Abstract

This paper describes coherent optical frequency domain reflectometry (C-OFDR) with cm-level spatial resolution over 5 km. We propose the use of a single sideband with a suppressed carrier (SSB-SC) modulator and a narrow linewidth fiber laser as a tunable light source for C-OFDR. The advantage of using SSB-SC modulation is clarified theoretically by comparison with a double sideband with suppressed carrier modulation. We achieved cm-level spatial resolution over a 5-km measurement range and high sensitivity with a noise level 30 dB lower than the Rayleigh backscattering level.

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  1. R. Passy, N. Gisin, J. P. von der Weid, H. H. Gilgen, "Experimental and theoretical investigation of coherent OFDR with semiconductor laser sources," J. Lightw. Technol. 12, 1622-1630 (1994).
  2. G. Mussi, N. Gisin, R. Passy, J. P. von der Weid, "${-}152.5$ dB sensitivity high dynamic-range optical frequency-domain reflectometry," Electron. Lett. 32, 926-927 (1996).
  3. P. Oberson, B. Huttner, O. Guinnard, L. Guinnard, G. Ribordy, N. Gisin, "Optical frequency domain reflectometry with a narrow linewidth fiber laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 867-869 (2000).
  4. B. J. Soller, D. K. Gifford, M. S. Wolfe, M. E. Froggatt, "High resolution optical frequency domain reflectometry for characterization of components and assemblies," Opt. Exp. 13, 666-674 (2005).
  5. D. K. Gifford, M. E. Froggatt, M. S. Wolfe, S. T. Kreger, B. J. Soller, "Millimeter resolution reflectometry over two kilometers," Proc. 33rd Eur. Conf. Optical Communication (2007) pp. 85-87.
  6. K. Tsuji, K. Shimizu, T. Horiguchi, Y. Koyamada, "Spatial-resolution improvement in long-range coherent optical frequency domain reflectometry by frequency-sweep linearisation," Electron. Lett. 33, 408-410 (1997).
  7. J. Geng, C. Spiegelberg, S. Jiang, "Narrow linewidth fiber laser for 100-km optical frequency domain reflectometry," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1827-1829 (2005).
  8. K. Tsuji, K. Shimizu, T. Horiguchi, Y. Koyamada, "Coherent optical frequency domain reflectometry for a long single-mode optical fiber using a coherent lightwave source and an external phase modulator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 804-806 (1995).
  9. K. Tsuji, K. Shimizu, T. Horiguchi, Y. Koyamada, "Coherent optical frequency domain reflectometry using a dual-drive Mach-Zehnder modulator," Proc. 4th Optical Fibre Measurement Conf. (1997) pp. 250-253.
  10. T. Kawanishi, T. Sakamoto, M. Izutsu, "Fast optical frequency sweep for ultra-fine real-time spectral domain measurement," Electron. Lett. 42, 999-1000 (2006).
  11. M. Izutsu, S. Shikama, T. Sueta, "Integrated optical SSB modulator/frequency shifter," IEEE J. Quant. Electron. QE-17, 2225-2227 (1981).
  12. K. Higuma, S. Oikawa, Y. Hashimoto, H. Nagata, M. Izutsu, "X-cut lithium niobate optical single-sideband modulator," Electron. Lett. 37, 515-516 (2001).
  13. U. Glombitza, E. Brinkmeyer, "Coherent frequency-domain reflectometry for characterization of single-mode integrated-optical waveguide," J. Lightw. Technol. 11, 1377-1384 (1993).
  14. S. Venkatesh, W. V. Sorin, "Phase noise consideration in coherent optical FMCW reflectometry," J. Lightw. Technol. 11, 1694-1700 (1993).
  15. T. J. Ahn, J. Y. Lee, D. Y. Kim, "Suppression of nonlinear frequency sweep in an optical frequency-domain reflectometer by use of Hilbert transformation," Appl. Opt. 44, 7630-7634 (2005).
  16. H. Izumita, S. Furukawa, Y. Koyamada, I. Sankawa, "Fading noise reduction in coherent OTDR," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 201-203 (1992).
  17. K. Shimizu, T. Horiguchi, Y. Koyamada, "Characteristics and reduction of coherent fading noise in Rayleigh backscattering measurement for optical fibers and components," J. Lightw. Technol. 10, 982-987 (1992).
  18. X. Fan, Y. Koshikiya, F. Ito, "Phase-noise-compensated optical frequency domain reflectometry with measurement range beyond laser coherence length realized using concatenative reference method," Opt. Lett. 32, 3227-3229 (2007).

