtering/switching applications.

© 2008 IEEE

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  1. A. Himeno, K. Kato, T. Miya, "Silica-based planar lightwave circuits," IEEE Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 4, 913-924 (1998).
  2. M. Knapczyk, A. Krishnan, L. G. de Peralta, A. A. Bernussi, H. Temkin, "Reconfigurable optical filter based on digital mirror arrays," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1743-1745 (2005).
  3. J. E. Ford, J. A. Walker, "Dynamic spectral power equalization using micro-opto-mechanics," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1440-1442 (1998).
  4. T. Sano, T. Iwashima, M. Katayama, T. Kanie, M. Harumoto, M. Shigehara, H. Suganuma, M. Nishimura, "Novel multichannel tunable chromatic dispersion compensator based on MEMS and diffraction grating," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1109-1110 (2003).
  5. A. Weiner, "Femtosecond pulse shaping using spatial light modulators," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 1929-1960 (2000).
  6. H. P. Sardesai, C. C. Chang, A. M. Weiner, "A femtosecond code division multiple access communication system test-bed," J. Lightw. Technol. 16, 1953-1964 (1998).
  7. H. Venghaus, A. Gladisch, B. F. Joergensen, J.-M. Jouanno, M. Kristensen, R. J. Pedersen, F. Testa, D. Trommer, J. P. Weber, "Optical add/drop multiplexers for WDM communication systems," Tech. Dig. Conf. Opt. Fiber Commun. (1997) pp. 280-281.
  8. J. Kim, B. Lee, "Bidirectional wavelength add-drop multiplexer using multiport optical circulators and fiber bragg gratings," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 561-563 (2000).
  9. M. Shirane, A. Gomyo, K. Miura, Y. Ohtera, H. Yamada, S. Kawakami, "Optical add-drop multiplexers based on autocloned photonic crystals," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 23, 1372-1377 (2005).
  10. B. Liu, A. Shakouri, P. Abraham, J. E. Bowers, "Optical add/drop multiplexers based on X-crossing vertical coupler filters," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 410-412 (2000).
  11. M. C. Wu, J.-C. Tsai, S. Huang, D. Hah, "MEMS WDM routers using analog micromirror arrays," Proc. 2002 IEEE/LEOS Annu. Meeting Conf. (2002) pp. 582-583.
  12. B. P. Keyworth, "ROADM subsystems and technologies," Tech. Dig. 2005 Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. (2005) pp. OWB5-1-4.
  13. J. Kondis, B. A. Scott, A. Ranalli, R. Lindquist, "Liquid crystals in bulk optics-based DWDM optical switches and spectral equalizers," Proc. LEOS 2001 (2001) pp. 292-293.
  14. L. Eldada, J. Fujita, R. Gerhardt, A. Radojevic, O. Zhuromskyy, "Channel switching/monitoring/equalizing/shuffling subsystem on a chip for reconfigurable OADM," Proc. Integr. Photon. Res. (2003) pp. ITUG1-1-3.
  15. K. Takahashi, M. Tamura, T. Sano, K. Saito, H. Suganuma, "Reconfigurable optical add/drop multiplexer using passive temperature-compensated wavelength tunable fiber bragg grating," Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Exhibit (2001) pp. WDD93-1-3-4.
  16. A. V. Tran, W. D. Zhong, R. S. Tucker, K. Song, "Reconfigurable multichannel optical add-drop multiplexers incorporating eight-port optical circulators and fiber bragg gratings," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 1100-1102 (2001).
