Abstract

Single mode silicon-on-insulator rib waveguides offer a weak lateral confinement, which makes it difficult to design high-performance multimode interference couplers (MMIs) based on these waveguides. Here, a complete design procedure for single etch step MMIs with tapered rib access waveguides is presented, which yields low excess loss (0.1 dB) and good imbalance (0.02 dB). Furthermore, polarization dependence is low, and high fabrication tolerances are achieved, especially with respect to etch depth.

© 2008 IEEE

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  1. L. B. Soldano, E. C. M. Pennings, "Optical multi-mode interference devices based on self-imaging: Principals and applications," J. Lightw. Technol. 13, 615-627 (1995).
  2. M. Bachmann, P. Besse, H. Melchior, "General self-imaging properties in N x N multimode interference couplers including phase relations," Appl. Opt. 33, 3905-3911 (1994).
  3. R. Soref, "The past, present, and future of silicon photonics," IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 12, 1678-1687 (2006).
  4. R. A. Soref, J. Schmidtchen, K. Peterman, "Large single-mode rib waveguides in GeSi-Si and Si-on-SiO2," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1971-1974 (1991).
  5. D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, P. Cheben, "Design of polarization-insensitive ring resonators in silicon-on-insulator using MMI couplers and cladding stress engineering," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 343-345 (2006).
  6. Y. Tang, W. Wang, Y. Wu, J. Yang, Y. Wang, "Design and fabrication of multimode interference coupler with strong confinement structure on silicon-on-insulator," Opt. Eng. 43, 2495-2496 (2004).
  7. D. Dai, J.-J. He, S. He, "Compact silicon-on-insulator-based multimode interference coupler with bilevel taper structure," Appl. Opt. 44, 5036-5041 (2005).
  8. Y. Shi, D. Dai, S. He, "Improved performance of a silicon-on-insulator-based multimode interference coupler by using taper structures," Opt. Commun. 253, 276-282 (2005).
  9. M. Rajarajan, B. M. A. Rahman, T. Wongcharoen, K. T. V. Grattan, "Accurate analysis of MMI devices with two dimensional confinement," J. Lightw. Technol. 14, 2078-2084 (1996).
  10. R. Halir, Í. Molina-Fernández, A. O. Moñux, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, D.-X. Xu, P. Cheben, S. Janz, "High performance, single etch step MMI design on SOI," Proc. European Conf. Integrated Optics (2007).
  11. M. T. Hill, X. J. M. Leijtens, G. D. Khoe, M. K. Smit, "Optimizing imbalance and loss in 2 x 2 3-dB multimode interference couplers via access waveguide width," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 2305-2313 (2003).
  12. R. Halir, A. Ortega-Moñux, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, I. Molina-Fernández, P. Cheben, "Fabrication tolerance analysis of bent single-mode rib waveguides on SOI," Opt. Quantum Electron. 38, 921-932 (2007).
  13. J. M. López-Doña, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, I. Molina-Fernández, "Fast-fourier-based three-dimensional full-vectorial beam propagation method," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2319-2321 (2005).
  14. PAS 5500/100 Step & Repeat i-Line System ASML www.asml.com/asml/show.do?ctx=7077&rid=7099.
  15. Step-and-Repeat System NSR-SF100 Nikon www.ave.nikon.co.jp/pec_e/products/pdf/NSR-SF100e.pdf.
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  17. W. N. Ye, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, P. Cheben, M.-J. Picard, B. Lamontagne, N. G. Tarr, "Birefringence control using stress engineering in silicon-on-insulator (SOI) waveguides," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 1308-1318 (2005).

2007 (1)

R. Halir, A. Ortega-Moñux, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, I. Molina-Fernández, P. Cheben, "Fabrication tolerance analysis of bent single-mode rib waveguides on SOI," Opt. Quantum Electron. 38, 921-932 (2007).

2006 (2)

R. Soref, "The past, present, and future of silicon photonics," IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 12, 1678-1687 (2006).

D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, P. Cheben, "Design of polarization-insensitive ring resonators in silicon-on-insulator using MMI couplers and cladding stress engineering," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 343-345 (2006).

2005 (4)

D. Dai, J.-J. He, S. He, "Compact silicon-on-insulator-based multimode interference coupler with bilevel taper structure," Appl. Opt. 44, 5036-5041 (2005).

Y. Shi, D. Dai, S. He, "Improved performance of a silicon-on-insulator-based multimode interference coupler by using taper structures," Opt. Commun. 253, 276-282 (2005).

J. M. López-Doña, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, I. Molina-Fernández, "Fast-fourier-based three-dimensional full-vectorial beam propagation method," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2319-2321 (2005).

