Abstract

A tunable band-selection interleaver filter switch formed on a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) substrate for dense wavelength-division-multiplexing (DWDM) system was fabricated, and its fundamental performances were experimentally demonstrated. The device consists of monolithic integration of a Michelson interferometer (MI) structure with two arm-waveguides with different lengths, appropriately designed for ITU-grid separation, a phase-modulation electrode on one arm and tunable wideband Bragg gratings reflectors. An SOI rib waveguide structure with a medium mode size was adopted for low loss and easy fabrication. A bandwidth of the grating, formed by electron beam (EB) lithography and deep reactive-ion etching (Deep-RIE), was rather large of 4 nm at ${- }$10 dB transmission level, from which a large coupling coefficient of the Bragg grating of 105 cm$^{-1}$ was evaluated. A large tuning range of the Bragg grating of 17 nm was obtained. An extinction ratio of the interleaver filter was about 18 dB, and the interleaving switching was also attained with an applied electric power of 50 mW and a switching speed of about 1 ms.

© 2008 IEEE

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2006 (2)

T. Mizuno, M. Oguma, T. Kitoh, Y. Inoue, H. Takahashi, "Lattice-Form CWDM interleave filter using silica-based planar lightwave circuit," Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1570-1572 (2006).

B. Jalali, S. Fathpour, "Silicon photonics," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 4600-4615 (2006).

2005 (5)

Z. Wu, K. Nakamura, S. Honda, K. Utaka, T. Edura, K. Tsutsui, Y. Wada, "Implementation of tapered multimode interference lightwave combiner on silicon-on-insulator substrate with negligible back-reflection," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, L923-L925 (2005).

S. Bidnyk, A. Balakrishnan, A. Delâge, M. Gao, P. A. Krug, P. Muthukumaran, M. Pearson, "Novel architecture for design of planar lightwave interleavers," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 1435-1440 (2005).

C. R. Doerr, M. Cappuzzo, L. Gomez, E. Chen, A. Wong-Foy, C. Ho, J. Lam, K. McGreer, "Planar lightwave circuit eight-channel CWDM multiplexer with 3.9–dB insertion loss," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 62-65 (2005).

S. Kamei, M. Oguma, M. Kohtoku, T. Shibata, Y. Inoue, "Low-loss athermal silica-based lattice-form interleave filter with silicone-filled grooves," Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 798-800 (2005).

Q. J. Wang, Y. Zhang, Y. C. Soh, "Efficient structure for optical interleavers using superimposed chirped fiber Bragg gratings," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 387-389 (2005).

2004 (5)

M. Oguma, T. Kitoh, Y. Inoue, T. Mizuno, T. Shibata, M. Kohtoku, Y. Hibino, "Compact and low-loss interleave filter employing latticeform structure and silica-based waveguide," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 895-902 (2004).

T. Mizuno, Y. Hida, T. Kitoh, M. Kohtoku, M. Oguma, Y. Inoue, Y. Hibino, "12.5-GHz spacing compact and low-loss interleave filter using 1.5% $\Delta$ silica-based waveguide," Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2484-2486 (2004).

S. Cao, J. Chen, J. N. Damask, C. R. Doerr, L. Guiziou, G. Harvey, Y. Hibino, H. Li, S. Suzuki, K. Y. Wu, P. Xie, "Interleaver technology: Comparisons and applications requirements," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 281-289 (2004).

R. Slavík, S. LaRochelle, "All-fiber periodic filters for DWDM using a cascade of FIR and IIR lattice filters," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 497-499 (2004).

Y. Lai, W. Zhang, J. A. R. Williams, I. Bennion, "Bidirectional nonreciprocal wavelength-interleaving coherent fiber transversal filter," Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 500-502 (2004).

2003 (1)

C. Hsieh, R. Wang, Z. J. Wen, I. McMichael, P. Yeh, C. Lee, W. Cheng, "Flat-top interleavers using two Gires-Tournois etalons as phase-dispersive mirrors in a Michelson interferometer," Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 242-244 (2003).

2002 (1)

S. Jeong, H. Kim, T. Mizumoto, J. Wiedmann, S. Arai, M. Takenaka, Y. Nakano, "Polarization-independent all-optical switching in a nonlinear GaInAsP/InP highmesa waveguide with a vertically etched Bragg reflector," J. Quantum. Electron. 38, 706-715 (2002).

2000 (1)

X. Shu, S. Jiang, D. Huang, "Fiber grating Sagnac loop and its multiwavelength-laser application," Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 980-982 (2000).

1998 (1)

1997 (1)

X. Fang, K. Demarest, H. Ji, C. Allen, L. Pelz, "A subnanosecond polarization-independent tunable filter/wavelength router using a Sagnac interferometer," Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1490-1492 (1997).

1995 (1)

Y. P. Li, C. H. Henry, E. J. Laskowski, H. H. Yaffe, R. L. Sweatt, "Monolithic optical waveguide 1.31/1.55 $\mu$m WDM with ${- 50}~{\rm dB}$ crosstalk over 100 nm bandwidth," Electron. Lett. 31, 2100-2101 (1995).

1993 (1)

R. A. Soref, "Silicon-based optoelectronics," Proc. IEEE 81, 1687-1706 (1993).

1969 (1)

H. Kogelnik, "Coupled wave theory for thick hologram gratings," Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2909-2947 (1969).