  17. E. J. Klein, D. H. Geuzebroek, H. Kelderman, G. Sengo, N. Baker, A. Driessen, "Reconfigurable optical add-drop multiplexer using microring resonators," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2358-2360 (2005).
  18. J. E. Ford, V. A. Aksyuk, D. J. Bishop, J. A. Walker, "Wavelength add-drop switching using tilting micromirrors," J. Lightw. Technol. 17, 904-911 (1999).
  19. S. Mechels, L. Muller, G. D. Morley, D. Tillett, "1D MEMS-based wavelength switching subsystem," IEEE Commun. Mag. 88-94 (2003).
  20. N. A. Riza, S. Sumriddetchkajorn, "Fault-tolerant dense multi-wave-length add-drop filter with a two-dimensional digital micromirror device," Appl. Opt. 37, 6355-6361 (1998).
  21. C. He, X. Wang, Y. Li, W.-S. Tsay, "Techniques for reconfigurable optical add/drop multiplexer," Proc. SPIE 2004 5356, 107-117 (2004).
  22. Y. Li, C. He, D. Wang, X. Wang, F. Wu, W.-S. Tsay, "Functionally integrated reconfigurable optical add/drop module," Proc. SPIE 2004 5281, 207-214 (2004).
  23. R. Ryf, Y. Su, L. Möller, S. Chandrasekhar, X. Liu, D. T. Neilson, C. R. Giles, "Wavelength blocking filter with flexible data rates and channel spacing," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 54-60 (2005).
  24. D. M. Marom, D. T. Neilson, D. S. Greywall, C.-S. Pai, N. R. Basavanhally, V. A. Aksyuk, D. O. López, F. Pardo, M. E. Simon, Y. Low, P. Kolodner, C. A. Bolle, "Wavelength-Selective 1 x K switches using free-space optics and MEMS micromirrors: Theory, design, and implementation," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 1620-1629 (2005).
  25. G. Baxter, S. Frisken, D. Abakoumov, H. Zhou, I. Clarke, A. Bartos, S. Poole, "Highly programmable wavelength selective switch based on liquid crystal on silicon switching elements," Proc. OFCNFOEC 2006 (2006) pp. 66-67.
  26. W. M. Duncan, B. Lee, P. Rancuret, B. Sawyers, D. Powell, "DLP™ switched blaze grating: The heart of optical signal processing," Proc. SPIE 4983, 38-46 (2003).
  27. S. Sundaram, M. Knapczyk, H. Temkin, "All-Optical switch based on digital micromirrors," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 807-809 (2003).
  28. M. Knapczyk, A. Krishnan, L. G. de Peralta, A. A. Bernussi, H. Temkin, "High-resolution pulse shaper based on arrays of digital micromirrors," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2200-2202 (2005).
  29. N. A. Riza, S. A. Reza, "Hybrid analog-digital design microelectro-mechanical systems spectral processor for simultaneous gain slope and channel equalization controls," Opt. Eng. 46, 30501-1-3 (2007).
  30. F. Forghieri, A. H. Gnauck, R. W. Tkach, A. R. Chraplyvy, R. M. Derosier, "Repeaterless transmission of eight channels at 10 Gb/s over 137 km (11 Tb/s-km) of dispersion-shifted fiber using unequal channel spacing," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 1374-1376 (1994).
  31. K. Okamoto, M. Ishii, Y. Hibino, Y. Ohmori, H. Toba, "Fabrication of unequal channel spacing arrayed-waveguide grating multiplexer modules," Electron. Lett. 31, 1464-1466 (1995).
  32. V. L. L. Thing, P. Shum, M. K. Rao, "Bandwidth-Efficient WDM channel allocation for four-wave mixing-effect minimization," IEEE Trans. Commun. 52, 2184-2189 (2004).