2007 (1)

2006 (1)

T. Kawanishi, T. Sakamoto, M. Izutsu, "Fast optical frequency sweep for ultra-fine real-time spectral domain measurement," Electron. Lett. 42, 999-1000 (2006).

2005 (3)

J. Geng, C. Spiegelberg, S. Jiang, "Narrow linewidth fiber laser for 100-km optical frequency domain reflectometry," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1827-1829 (2005).

B. J. Soller, D. K. Gifford, M. S. Wolfe, M. E. Froggatt, "High resolution optical frequency domain reflectometry for characterization of components and assemblies," Opt. Exp. 13, 666-674 (2005).

T. J. Ahn, J. Y. Lee, D. Y. Kim, "Suppression of nonlinear frequency sweep in an optical frequency-domain reflectometer by use of Hilbert transformation," Appl. Opt. 44, 7630-7634 (2005).

2001 (1)

K. Higuma, S. Oikawa, Y. Hashimoto, H. Nagata, M. Izutsu, "X-cut lithium niobate optical single-sideband modulator," Electron. Lett. 37, 515-516 (2001).

2000 (1)

P. Oberson, B. Huttner, O. Guinnard, L. Guinnard, G. Ribordy, N. Gisin, "Optical frequency domain reflectometry with a narrow linewidth fiber laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 867-869 (2000).

1997 (1)

K. Tsuji, K. Shimizu, T. Horiguchi, Y. Koyamada, "Spatial-resolution improvement in long-range coherent optical frequency domain reflectometry by frequency-sweep linearisation," Electron. Lett. 33, 408-410 (1997).

1996 (1)

G. Mussi, N. Gisin, R. Passy, J. P. von der Weid, "${-}152.5$ dB sensitivity high dynamic-range optical frequency-domain reflectometry," Electron. Lett. 32, 926-927 (1996).

1995 (1)

K. Tsuji, K. Shimizu, T. Horiguchi, Y. Koyamada, "Coherent optical frequency domain reflectometry for a long single-mode optical fiber using a coherent lightwave source and an external phase modulator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 804-806 (1995).

1994 (1)

R. Passy, N. Gisin, J. P. von der Weid, H. H. Gilgen, "Experimental and theoretical investigation of coherent OFDR with semiconductor laser sources," J. Lightw. Technol. 12, 1622-1630 (1994).

1993 (2)

U. Glombitza, E. Brinkmeyer, "Coherent frequency-domain reflectometry for characterization of single-mode integrated-optical waveguide," J. Lightw. Technol. 11, 1377-1384 (1993).

S. Venkatesh, W. V. Sorin, "Phase noise consideration in coherent optical FMCW reflectometry," J. Lightw. Technol. 11, 1694-1700 (1993).

1992 (2)

H. Izumita, S. Furukawa, Y. Koyamada, I. Sankawa, "Fading noise reduction in coherent OTDR," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 201-203 (1992).

K. Shimizu, T. Horiguchi, Y. Koyamada, "Characteristics and reduction of coherent fading noise in Rayleigh backscattering measurement for optical fibers and components," J. Lightw. Technol. 10, 982-987 (1992).

1981 (1)

M. Izutsu, S. Shikama, T. Sueta, "Integrated optical SSB modulator/frequency shifter," IEEE J. Quant. Electron. QE-17, 2225-2227 (1981).