Bell Syst. Tech. J. (1)

H. Kogelnik, "Coupled wave theory for thick hologram gratings," Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2909-2947 (1969).

Electron. Lett. (1)

Y. P. Li, C. H. Henry, E. J. Laskowski, H. H. Yaffe, R. L. Sweatt, "Monolithic optical waveguide 1.31/1.55 $\mu$m WDM with ${- 50}~{\rm dB}$ crosstalk over 100 nm bandwidth," Electron. Lett. 31, 2100-2101 (1995).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

Q. J. Wang, Y. Zhang, Y. C. Soh, "Efficient structure for optical interleavers using superimposed chirped fiber Bragg gratings," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 387-389 (2005).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

R. Slavík, S. LaRochelle, "All-fiber periodic filters for DWDM using a cascade of FIR and IIR lattice filters," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 497-499 (2004).

J. Lightw. Technol. (1)

C. R. Doerr, M. Cappuzzo, L. Gomez, E. Chen, A. Wong-Foy, C. Ho, J. Lam, K. McGreer, "Planar lightwave circuit eight-channel CWDM multiplexer with 3.9–dB insertion loss," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 62-65 (2005).

J. Lightw. Technol. (1)

M. Oguma, T. Kitoh, Y. Inoue, T. Mizuno, T. Shibata, M. Kohtoku, Y. Hibino, "Compact and low-loss interleave filter employing latticeform structure and silica-based waveguide," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 895-902 (2004).

J. Lightw. Technol. (3)

B. Jalali, S. Fathpour, "Silicon photonics," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 4600-4615 (2006).

S. Bidnyk, A. Balakrishnan, A. Delâge, M. Gao, P. A. Krug, P. Muthukumaran, M. Pearson, "Novel architecture for design of planar lightwave interleavers," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 1435-1440 (2005).

S. Cao, J. Chen, J. N. Damask, C. R. Doerr, L. Guiziou, G. Harvey, Y. Hibino, H. Li, S. Suzuki, K. Y. Wu, P. Xie, "Interleaver technology: Comparisons and applications requirements," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 281-289 (2004).

J. Quantum. Electron. (1)

S. Jeong, H. Kim, T. Mizumoto, J. Wiedmann, S. Arai, M. Takenaka, Y. Nakano, "Polarization-independent all-optical switching in a nonlinear GaInAsP/InP highmesa waveguide with a vertically etched Bragg reflector," J. Quantum. Electron. 38, 706-715 (2002).

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

Z. Wu, K. Nakamura, S. Honda, K. Utaka, T. Edura, K. Tsutsui, Y. Wada, "Implementation of tapered multimode interference lightwave combiner on silicon-on-insulator substrate with negligible back-reflection," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, L923-L925 (2005).

Opt. Lett. (1)

Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

X. Fang, K. Demarest, H. Ji, C. Allen, L. Pelz, "A subnanosecond polarization-independent tunable filter/wavelength router using a Sagnac interferometer," Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1490-1492 (1997).

Photon. Technol. Lett. (3)

Y. Lai, W. Zhang, J. A. R. Williams, I. Bennion, "Bidirectional nonreciprocal wavelength-interleaving coherent fiber transversal filter," Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 500-502 (2004).

C. Hsieh, R. Wang, Z. J. Wen, I. McMichael, P. Yeh, C. Lee, W. Cheng, "Flat-top interleavers using two Gires-Tournois etalons as phase-dispersive mirrors in a Michelson interferometer," Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 242-244 (2003).

S. Kamei, M. Oguma, M. Kohtoku, T. Shibata, Y. Inoue, "Low-loss athermal silica-based lattice-form interleave filter with silicone-filled grooves," Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 798-800 (2005).

Photon. Technol. Lett. (3)

T. Mizuno, Y. Hida, T. Kitoh, M. Kohtoku, M. Oguma, Y. Inoue, Y. Hibino, "12.5-GHz spacing compact and low-loss interleave filter using 1.5% $\Delta$ silica-based waveguide," Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2484-2486 (2004).

T. Mizuno, M. Oguma, T. Kitoh, Y. Inoue, H. Takahashi, "Lattice-Form CWDM interleave filter using silica-based planar lightwave circuit," Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1570-1572 (2006).

X. Shu, S. Jiang, D. Huang, "Fiber grating Sagnac loop and its multiwavelength-laser application," Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 980-982 (2000).

Proc. IEEE (1)

R. A. Soref, "Silicon-based optoelectronics," Proc. IEEE 81, 1687-1706 (1993).

Other (3)

M. Kohtoku, T. Mizuno, T. Kitoh, M. Oguma, T. Shibata, Y. Inoue, Y. Hibino, "Low loss and low crosstalk plc-based interleave filter fabricated with automatic phase trimming method," Proc. Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. (ECOC2002) (2002).

K. Sato, "Multi-granular optical path networking technologies," Proc. Photonics Switching (PS2007) (2007).

S. Honda, K. Nakamura, Z. Wu, K. Utaka, T. Edura, M. Tokuda, K. Tsutsui, Y. Wada, "Fabrication and evaluation of large-coupling SI Bragg gratings on SOI RIB waveguides employed by deep-RIE," Proc. 11th OptoElectron. Commun. Conf. (OECC2006) (2006).

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