2007 (1)

N. A. Riza, S. A. Reza, "Hybrid analog-digital design microelectro-mechanical systems spectral processor for simultaneous gain slope and channel equalization controls," Opt. Eng. 46, 30501-1-3 (2007).

2005 (6)

M. Knapczyk, A. Krishnan, L. G. de Peralta, A. A. Bernussi, H. Temkin, "High-resolution pulse shaper based on arrays of digital micromirrors," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2200-2202 (2005).

M. Knapczyk, A. Krishnan, L. G. de Peralta, A. A. Bernussi, H. Temkin, "Reconfigurable optical filter based on digital mirror arrays," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1743-1745 (2005).

M. Shirane, A. Gomyo, K. Miura, Y. Ohtera, H. Yamada, S. Kawakami, "Optical add-drop multiplexers based on autocloned photonic crystals," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 23, 1372-1377 (2005).

E. J. Klein, D. H. Geuzebroek, H. Kelderman, G. Sengo, N. Baker, A. Driessen, "Reconfigurable optical add-drop multiplexer using microring resonators," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2358-2360 (2005).

R. Ryf, Y. Su, L. Möller, S. Chandrasekhar, X. Liu, D. T. Neilson, C. R. Giles, "Wavelength blocking filter with flexible data rates and channel spacing," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 54-60 (2005).

D. M. Marom, D. T. Neilson, D. S. Greywall, C.-S. Pai, N. R. Basavanhally, V. A. Aksyuk, D. O. López, F. Pardo, M. E. Simon, Y. Low, P. Kolodner, C. A. Bolle, "Wavelength-Selective 1 x K switches using free-space optics and MEMS micromirrors: Theory, design, and implementation," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 1620-1629 (2005).

2004 (3)

C. He, X. Wang, Y. Li, W.-S. Tsay, "Techniques for reconfigurable optical add/drop multiplexer," Proc. SPIE 2004 5356, 107-117 (2004).

Y. Li, C. He, D. Wang, X. Wang, F. Wu, W.-S. Tsay, "Functionally integrated reconfigurable optical add/drop module," Proc. SPIE 2004 5281, 207-214 (2004).

V. L. L. Thing, P. Shum, M. K. Rao, "Bandwidth-Efficient WDM channel allocation for four-wave mixing-effect minimization," IEEE Trans. Commun. 52, 2184-2189 (2004).

2003 (4)

W. M. Duncan, B. Lee, P. Rancuret, B. Sawyers, D. Powell, "DLP™ switched blaze grating: The heart of optical signal processing," Proc. SPIE 4983, 38-46 (2003).

S. Sundaram, M. Knapczyk, H. Temkin, "All-Optical switch based on digital micromirrors," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 807-809 (2003).

S. Mechels, L. Muller, G. D. Morley, D. Tillett, "1D MEMS-based wavelength switching subsystem," IEEE Commun. Mag. 88-94 (2003).

T. Sano, T. Iwashima, M. Katayama, T. Kanie, M. Harumoto, M. Shigehara, H. Suganuma, M. Nishimura, "Novel multichannel tunable chromatic dispersion compensator based on MEMS and diffraction grating," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1109-1110 (2003).

2001 (1)

A. V. Tran, W. D. Zhong, R. S. Tucker, K. Song, "Reconfigurable multichannel optical add-drop multiplexers incorporating eight-port optical circulators and fiber bragg gratings," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 1100-1102 (2001).

2000 (3)

A. Weiner, "Femtosecond pulse shaping using spatial light modulators," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 1929-1960 (2000).

B. Liu, A. Shakouri, P. Abraham, J. E. Bowers, "Optical add/drop multiplexers based on X-crossing vertical coupler filters," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 410-412 (2000).

J. Kim, B. Lee, "Bidirectional wavelength add-drop multiplexer using multiport optical circulators and fiber bragg gratings," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 561-563 (2000).

1999 (1)

J. E. Ford, V. A. Aksyuk, D. J. Bishop, J. A. Walker, "Wavelength add-drop switching using tilting micromirrors," J. Lightw. Technol. 17, 904-911 (1999).

1998 (4)

N. A. Riza, S. Sumriddetchkajorn, "Fault-tolerant dense multi-wave-length add-drop filter with a two-dimensional digital micromirror device," Appl. Opt. 37, 6355-6361 (1998).

A. Himeno, K. Kato, T. Miya, "Silica-based planar lightwave circuits," IEEE Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 4, 913-924 (1998).

H. P. Sardesai, C. C. Chang, A. M. Weiner, "A femtosecond code division multiple access communication system test-bed," J. Lightw. Technol. 16, 1953-1964 (1998).

J. E. Ford, J. A. Walker, "Dynamic spectral power equalization using micro-opto-mechanics," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1440-1442 (1998).

