Abstract

In normal injection-locked semiconductor lasers, the modulation signals are applied to the slave laser. In this paper, we show that modulating the master light before injection exhibits distinctive modulation dynamics and frequency response. We first present a detailed theoretical model and simulation results. Experimentally, we have successfully demonstrated both master amplitude and master phase modulation. The resulting 3-dB bandwidths have been enhanced by up to three times, exceeding 50 GHz. The resonance frequency of the combined lasers is greater than 100 GHz.

© 2008 IEEE

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  1. R. S. Tucker, "High-speed modulation of semiconductor lasers," J. Lightw. Technol. 3, 1180-1192 (1985).
  2. Y. Matsui, H. Murai, S. Arahira, Y. Ogawa, A. Suzuki, "Enhanced modulation bandwidth for strain-compensated InGaAlAs-InGaAsP MQW lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 1970 (1998).
  3. X. Zhang, A. Gutierrez-Aitken, D. Klotzkin, P. Bhattacharya, C. Caneau, R. Bhat, "0.98-µm multiple-quantum-well tunneling injection laser with 98-GHz intrinsic modulation bandwidth," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 3, 309-14 (1997).
  4. S. Weisser, E. C. Larkins, K. Czotscher, W. Benz, J. Daleiden, I. Esquivias, J. Fleissner, J. D. Ralston, B. Romero, R. E. Sah, A. Schonfelder, J. Rosenzweig, "Damping-limited modulation bandwidths up to 40 GHz in undoped short-cavity In0.35Ga0.65As–GaAs multiple-quantum-well lasers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 608-10 (1996).
  5. K. Noguchi, O. Mitomi, H. Miyazawa, "Millimeter-wave Ti:LiNbO3 optical modulators," J. Lightw. Technol. 16, 615-19 (1998).
  6. R. Lewen, R. Lewen, S. Irmscher, U. Westergren, L. Thylen, U. Eriksson, "Segmented transmission-line electroabsorption modulators," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 172-179 (2004).
  7. T. B. Simpson, J. M. Liu, "Enhanced modulation bandwidth in injection-locked semiconductor lasers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1322-4 (1997).
  8. X. J. Meng, T. Chau, M. C. Wu, "Experimental demonstration of modulation bandwidth enhancement in distributed feedback lasers with external light injection," Electron. Lett. 34, 2031 (1998).
  9. L. Chrostowski, X. Zhao, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, "Microwave performance of optically injection-locked VCSELs," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 54, 788-796 (2006).
  10. E. K. Lau, X. Zhao, H.-K. Sung, D. Parekh, C. Chang-Hasnain, M. C. Wu, "Strong optical injection-locked semiconductor lasers demonstrating >100-GHz resonance frequencies and 80-GHz intrinsic bandwidths," Opt. Express 16, 6609-6618 (2008).
  11. E. K. Lau, H. K. Sung, M. C. Wu, "Frequency response enhancement of optical injection-locked lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44, 90-99 (2008).
  12. S. Wieczorek, W. W. Chow, L. Chrostowski, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, "Improved semiconductor-laser dynamics from induced population pulsation," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 552-562 (2006).
  13. E. K. Lau, H.-K. Sung, X. Zhao, D. Parekh, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, M. C. Wu, "Bandwidth enhancement by optical amplitude and phase modulation of injection-locked semiconductor lasers," Proc. Int. Topical Meeting Microw. Photon. (2007) pp. 241-244.
  14. M. K. Haldar, J. C. Coetzee, K. B. Gan, "Optical frequency modulation and intensity modulation suppression in a master-slave semiconductor laser system with direct modulation of the master laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 280-6 (2005).
