Abstract

We describe the stabilization of the beatnote of an Er,Yb:glass dual-frequency laser at 1.5 <i>µ</i>m with and without an external microwave reference. In the first case, a classical optical phase-locked loop (OPLL) is used, and absolute phase noise levels as low as -117 dBrad<sup>2</sup>/Hz at 10 kHz from the carrier are reported. In the second case one or two fiber-optic delay lines are used to lock the frequency of the beatnote. Absolute phase noise levels as low as -107 dBrad<sup>2</sup>/Hz at 10 kHz from the carrier are measured, fairly independant of the beatnote frequency varying from 2 to 6 GHz. An analysis of the phase noise level limitation is presented in the linear servo-loop theory framework. The expected phase noise level calculated from the measurement of the different noise sources fits well with the predictions.

© 2008 IEEE

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  1. F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, O. Lopez, C. Daussy, A. Amy-Klein, C. Chardonnet, "High resolution frequency standard dissemination via optical fiber metropolitan network," Rev. Scient. Instrum. 77, 064701 (2006).
  2. S. Tonda-Goldstein, D. Dolfi, A. Monsterleet, S. Formont, J. Chazelas, J.-P. Huignard, "Optical signal processing in radar systems," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 54, 847-853 (2006).
  3. H. Rideout, J. Seregelyi, J. Yao, "A true time delay beamforming system incorporating a wavelength tunable optical phase-lock loop," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 1761-1770 (2007).
  4. A. J. Seeds, K. J. Williams, "Microwave photonics," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 4628-4641 (2006).
  5. Y. Li, A. Vieira, S. Goldwasser, P. Herczfeld, "Rapidly tunable millimeter-wave optical transmitter for lidar-radar," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 49, 2048-2054 (2001).
  6. L. Langley, M. Elkin, C. Edge, M. Wale, U. Gliese, X. Huang, A. Seeds, "Packaged semiconductor laser optical phase-locked loop (opll) for photonic generation, Processing and transmission of microwave signals," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 47, 1257-1264 (1999).
  7. U. Gliese, E. Christensen, K. Stubkjaer, "Laser linewidth requirements and improvements for coherent optical beam forming networks in satellites," J. Lightw. Technol. 9, 779-790 (1991).
  8. U. Gliese, T. Nielsen, M. Bruun, E. Lintz Christensen, K. Stubkjaer, S. Lindgren, B. Broberg, "A wideband heterodyne optical phaselocked loop for generation of 3–18 ghz microwave carriers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 936-938 (1992).
  9. K. Williams, L. Goldberg, R. Esman, M. Dagenais, J. Weller, "6–34 GHz offset phase-locking of nd:yag 1319 nm nonplanar ring lasers," Electron. Lett. 25, 1242-1243 (1989).
  10. Y. Li, S. Goldwasser, P. Herczfeld, "Optically generated dynamically tunable, low noise millimeter wave signals using microchip solid state lasers," Proc. IEEE MTT-S Int. Microw. Symp. Dig. (2003) pp. 1391-1394.
  11. M. Brunel, O. Emile, F. Bretenaker, A. Le Floch, B. Ferrand, E. Molva, "Tunable two-frequency lasers for lifetime measurements," Opt. Rev. 4, 550-552 (1997).
  12. M. Brunel, F. Bretenaker, A. Le Floch, "Tunable optical microwave source using spatially resolved laser eigenstates," Opt. Lett. 22, 384-386 (1997).
  13. G. W. Baxter, J. M. Dawes, P. Dekker, S. Knowles, "Dualpolarization frequency-modulated laser source," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1015-1017 (1996).
  14. M. Alouini, B. Benazet, M. Vallet, M. Brunel, P. Di Bin, F. Bretenaker, A. Le Floch, P. Thony, "Offset phase locking of Er:Yb:Glass laser eigenstates for RF photonics applications," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 367-369 (2001).
  15. M. Brunel, N. D. D. Lai, M. Vallet, A. Le Floch, F. Bretenaker, L. Morvan, D. Dolfi, J.-P. Huignard, S. Blanc, T. Merlet, "Generation of tunable high-purity microwave and terahertz signals by two-frequency solid-state lasers," SPIE 5466, 131-139 (2004).
  16. J. Logan, R. T. , L. Maleki, M. Shadaram, "Stabilization of oscillator phase using a fiber-optic delay-line," Proc. 45th Ann. Symp. Freq. Contr. (1991) pp. 508-512.
  17. X. S. Yao, L. Maleki, "Converting light into spectrally pure microwave oscillation," Opt. Lett. 21, 483-485 (1996).
  18. X. S. Yao, L. Maleki, "Optoelectronic microwave oscillator," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 13, 1725 (1996).
  19. X. Yao, L. Maleki, "Dual microwave and optical oscillator," Opt. Lett. 22, 1867-1869 (1997).
  20. X. Yao, L. Maleki, D. Eliyahu, "Progress in the opto-electronic oscillator—A ten year anniversary review," IEEE MTT-S Int. Microw. Symp. Dig. (2004) pp. 287-290.
  21. L. Morvan, D. Dolfi, J.-P. Huignard, S. Blanc, M. Brunel, M. Vallet, F. Bretenaker, A. Le Floch, "Dual-frequency laser at 1.53 µm for generating high-purity optically carried microwave signals up to 20 GHz," Conf. Lasers Electro-Opt. (CLEO) (2004) pp. 2.
  22. J.-C. Gille, P. Decaulne, M. Pélegrin, Théorie et Calcul des Asservissements Linéaires (Dunod, 1967).
  23. E. Rubiola, R. Boudot, "The effect of am noise on correlation phase noise measurements," IEEE Trans. Ultrason., Ferroelectr. Freq. Contr. 54, 926-932 (2007).
  24. S. Taccheo, P. Laporta, O. Svelto, G. De Geronimo, "Intensity noise reduction in a single-frequency ytterbium-codoped erbium laser," Opt. Lett. 21, 1747 (1996).
  25. M. Brunel, A. Amon, M. Vallet, "Dual-polarization microchip laser at 1.53 µm," Opt. Lett. 30, 2418-2420 (2005).
  26. J. Le Gouët, L. Morvan, M. Alouini, J. Bourderionnet, D. Dolfi, J.- P. Huignard, "Dual-frequency single-axis laser using a lead lanthanum zirconate tantalate (PLZT) birefringent etalon for millimeter wave generation: Beyond the standard limit of tunability," Opt. Lett. 32, 1090-1092 (2007).
  27. M. Vallet, M. Brunel, M. Oger, "RF photonic synthesiser," Electron. Lett. 43, 1437-1438 (2007).
  28. V. Crozatier, B. Das, G. Baili, G. Gorju, F. Bretenaker, J.-L. Le Gouët, I. Lorgeré, W. Sohler, "Highly coherent electronically tunable waveguide extended cavity diode laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1527-1529 (2006).
  29. G. Gorju, A. Jucha, A. Jain, V. Crozatier, I. Lorgeré, J.-L. Le Gouët, F. Bretenaker, M. Colice, "Active stabilization of a rapidly chirped laser by an optoelectronic digital servo-loop control," Opt. Lett. 32, 484-486 (2007).
  30. E. Rubiola, E. Salik, S. Huang, N. Yu, L. Maleki, "Photonic-delay technique for phase-noise measurement of microwave oscillators," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B. 22, 987-997 (2005).