W. N. Ye, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, P. Cheben, M.-J. Picard, B. Lamontagne, N. G. Tarr, "Birefringence control using stress engineering in silicon-on-insulator (SOI) waveguides," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 1308-1318 (2005).

2004 (1)

Y. Tang, W. Wang, Y. Wu, J. Yang, Y. Wang, "Design and fabrication of multimode interference coupler with strong confinement structure on silicon-on-insulator," Opt. Eng. 43, 2495-2496 (2004).

2003 (1)

M. T. Hill, X. J. M. Leijtens, G. D. Khoe, M. K. Smit, "Optimizing imbalance and loss in 2 x 2 3-dB multimode interference couplers via access waveguide width," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 2305-2313 (2003).

1996 (1)

M. Rajarajan, B. M. A. Rahman, T. Wongcharoen, K. T. V. Grattan, "Accurate analysis of MMI devices with two dimensional confinement," J. Lightw. Technol. 14, 2078-2084 (1996).

1995 (1)

L. B. Soldano, E. C. M. Pennings, "Optical multi-mode interference devices based on self-imaging: Principals and applications," J. Lightw. Technol. 13, 615-627 (1995).

1994 (1)

M. Bachmann, P. Besse, H. Melchior, "General self-imaging properties in N x N multimode interference couplers including phase relations," Appl. Opt. 33, 3905-3911 (1994).

1991 (1)

R. A. Soref, J. Schmidtchen, K. Peterman, "Large single-mode rib waveguides in GeSi-Si and Si-on-SiO2," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1971-1974 (1991).

Appl. Opt. (2)

M. Bachmann, P. Besse, H. Melchior, "General self-imaging properties in N x N multimode interference couplers including phase relations," Appl. Opt. 33, 3905-3911 (1994).

D. Dai, J.-J. He, S. He, "Compact silicon-on-insulator-based multimode interference coupler with bilevel taper structure," Appl. Opt. 44, 5036-5041 (2005).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

J. M. López-Doña, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, I. Molina-Fernández, "Fast-fourier-based three-dimensional full-vectorial beam propagation method," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2319-2321 (2005).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

R. A. Soref, J. Schmidtchen, K. Peterman, "Large single-mode rib waveguides in GeSi-Si and Si-on-SiO2," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1971-1974 (1991).

IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. (1)

R. Soref, "The past, present, and future of silicon photonics," IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 12, 1678-1687 (2006).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, P. Cheben, "Design of polarization-insensitive ring resonators in silicon-on-insulator using MMI couplers and cladding stress engineering," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 343-345 (2006).

J. Lightw. Technol. (4)

M. Rajarajan, B. M. A. Rahman, T. Wongcharoen, K. T. V. Grattan, "Accurate analysis of MMI devices with two dimensional confinement," J. Lightw. Technol. 14, 2078-2084 (1996).

M. T. Hill, X. J. M. Leijtens, G. D. Khoe, M. K. Smit, "Optimizing imbalance and loss in 2 x 2 3-dB multimode interference couplers via access waveguide width," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 2305-2313 (2003).

L. B. Soldano, E. C. M. Pennings, "Optical multi-mode interference devices based on self-imaging: Principals and applications," J. Lightw. Technol. 13, 615-627 (1995).

W. N. Ye, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, P. Cheben, M.-J. Picard, B. Lamontagne, N. G. Tarr, "Birefringence control using stress engineering in silicon-on-insulator (SOI) waveguides," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 1308-1318 (2005).

Opt. Commun. (1)

Y. Shi, D. Dai, S. He, "Improved performance of a silicon-on-insulator-based multimode interference coupler by using taper structures," Opt. Commun. 253, 276-282 (2005).

Opt. Quantum Electron. (1)

R. Halir, A. Ortega-Moñux, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, I. Molina-Fernández, P. Cheben, "Fabrication tolerance analysis of bent single-mode rib waveguides on SOI," Opt. Quantum Electron. 38, 921-932 (2007).

Opt. Eng. (1)

Y. Tang, W. Wang, Y. Wu, J. Yang, Y. Wang, "Design and fabrication of multimode interference coupler with strong confinement structure on silicon-on-insulator," Opt. Eng. 43, 2495-2496 (2004).

Other (4)

R. Halir, Í. Molina-Fernández, A. O. Moñux, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, D.-X. Xu, P. Cheben, S. Janz, "High performance, single etch step MMI design on SOI," Proc. European Conf. Integrated Optics (2007).

PAS 5500/100 Step & Repeat i-Line System ASML www.asml.com/asml/show.do?ctx=7077&rid=7099.

Step-and-Repeat System NSR-SF100 Nikon www.ave.nikon.co.jp/pec_e/products/pdf/NSR-SF100e.pdf.

A. W. Snyder, J. D. Love, Optical Waveguide Theory (Chapman and Hall, 1983).

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