Appl. Opt. (1)

T. J. Ahn, J. Y. Lee, D. Y. Kim, "Suppression of nonlinear frequency sweep in an optical frequency-domain reflectometer by use of Hilbert transformation," Appl. Opt. 44, 7630-7634 (2005).

Electron. Lett. (1)

K. Tsuji, K. Shimizu, T. Horiguchi, Y. Koyamada, "Spatial-resolution improvement in long-range coherent optical frequency domain reflectometry by frequency-sweep linearisation," Electron. Lett. 33, 408-410 (1997).

Electron. Lett. (3)

G. Mussi, N. Gisin, R. Passy, J. P. von der Weid, "${-}152.5$ dB sensitivity high dynamic-range optical frequency-domain reflectometry," Electron. Lett. 32, 926-927 (1996).

T. Kawanishi, T. Sakamoto, M. Izutsu, "Fast optical frequency sweep for ultra-fine real-time spectral domain measurement," Electron. Lett. 42, 999-1000 (2006).

K. Higuma, S. Oikawa, Y. Hashimoto, H. Nagata, M. Izutsu, "X-cut lithium niobate optical single-sideband modulator," Electron. Lett. 37, 515-516 (2001).

IEEE J. Quant. Electron. (1)

M. Izutsu, S. Shikama, T. Sueta, "Integrated optical SSB modulator/frequency shifter," IEEE J. Quant. Electron. QE-17, 2225-2227 (1981).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (4)

H. Izumita, S. Furukawa, Y. Koyamada, I. Sankawa, "Fading noise reduction in coherent OTDR," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 201-203 (1992).

P. Oberson, B. Huttner, O. Guinnard, L. Guinnard, G. Ribordy, N. Gisin, "Optical frequency domain reflectometry with a narrow linewidth fiber laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 867-869 (2000).

J. Geng, C. Spiegelberg, S. Jiang, "Narrow linewidth fiber laser for 100-km optical frequency domain reflectometry," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1827-1829 (2005).

K. Tsuji, K. Shimizu, T. Horiguchi, Y. Koyamada, "Coherent optical frequency domain reflectometry for a long single-mode optical fiber using a coherent lightwave source and an external phase modulator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 804-806 (1995).

J. Lightw. Technol. (1)

U. Glombitza, E. Brinkmeyer, "Coherent frequency-domain reflectometry for characterization of single-mode integrated-optical waveguide," J. Lightw. Technol. 11, 1377-1384 (1993).

J. Lightw. Technol. (3)

S. Venkatesh, W. V. Sorin, "Phase noise consideration in coherent optical FMCW reflectometry," J. Lightw. Technol. 11, 1694-1700 (1993).

K. Shimizu, T. Horiguchi, Y. Koyamada, "Characteristics and reduction of coherent fading noise in Rayleigh backscattering measurement for optical fibers and components," J. Lightw. Technol. 10, 982-987 (1992).

R. Passy, N. Gisin, J. P. von der Weid, H. H. Gilgen, "Experimental and theoretical investigation of coherent OFDR with semiconductor laser sources," J. Lightw. Technol. 12, 1622-1630 (1994).

Opt. Exp. (1)

B. J. Soller, D. K. Gifford, M. S. Wolfe, M. E. Froggatt, "High resolution optical frequency domain reflectometry for characterization of components and assemblies," Opt. Exp. 13, 666-674 (2005).

Opt. Lett. (1)

Other (2)

D. K. Gifford, M. E. Froggatt, M. S. Wolfe, S. T. Kreger, B. J. Soller, "Millimeter resolution reflectometry over two kilometers," Proc. 33rd Eur. Conf. Optical Communication (2007) pp. 85-87.

K. Tsuji, K. Shimizu, T. Horiguchi, Y. Koyamada, "Coherent optical frequency domain reflectometry using a dual-drive Mach-Zehnder modulator," Proc. 4th Optical Fibre Measurement Conf. (1997) pp. 250-253.

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