  15. S. Kasapi, S. Lathi, Y. Yamamoto, "Sub-shot-noise frequency-modulation spectroscopy by use of amplitude-squeezed light from semiconductor lasers," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 17, 275-9 (2000).
  16. E. Wong, X. Zhao, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, W. Hofmann, M. C. Amann, "Optically injection-locked 1.55-µm VCSELs as upstream transmitters in WDM-PONs," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2371-3 (2006).
  17. M. Bhattacharya, T. Chatlopadhyay, "A method for generation of optical FM signal through injection locking," J. Lightw. Technol. 16, 656-660 (1998).
  18. S. Kobayashi, T. Kimura, "Optical FM signal amplification by injection locked and resonant type semiconductor laser amplifiers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18, 575 (1982).
  19. L. Li, "Small signal analysis of optical FM signal amplification by an injection-locked type semiconductor laser amplifier," J. Lightw. Technol. 10, 477-481 (1992).
  20. P. Spano, M. Tamburrini, S. Piazzolla, "Optical FSK modulation using injection-locked laser diodes," J. Lightw. Technol. 7, 726-728 (1989).
  21. M. Vainio, M. Merimaa, K. Nyholm, "Modulation transfer characteristics of injection-locked diode lasers," Opt. Commun. 267, 455-463 (2006).
  22. H. Nakajima, R. Derouiche, J. Charil, P. Correc, "Reception of frequency-modulated optical signals through intracavity optical power change in injection-locked λ/4-shifted DFB laser," Electron. Lett. 28, 1342-4 (1992).
  23. H. Shimizu, H. Shimizu, Y. Nakano, "Monolithic integration of a waveguide optical isolator with a distributed feedback laser diode in the 1.5-µm wavelength range," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1973-1975 (2007).
  24. F. Mogensen, H. Olesen, G. Jacobsen, "Locking conditions and stability properties for a semiconductor laser with external light injection," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-21, 784-93 (1985).
  25. C. H. Henry, N. A. Olsson, N. K. Dutta, "Locking range and stability of injection locked 1.54 µm InGaAsP semiconductor lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-21, 1152-6 (1985).
  26. R. Lang, "Injection locking properties of a semiconductor laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 976-83 (1982).
  27. A. Murakami, K. Kawashima, K. Atsuki, "Cavity resonance shift and bandwidth enhancement in semiconductor lasers with strong light injection," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 1196-204 (2003).
  28. E. K. Lau, M. C. Wu, "Amplitude and frequency modulation of the master laser in injection-locked laser systems," Proc. Int. Topical Meeting Microw. Photon. (2004) pp. 142-5.
  29. E. K. Lau, H. K. Sung, M. C. Wu, "Scaling of resonance frequency for strong injection-locked lasers," Opt. Lett. 32, 3373-3375 (2007).
  30. W. V. Sorin, K. W. Chang, G. A. Conrad, P. R. Hernday, "Frequency domain analysis of an optical FM discriminator," J. Lightw. Technol. 10, 787-93 (1992).
  31. E. K. Lau, H. K. Sung, X. Zhao, D. Parekh, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, M. C. Wu, "Bandwidth enhancement of electro-absorption modulated lasers by optical injection locking," Proc. Annu. Meeting IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Soc. (2007) pp. 188-189.
  32. X. Zhao, D. Parekh, E. K. Lau, H. K. Sung, M. C. Wu, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, "Novel cascaded injection-locked 1.55-µm VCSELs with 66 GHz modulation bandwidth," Opt. Express 15, 14810-14816 (2007).