1995 (1)

K. Okamoto, M. Ishii, Y. Hibino, Y. Ohmori, H. Toba, "Fabrication of unequal channel spacing arrayed-waveguide grating multiplexer modules," Electron. Lett. 31, 1464-1466 (1995).

1994 (1)

F. Forghieri, A. H. Gnauck, R. W. Tkach, A. R. Chraplyvy, R. M. Derosier, "Repeaterless transmission of eight channels at 10 Gb/s over 137 km (11 Tb/s-km) of dispersion-shifted fiber using unequal channel spacing," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 1374-1376 (1994).

Appl. Opt. (1)

N. A. Riza, S. Sumriddetchkajorn, "Fault-tolerant dense multi-wave-length add-drop filter with a two-dimensional digital micromirror device," Appl. Opt. 37, 6355-6361 (1998).

Electron. Lett. (1)

K. Okamoto, M. Ishii, Y. Hibino, Y. Ohmori, H. Toba, "Fabrication of unequal channel spacing arrayed-waveguide grating multiplexer modules," Electron. Lett. 31, 1464-1466 (1995).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

J. Kim, B. Lee, "Bidirectional wavelength add-drop multiplexer using multiport optical circulators and fiber bragg gratings," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 561-563 (2000).

IEEE Commun. Mag. (1)

S. Mechels, L. Muller, G. D. Morley, D. Tillett, "1D MEMS-based wavelength switching subsystem," IEEE Commun. Mag. 88-94 (2003).

IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. (1)

M. Shirane, A. Gomyo, K. Miura, Y. Ohtera, H. Yamada, S. Kawakami, "Optical add-drop multiplexers based on autocloned photonic crystals," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 23, 1372-1377 (2005).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

J. E. Ford, J. A. Walker, "Dynamic spectral power equalization using micro-opto-mechanics," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1440-1442 (1998).

M. Knapczyk, A. Krishnan, L. G. de Peralta, A. A. Bernussi, H. Temkin, "High-resolution pulse shaper based on arrays of digital micromirrors," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2200-2202 (2005).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (7)

S. Sundaram, M. Knapczyk, H. Temkin, "All-Optical switch based on digital micromirrors," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 807-809 (2003).

F. Forghieri, A. H. Gnauck, R. W. Tkach, A. R. Chraplyvy, R. M. Derosier, "Repeaterless transmission of eight channels at 10 Gb/s over 137 km (11 Tb/s-km) of dispersion-shifted fiber using unequal channel spacing," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 1374-1376 (1994).

T. Sano, T. Iwashima, M. Katayama, T. Kanie, M. Harumoto, M. Shigehara, H. Suganuma, M. Nishimura, "Novel multichannel tunable chromatic dispersion compensator based on MEMS and diffraction grating," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1109-1110 (2003).

M. Knapczyk, A. Krishnan, L. G. de Peralta, A. A. Bernussi, H. Temkin, "Reconfigurable optical filter based on digital mirror arrays," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1743-1745 (2005).

A. V. Tran, W. D. Zhong, R. S. Tucker, K. Song, "Reconfigurable multichannel optical add-drop multiplexers incorporating eight-port optical circulators and fiber bragg gratings," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 1100-1102 (2001).

E. J. Klein, D. H. Geuzebroek, H. Kelderman, G. Sengo, N. Baker, A. Driessen, "Reconfigurable optical add-drop multiplexer using microring resonators," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2358-2360 (2005).

B. Liu, A. Shakouri, P. Abraham, J. E. Bowers, "Optical add/drop multiplexers based on X-crossing vertical coupler filters," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 410-412 (2000).

IEEE Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (1)

A. Himeno, K. Kato, T. Miya, "Silica-based planar lightwave circuits," IEEE Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 4, 913-924 (1998).

IEEE Trans. Commun. (1)

V. L. L. Thing, P. Shum, M. K. Rao, "Bandwidth-Efficient WDM channel allocation for four-wave mixing-effect minimization," IEEE Trans. Commun. 52, 2184-2189 (2004).