2007 (5)

H. Rideout, J. Seregelyi, J. Yao, "A true time delay beamforming system incorporating a wavelength tunable optical phase-lock loop," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 1761-1770 (2007).

E. Rubiola, R. Boudot, "The effect of am noise on correlation phase noise measurements," IEEE Trans. Ultrason., Ferroelectr. Freq. Contr. 54, 926-932 (2007).

J. Le Gouët, L. Morvan, M. Alouini, J. Bourderionnet, D. Dolfi, J.- P. Huignard, "Dual-frequency single-axis laser using a lead lanthanum zirconate tantalate (PLZT) birefringent etalon for millimeter wave generation: Beyond the standard limit of tunability," Opt. Lett. 32, 1090-1092 (2007).

M. Vallet, M. Brunel, M. Oger, "RF photonic synthesiser," Electron. Lett. 43, 1437-1438 (2007).

G. Gorju, A. Jucha, A. Jain, V. Crozatier, I. Lorgeré, J.-L. Le Gouët, F. Bretenaker, M. Colice, "Active stabilization of a rapidly chirped laser by an optoelectronic digital servo-loop control," Opt. Lett. 32, 484-486 (2007).

2006 (4)

V. Crozatier, B. Das, G. Baili, G. Gorju, F. Bretenaker, J.-L. Le Gouët, I. Lorgeré, W. Sohler, "Highly coherent electronically tunable waveguide extended cavity diode laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1527-1529 (2006).

A. J. Seeds, K. J. Williams, "Microwave photonics," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 4628-4641 (2006).

