Abstract

We present a coupled-mode analysis of a six-port coupler consisting of three parallel uniform long-period fiber gratings, where a longitudinal offset distance may be introduced between the gratings. In particular, we discuss the effects of the grating coupling coefficient and the evanescent-field coupling between the parallel fibers on the performance of the coupler. Our theoretical results compare well with the experimental data for several typical couplers. The method of analysis together with the numerical illustrations presented in the paper can facilitate the design of this new class of six-port all-fiber wavelength-selective couplers with applications in add/drop multiplexing, signal processing, and broadband filtering.

© 2008 IEEE

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  1. A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, J. E. Sipe, "Long-period fiber gratings as band-rejection filters," J. Lightw. Technol. 14, 58-65 (1996).
  2. S. Choi, T. J. Eom, Y. Jung, B. H. Lee, J. W. Lee, K. Oh, "Broad-band tunable all-fiber bandpass filter based on hollow optical fiber and long-period grating pair," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 115-117 (2005).
  3. K. S. Chiang, Y. Liu, M. N. Ng, S. P. Li, "Coupling between two parallel long-period fibre gratings," Electron. Lett. 36, 1408-1409 (2000).
  4. K. S. Chiang, M. N. Ng, Y. Liu, S. Li, "Evanescent-field coupling between two parallel long-period fiber gratings," Proc. IEEE Lasers Electro-Op. Soc. Conf. (2000) pp. 836-837.
  5. V. Grubsky, D. S. Starodubov, J. Feinberg, "Wavelength-selective coupler and add-drop multiplexer using long-period fiber gratings," Proc. Tech. Dig. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. (2000) pp. 28-30.
  6. K. S. Chiang, F. Y. M. Chan, M. N. Ng, "Analysis of two parallel long-period fiber gratings," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 1358-1366 (2004).
  7. Y. G. Han, S. B. Lee, C. S. Kim, M. Y. Jeong, "Tunable optical add-drop multiplexer based on long-period fiber gratings for coarse wavelength division multiplexing systems," Opt. Lett. 31, 703-705 (2006).
  8. M. J. Kim, Y. M. Jung, B. H. Kim, W.-T. Han, B. H. Lee, "Ultra-wide bandpass filter based on long-period fiber gratings and evanescent field coupling between two fibers," Opt. Exp. 15, 10855-10862 (2007).
  9. Y. Liu, K. S. Chiang, Y. J. Rao, Z. L. Ran, T. Zhu, "Light coupling between two parallel CO$_{2}$-laser written long-period fiber gratings," Opt. Exp. 15, 17645-17651 (2007).
  10. Y. Liu, K. S. Chiang, "Broad-band optical coupler based on evanescent-field coupling between three parallel long-period fiber gratings," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 229-231 (2006).
  11. Y. Liu, K. S. Chiang, Q. Liu, "Symmetric 3$\,\times\,$3 optical coupler using three parallel long-period fiber gratings," Opt. Exp. 15, 6494-6499 (2007).
  12. R. Singh, H. Kumar, E. K. Sharma, "Design of long-period gratings: Necessity of a three-layer fiber geometry for cladding mode characteristics," Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 37, 45-49 (2003).
  13. X. Shu, L. Zhang, I. Bennion, "Sensitivity characteristics of long-period fiber gratings," J. Lightw. Technol. 20, 255-266 (2002).
  14. T. W. MacDougall, S. Pilevar, C. W. Haggans, M. A. Jackson, "Generalized expression for the growth of long period gratings," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1449-1451 (1998).
  15. Q. Liu, K. S. Chiang, Y. Liu, "Characterization of single-mode fiber with fiber Bragg gratings for the design of long-period gratings," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 2129-2134 (2007).
  16. A. W. Snyder, "Coupled-mode theory for optical fibers," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 62, 1267-1277 (1972).
  17. A. Ankiewicz, A. W. Snyder, X. H. Zheng, "Coupling between parallel optical fiber cores—Critical examination," J. Lightw. Technol. LT-4, 1317-1323 (1986).
  18. K. S. Chiang, Y. Liu, M. N. Ng, X. Dong, "Analysis of etched long-period fibre grating and its response to external refractive index," Electron. Lett. 36, 966-967 (2000).
  19. B. Culshaw, "The optical fibre Sagnac interferometer: An overview of its principles and applications," Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, R1-R16 (2006).
  20. L. Yuan, J. Yang, "Scheme of a fiber-optic multiplexing sensor array based on 3$\,\times\,$3 star coupler," Opt. Lett. 30, 961-963 (2005).
  21. M. C. Tomic, J. M. Elazar, A. V. Djinovic, "Low-coherence interferometric method for measurement of displacement based on a 3$\,\times\,$3 fibre-optic directional coupler," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 4, S381-S386 (2002).
  22. G. A. Johnson, M. D. Todd, B. L. Althouse, C. C. Chang, "Fiber Bragg grating interrogation and multiplexing with 3$\,\times\,$3 coupler and a scanning filter," J. Lightw. Technol. 18, 1101-1105 (2000).