2008 (2)

2007 (3)

2006 (4)

M. Vainio, M. Merimaa, K. Nyholm, "Modulation transfer characteristics of injection-locked diode lasers," Opt. Commun. 267, 455-463 (2006).

S. Wieczorek, W. W. Chow, L. Chrostowski, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, "Improved semiconductor-laser dynamics from induced population pulsation," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 552-562 (2006).

E. Wong, X. Zhao, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, W. Hofmann, M. C. Amann, "Optically injection-locked 1.55-µm VCSELs as upstream transmitters in WDM-PONs," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2371-3 (2006).

L. Chrostowski, X. Zhao, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, "Microwave performance of optically injection-locked VCSELs," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 54, 788-796 (2006).

2005 (1)

M. K. Haldar, J. C. Coetzee, K. B. Gan, "Optical frequency modulation and intensity modulation suppression in a master-slave semiconductor laser system with direct modulation of the master laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 280-6 (2005).

2004 (1)

R. Lewen, R. Lewen, S. Irmscher, U. Westergren, L. Thylen, U. Eriksson, "Segmented transmission-line electroabsorption modulators," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 172-179 (2004).

2003 (1)

A. Murakami, K. Kawashima, K. Atsuki, "Cavity resonance shift and bandwidth enhancement in semiconductor lasers with strong light injection," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 1196-204 (2003).

2000 (1)

S. Kasapi, S. Lathi, Y. Yamamoto, "Sub-shot-noise frequency-modulation spectroscopy by use of amplitude-squeezed light from semiconductor lasers," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 17, 275-9 (2000).

1998 (4)

M. Bhattacharya, T. Chatlopadhyay, "A method for generation of optical FM signal through injection locking," J. Lightw. Technol. 16, 656-660 (1998).

X. J. Meng, T. Chau, M. C. Wu, "Experimental demonstration of modulation bandwidth enhancement in distributed feedback lasers with external light injection," Electron. Lett. 34, 2031 (1998).

Y. Matsui, H. Murai, S. Arahira, Y. Ogawa, A. Suzuki, "Enhanced modulation bandwidth for strain-compensated InGaAlAs-InGaAsP MQW lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 1970 (1998).

K. Noguchi, O. Mitomi, H. Miyazawa, "Millimeter-wave Ti:LiNbO3 optical modulators," J. Lightw. Technol. 16, 615-19 (1998).

1997 (2)

X. Zhang, A. Gutierrez-Aitken, D. Klotzkin, P. Bhattacharya, C. Caneau, R. Bhat, "0.98-µm multiple-quantum-well tunneling injection laser with 98-GHz intrinsic modulation bandwidth," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 3, 309-14 (1997).

T. B. Simpson, J. M. Liu, "Enhanced modulation bandwidth in injection-locked semiconductor lasers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1322-4 (1997).

1996 (1)

S. Weisser, E. C. Larkins, K. Czotscher, W. Benz, J. Daleiden, I. Esquivias, J. Fleissner, J. D. Ralston, B. Romero, R. E. Sah, A. Schonfelder, J. Rosenzweig, "Damping-limited modulation bandwidths up to 40 GHz in undoped short-cavity In0.35Ga0.65As–GaAs multiple-quantum-well lasers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 608-10 (1996).

1992 (3)

L. Li, "Small signal analysis of optical FM signal amplification by an injection-locked type semiconductor laser amplifier," J. Lightw. Technol. 10, 477-481 (1992).

H. Nakajima, R. Derouiche, J. Charil, P. Correc, "Reception of frequency-modulated optical signals through intracavity optical power change in injection-locked λ/4-shifted DFB laser," Electron. Lett. 28, 1342-4 (1992).

W. V. Sorin, K. W. Chang, G. A. Conrad, P. R. Hernday, "Frequency domain analysis of an optical FM discriminator," J. Lightw. Technol. 10, 787-93 (1992).

1989 (1)

P. Spano, M. Tamburrini, S. Piazzolla, "Optical FSK modulation using injection-locked laser diodes," J. Lightw. Technol. 7, 726-728 (1989).

1985 (3)

R. S. Tucker, "High-speed modulation of semiconductor lasers," J. Lightw. Technol. 3, 1180-1192 (1985).

F. Mogensen, H. Olesen, G. Jacobsen, "Locking conditions and stability properties for a semiconductor laser with external light injection," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-21, 784-93 (1985).

C. H. Henry, N. A. Olsson, N. K. Dutta, "Locking range and stability of injection locked 1.54 µm InGaAsP semiconductor lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-21, 1152-6 (1985).