J. Lightw. Technol. (1)

R. Ryf, Y. Su, L. Möller, S. Chandrasekhar, X. Liu, D. T. Neilson, C. R. Giles, "Wavelength blocking filter with flexible data rates and channel spacing," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 54-60 (2005).

J. Lightw. Technol. (3)

D. M. Marom, D. T. Neilson, D. S. Greywall, C.-S. Pai, N. R. Basavanhally, V. A. Aksyuk, D. O. López, F. Pardo, M. E. Simon, Y. Low, P. Kolodner, C. A. Bolle, "Wavelength-Selective 1 x K switches using free-space optics and MEMS micromirrors: Theory, design, and implementation," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 1620-1629 (2005).

J. E. Ford, V. A. Aksyuk, D. J. Bishop, J. A. Walker, "Wavelength add-drop switching using tilting micromirrors," J. Lightw. Technol. 17, 904-911 (1999).

H. P. Sardesai, C. C. Chang, A. M. Weiner, "A femtosecond code division multiple access communication system test-bed," J. Lightw. Technol. 16, 1953-1964 (1998).

Opt. Eng. (1)

N. A. Riza, S. A. Reza, "Hybrid analog-digital design microelectro-mechanical systems spectral processor for simultaneous gain slope and channel equalization controls," Opt. Eng. 46, 30501-1-3 (2007).

Proc. SPIE (1)

W. M. Duncan, B. Lee, P. Rancuret, B. Sawyers, D. Powell, "DLP™ switched blaze grating: The heart of optical signal processing," Proc. SPIE 4983, 38-46 (2003).

Proc. SPIE 2004 (2)

C. He, X. Wang, Y. Li, W.-S. Tsay, "Techniques for reconfigurable optical add/drop multiplexer," Proc. SPIE 2004 5356, 107-117 (2004).

Y. Li, C. He, D. Wang, X. Wang, F. Wu, W.-S. Tsay, "Functionally integrated reconfigurable optical add/drop module," Proc. SPIE 2004 5281, 207-214 (2004).

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

A. Weiner, "Femtosecond pulse shaping using spatial light modulators," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 1929-1960 (2000).

Other (7)

H. Venghaus, A. Gladisch, B. F. Joergensen, J.-M. Jouanno, M. Kristensen, R. J. Pedersen, F. Testa, D. Trommer, J. P. Weber, "Optical add/drop multiplexers for WDM communication systems," Tech. Dig. Conf. Opt. Fiber Commun. (1997) pp. 280-281.

M. C. Wu, J.-C. Tsai, S. Huang, D. Hah, "MEMS WDM routers using analog micromirror arrays," Proc. 2002 IEEE/LEOS Annu. Meeting Conf. (2002) pp. 582-583.

B. P. Keyworth, "ROADM subsystems and technologies," Tech. Dig. 2005 Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. (2005) pp. OWB5-1-4.

J. Kondis, B. A. Scott, A. Ranalli, R. Lindquist, "Liquid crystals in bulk optics-based DWDM optical switches and spectral equalizers," Proc. LEOS 2001 (2001) pp. 292-293.

L. Eldada, J. Fujita, R. Gerhardt, A. Radojevic, O. Zhuromskyy, "Channel switching/monitoring/equalizing/shuffling subsystem on a chip for reconfigurable OADM," Proc. Integr. Photon. Res. (2003) pp. ITUG1-1-3.

K. Takahashi, M. Tamura, T. Sano, K. Saito, H. Suganuma, "Reconfigurable optical add/drop multiplexer using passive temperature-compensated wavelength tunable fiber bragg grating," Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. Exhibit (2001) pp. WDD93-1-3-4.

G. Baxter, S. Frisken, D. Abakoumov, H. Zhou, I. Clarke, A. Bartos, S. Poole, "Highly programmable wavelength selective switch based on liquid crystal on silicon switching elements," Proc. OFCNFOEC 2006 (2006) pp. 66-67.

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