F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, O. Lopez, C. Daussy, A. Amy-Klein, C. Chardonnet, "High resolution frequency standard dissemination via optical fiber metropolitan network," Rev. Scient. Instrum. 77, 064701 (2006).

S. Tonda-Goldstein, D. Dolfi, A. Monsterleet, S. Formont, J. Chazelas, J.-P. Huignard, "Optical signal processing in radar systems," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 54, 847-853 (2006).

2005 (2)

E. Rubiola, E. Salik, S. Huang, N. Yu, L. Maleki, "Photonic-delay technique for phase-noise measurement of microwave oscillators," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B. 22, 987-997 (2005).

M. Brunel, A. Amon, M. Vallet, "Dual-polarization microchip laser at 1.53 µm," Opt. Lett. 30, 2418-2420 (2005).

2004 (1)

M. Brunel, N. D. D. Lai, M. Vallet, A. Le Floch, F. Bretenaker, L. Morvan, D. Dolfi, J.-P. Huignard, S. Blanc, T. Merlet, "Generation of tunable high-purity microwave and terahertz signals by two-frequency solid-state lasers," SPIE 5466, 131-139 (2004).

2001 (2)

M. Alouini, B. Benazet, M. Vallet, M. Brunel, P. Di Bin, F. Bretenaker, A. Le Floch, P. Thony, "Offset phase locking of Er:Yb:Glass laser eigenstates for RF photonics applications," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 367-369 (2001).

Y. Li, A. Vieira, S. Goldwasser, P. Herczfeld, "Rapidly tunable millimeter-wave optical transmitter for lidar-radar," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 49, 2048-2054 (2001).

1999 (1)

L. Langley, M. Elkin, C. Edge, M. Wale, U. Gliese, X. Huang, A. Seeds, "Packaged semiconductor laser optical phase-locked loop (opll) for photonic generation, Processing and transmission of microwave signals," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 47, 1257-1264 (1999).

1997 (3)

1996 (4)

G. W. Baxter, J. M. Dawes, P. Dekker, S. Knowles, "Dualpolarization frequency-modulated laser source," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1015-1017 (1996).

X. S. Yao, L. Maleki, "Converting light into spectrally pure microwave oscillation," Opt. Lett. 21, 483-485 (1996).

X. S. Yao, L. Maleki, "Optoelectronic microwave oscillator," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 13, 1725 (1996).

S. Taccheo, P. Laporta, O. Svelto, G. De Geronimo, "Intensity noise reduction in a single-frequency ytterbium-codoped erbium laser," Opt. Lett. 21, 1747 (1996).

1992 (1)

U. Gliese, T. Nielsen, M. Bruun, E. Lintz Christensen, K. Stubkjaer, S. Lindgren, B. Broberg, "A wideband heterodyne optical phaselocked loop for generation of 3–18 ghz microwave carriers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 936-938 (1992).

1991 (1)

U. Gliese, E. Christensen, K. Stubkjaer, "Laser linewidth requirements and improvements for coherent optical beam forming networks in satellites," J. Lightw. Technol. 9, 779-790 (1991).

1989 (1)

K. Williams, L. Goldberg, R. Esman, M. Dagenais, J. Weller, "6–34 GHz offset phase-locking of nd:yag 1319 nm nonplanar ring lasers," Electron. Lett. 25, 1242-1243 (1989).

Electron. Lett. (1)

M. Vallet, M. Brunel, M. Oger, "RF photonic synthesiser," Electron. Lett. 43, 1437-1438 (2007).

Electron. Lett. (1)

K. Williams, L. Goldberg, R. Esman, M. Dagenais, J. Weller, "6–34 GHz offset phase-locking of nd:yag 1319 nm nonplanar ring lasers," Electron. Lett. 25, 1242-1243 (1989).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

V. Crozatier, B. Das, G. Baili, G. Gorju, F. Bretenaker, J.-L. Le Gouët, I. Lorgeré, W. Sohler, "Highly coherent electronically tunable waveguide extended cavity diode laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1527-1529 (2006).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

U. Gliese, T. Nielsen, M. Bruun, E. Lintz Christensen, K. Stubkjaer, S. Lindgren, B. Broberg, "A wideband heterodyne optical phaselocked loop for generation of 3–18 ghz microwave carriers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 936-938 (1992).

M. Alouini, B. Benazet, M. Vallet, M. Brunel, P. Di Bin, F. Bretenaker, A. Le Floch, P. Thony, "Offset phase locking of Er:Yb:Glass laser eigenstates for RF photonics applications," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 367-369 (2001).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

G. W. Baxter, J. M. Dawes, P. Dekker, S. Knowles, "Dualpolarization frequency-modulated laser source," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1015-1017 (1996).

IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. (1)

S. Tonda-Goldstein, D. Dolfi, A. Monsterleet, S. Formont, J. Chazelas, J.-P. Huignard, "Optical signal processing in radar systems," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 54, 847-853 (2006).

IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. (2)

Y. Li, A. Vieira, S. Goldwasser, P. Herczfeld, "Rapidly tunable millimeter-wave optical transmitter for lidar-radar," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 49, 2048-2054 (2001).

L. Langley, M. Elkin, C. Edge, M. Wale, U. Gliese, X. Huang, A. Seeds, "Packaged semiconductor laser optical phase-locked loop (opll) for photonic generation, Processing and transmission of microwave signals," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 47, 1257-1264 (1999).

IEEE Trans. Ultrason., Ferroelectr. Freq. Contr. (1)

E. Rubiola, R. Boudot, "The effect of am noise on correlation phase noise measurements," IEEE Trans. Ultrason., Ferroelectr. Freq. Contr. 54, 926-932 (2007).

J. Lightw. Technol. (1)

U. Gliese, E. Christensen, K. Stubkjaer, "Laser linewidth requirements and improvements for coherent optical beam forming networks in satellites," J. Lightw. Technol. 9, 779-790 (1991).

J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B (1)

X. S. Yao, L. Maleki, "Optoelectronic microwave oscillator," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 13, 1725 (1996).

J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B. (1)

E. Rubiola, E. Salik, S. Huang, N. Yu, L. Maleki, "Photonic-delay technique for phase-noise measurement of microwave oscillators," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B. 22, 987-997 (2005).

J. Lightw. Technol. (2)

H. Rideout, J. Seregelyi, J. Yao, "A true time delay beamforming system incorporating a wavelength tunable optical phase-lock loop," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 1761-1770 (2007).

A. J. Seeds, K. J. Williams, "Microwave photonics," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 4628-4641 (2006).

Opt. Lett. (1)

J. Le Gouët, L. Morvan, M. Alouini, J. Bourderionnet, D. Dolfi, J.- P. Huignard, "Dual-frequency single-axis laser using a lead lanthanum zirconate tantalate (PLZT) birefringent etalon for millimeter wave generation: Beyond the standard limit of tunability," Opt. Lett. 32, 1090-1092 (2007).

Opt. Rev. (1)

M. Brunel, O. Emile, F. Bretenaker, A. Le Floch, B. Ferrand, E. Molva, "Tunable two-frequency lasers for lifetime measurements," Opt. Rev. 4, 550-552 (1997).

Opt. Lett. (5)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Opt. Lett. (5)

Rev. Scient. Instrum. (1)

F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, O. Lopez, C. Daussy, A. Amy-Klein, C. Chardonnet, "High resolution frequency standard dissemination via optical fiber metropolitan network," Rev. Scient. Instrum. 77, 064701 (2006).

SPIE (1)

M. Brunel, N. D. D. Lai, M. Vallet, A. Le Floch, F. Bretenaker, L. Morvan, D. Dolfi, J.-P. Huignard, S. Blanc, T. Merlet, "Generation of tunable high-purity microwave and terahertz signals by two-frequency solid-state lasers," SPIE 5466, 131-139 (2004).

Other (5)

J. Logan, R. T. , L. Maleki, M. Shadaram, "Stabilization of oscillator phase using a fiber-optic delay-line," Proc. 45th Ann. Symp. Freq. Contr. (1991) pp. 508-512.

X. Yao, L. Maleki, D. Eliyahu, "Progress in the opto-electronic oscillator—A ten year anniversary review," IEEE MTT-S Int. Microw. Symp. Dig. (2004) pp. 287-290.

L. Morvan, D. Dolfi, J.-P. Huignard, S. Blanc, M. Brunel, M. Vallet, F. Bretenaker, A. Le Floch, "Dual-frequency laser at 1.53 µm for generating high-purity optically carried microwave signals up to 20 GHz," Conf. Lasers Electro-Opt. (CLEO) (2004) pp. 2.

J.-C. Gille, P. Decaulne, M. Pélegrin, Théorie et Calcul des Asservissements Linéaires (Dunod, 1967).

Y. Li, S. Goldwasser, P. Herczfeld, "Optically generated dynamically tunable, low noise millimeter wave signals using microchip solid state lasers," Proc. IEEE MTT-S Int. Microw. Symp. Dig. (2003) pp. 1391-1394.

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