2007 (4)

Y. Liu, K. S. Chiang, Q. Liu, "Symmetric 3$\,\times\,$3 optical coupler using three parallel long-period fiber gratings," Opt. Exp. 15, 6494-6499 (2007).

M. J. Kim, Y. M. Jung, B. H. Kim, W.-T. Han, B. H. Lee, "Ultra-wide bandpass filter based on long-period fiber gratings and evanescent field coupling between two fibers," Opt. Exp. 15, 10855-10862 (2007).

Y. Liu, K. S. Chiang, Y. J. Rao, Z. L. Ran, T. Zhu, "Light coupling between two parallel CO$_{2}$-laser written long-period fiber gratings," Opt. Exp. 15, 17645-17651 (2007).

Q. Liu, K. S. Chiang, Y. Liu, "Characterization of single-mode fiber with fiber Bragg gratings for the design of long-period gratings," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 2129-2134 (2007).

2006 (3)

Y. Liu, K. S. Chiang, "Broad-band optical coupler based on evanescent-field coupling between three parallel long-period fiber gratings," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 229-231 (2006).

B. Culshaw, "The optical fibre Sagnac interferometer: An overview of its principles and applications," Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, R1-R16 (2006).

Y. G. Han, S. B. Lee, C. S. Kim, M. Y. Jeong, "Tunable optical add-drop multiplexer based on long-period fiber gratings for coarse wavelength division multiplexing systems," Opt. Lett. 31, 703-705 (2006).

2005 (2)

L. Yuan, J. Yang, "Scheme of a fiber-optic multiplexing sensor array based on 3$\,\times\,$3 star coupler," Opt. Lett. 30, 961-963 (2005).

S. Choi, T. J. Eom, Y. Jung, B. H. Lee, J. W. Lee, K. Oh, "Broad-band tunable all-fiber bandpass filter based on hollow optical fiber and long-period grating pair," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 115-117 (2005).

2004 (1)

K. S. Chiang, F. Y. M. Chan, M. N. Ng, "Analysis of two parallel long-period fiber gratings," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 1358-1366 (2004).

2003 (1)

R. Singh, H. Kumar, E. K. Sharma, "Design of long-period gratings: Necessity of a three-layer fiber geometry for cladding mode characteristics," Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 37, 45-49 (2003).

2002 (2)

X. Shu, L. Zhang, I. Bennion, "Sensitivity characteristics of long-period fiber gratings," J. Lightw. Technol. 20, 255-266 (2002).

M. C. Tomic, J. M. Elazar, A. V. Djinovic, "Low-coherence interferometric method for measurement of displacement based on a 3$\,\times\,$3 fibre-optic directional coupler," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 4, S381-S386 (2002).

2000 (3)

G. A. Johnson, M. D. Todd, B. L. Althouse, C. C. Chang, "Fiber Bragg grating interrogation and multiplexing with 3$\,\times\,$3 coupler and a scanning filter," J. Lightw. Technol. 18, 1101-1105 (2000).

K. S. Chiang, Y. Liu, M. N. Ng, S. P. Li, "Coupling between two parallel long-period fibre gratings," Electron. Lett. 36, 1408-1409 (2000).

K. S. Chiang, Y. Liu, M. N. Ng, X. Dong, "Analysis of etched long-period fibre grating and its response to external refractive index," Electron. Lett. 36, 966-967 (2000).

1998 (1)

T. W. MacDougall, S. Pilevar, C. W. Haggans, M. A. Jackson, "Generalized expression for the growth of long period gratings," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1449-1451 (1998).

1996 (1)

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, J. E. Sipe, "Long-period fiber gratings as band-rejection filters," J. Lightw. Technol. 14, 58-65 (1996).

1986 (1)

A. Ankiewicz, A. W. Snyder, X. H. Zheng, "Coupling between parallel optical fiber cores—Critical examination," J. Lightw. Technol. LT-4, 1317-1323 (1986).

1972 (1)

A. W. Snyder, "Coupled-mode theory for optical fibers," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 62, 1267-1277 (1972).

Electron. Lett. (1)

K. S. Chiang, Y. Liu, M. N. Ng, S. P. Li, "Coupling between two parallel long-period fibre gratings," Electron. Lett. 36, 1408-1409 (2000).

Electron. Lett. (1)

K. S. Chiang, Y. Liu, M. N. Ng, X. Dong, "Analysis of etched long-period fibre grating and its response to external refractive index," Electron. Lett. 36, 966-967 (2000).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

Y. Liu, K. S. Chiang, "Broad-band optical coupler based on evanescent-field coupling between three parallel long-period fiber gratings," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 229-231 (2006).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

T. W. MacDougall, S. Pilevar, C. W. Haggans, M. A. Jackson, "Generalized expression for the growth of long period gratings," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1449-1451 (1998).

S. Choi, T. J. Eom, Y. Jung, B. H. Lee, J. W. Lee, K. Oh, "Broad-band tunable all-fiber bandpass filter based on hollow optical fiber and long-period grating pair," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 115-117 (2005).

J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. (1)

M. C. Tomic, J. M. Elazar, A. V. Djinovic, "Low-coherence interferometric method for measurement of displacement based on a 3$\,\times\,$3 fibre-optic directional coupler," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 4, S381-S386 (2002).

J. Lightw. Technol. (6)

G. A. Johnson, M. D. Todd, B. L. Althouse, C. C. Chang, "Fiber Bragg grating interrogation and multiplexing with 3$\,\times\,$3 coupler and a scanning filter," J. Lightw. Technol. 18, 1101-1105 (2000).

A. Ankiewicz, A. W. Snyder, X. H. Zheng, "Coupling between parallel optical fiber cores—Critical examination," J. Lightw. Technol. LT-4, 1317-1323 (1986).

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, J. E. Sipe, "Long-period fiber gratings as band-rejection filters," J. Lightw. Technol. 14, 58-65 (1996).

K. S. Chiang, F. Y. M. Chan, M. N. Ng, "Analysis of two parallel long-period fiber gratings," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 1358-1366 (2004).

Q. Liu, K. S. Chiang, Y. Liu, "Characterization of single-mode fiber with fiber Bragg gratings for the design of long-period gratings," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 2129-2134 (2007).

X. Shu, L. Zhang, I. Bennion, "Sensitivity characteristics of long-period fiber gratings," J. Lightw. Technol. 20, 255-266 (2002).

J. Opt. Soc. Amer. (1)

A. W. Snyder, "Coupled-mode theory for optical fibers," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 62, 1267-1277 (1972).

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

B. Culshaw, "The optical fibre Sagnac interferometer: An overview of its principles and applications," Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, R1-R16 (2006).

Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. (1)

R. Singh, H. Kumar, E. K. Sharma, "Design of long-period gratings: Necessity of a three-layer fiber geometry for cladding mode characteristics," Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 37, 45-49 (2003).

Opt. Exp. (1)

M. J. Kim, Y. M. Jung, B. H. Kim, W.-T. Han, B. H. Lee, "Ultra-wide bandpass filter based on long-period fiber gratings and evanescent field coupling between two fibers," Opt. Exp. 15, 10855-10862 (2007).

Opt. Lett. (1)

L. Yuan, J. Yang, "Scheme of a fiber-optic multiplexing sensor array based on 3$\,\times\,$3 star coupler," Opt. Lett. 30, 961-963 (2005).

Opt. Exp. (2)

Y. Liu, K. S. Chiang, Q. Liu, "Symmetric 3$\,\times\,$3 optical coupler using three parallel long-period fiber gratings," Opt. Exp. 15, 6494-6499 (2007).

Y. Liu, K. S. Chiang, Y. J. Rao, Z. L. Ran, T. Zhu, "Light coupling between two parallel CO$_{2}$-laser written long-period fiber gratings," Opt. Exp. 15, 17645-17651 (2007).

Opt. Lett. (1)

Other (2)

K. S. Chiang, M. N. Ng, Y. Liu, S. Li, "Evanescent-field coupling between two parallel long-period fiber gratings," Proc. IEEE Lasers Electro-Op. Soc. Conf. (2000) pp. 836-837.

V. Grubsky, D. S. Starodubov, J. Feinberg, "Wavelength-selective coupler and add-drop multiplexer using long-period fiber gratings," Proc. Tech. Dig. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. (2000) pp. 28-30.

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