1982 (2)

R. Lang, "Injection locking properties of a semiconductor laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 976-83 (1982).

S. Kobayashi, T. Kimura, "Optical FM signal amplification by injection locked and resonant type semiconductor laser amplifiers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18, 575 (1982).

Electron. Lett. (2)

X. J. Meng, T. Chau, M. C. Wu, "Experimental demonstration of modulation bandwidth enhancement in distributed feedback lasers with external light injection," Electron. Lett. 34, 2031 (1998).

H. Nakajima, R. Derouiche, J. Charil, P. Correc, "Reception of frequency-modulated optical signals through intracavity optical power change in injection-locked λ/4-shifted DFB laser," Electron. Lett. 28, 1342-4 (1992).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (9)

F. Mogensen, H. Olesen, G. Jacobsen, "Locking conditions and stability properties for a semiconductor laser with external light injection," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-21, 784-93 (1985).

C. H. Henry, N. A. Olsson, N. K. Dutta, "Locking range and stability of injection locked 1.54 µm InGaAsP semiconductor lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-21, 1152-6 (1985).

R. Lang, "Injection locking properties of a semiconductor laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 976-83 (1982).

A. Murakami, K. Kawashima, K. Atsuki, "Cavity resonance shift and bandwidth enhancement in semiconductor lasers with strong light injection," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 1196-204 (2003).

Y. Matsui, H. Murai, S. Arahira, Y. Ogawa, A. Suzuki, "Enhanced modulation bandwidth for strain-compensated InGaAlAs-InGaAsP MQW lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 1970 (1998).

E. K. Lau, H. K. Sung, M. C. Wu, "Frequency response enhancement of optical injection-locked lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44, 90-99 (2008).

S. Wieczorek, W. W. Chow, L. Chrostowski, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, "Improved semiconductor-laser dynamics from induced population pulsation," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 552-562 (2006).

M. K. Haldar, J. C. Coetzee, K. B. Gan, "Optical frequency modulation and intensity modulation suppression in a master-slave semiconductor laser system with direct modulation of the master laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 280-6 (2005).

S. Kobayashi, T. Kimura, "Optical FM signal amplification by injection locked and resonant type semiconductor laser amplifiers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18, 575 (1982).

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (1)

X. Zhang, A. Gutierrez-Aitken, D. Klotzkin, P. Bhattacharya, C. Caneau, R. Bhat, "0.98-µm multiple-quantum-well tunneling injection laser with 98-GHz intrinsic modulation bandwidth," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 3, 309-14 (1997).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (4)

S. Weisser, E. C. Larkins, K. Czotscher, W. Benz, J. Daleiden, I. Esquivias, J. Fleissner, J. D. Ralston, B. Romero, R. E. Sah, A. Schonfelder, J. Rosenzweig, "Damping-limited modulation bandwidths up to 40 GHz in undoped short-cavity In0.35Ga0.65As–GaAs multiple-quantum-well lasers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 608-10 (1996).

T. B. Simpson, J. M. Liu, "Enhanced modulation bandwidth in injection-locked semiconductor lasers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1322-4 (1997).

H. Shimizu, H. Shimizu, Y. Nakano, "Monolithic integration of a waveguide optical isolator with a distributed feedback laser diode in the 1.5-µm wavelength range," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1973-1975 (2007).

E. Wong, X. Zhao, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, W. Hofmann, M. C. Amann, "Optically injection-locked 1.55-µm VCSELs as upstream transmitters in WDM-PONs," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2371-3 (2006).

IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. (1)

L. Chrostowski, X. Zhao, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, "Microwave performance of optically injection-locked VCSELs," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 54, 788-796 (2006).

J. Lightw. Technol. (7)

R. S. Tucker, "High-speed modulation of semiconductor lasers," J. Lightw. Technol. 3, 1180-1192 (1985).

K. Noguchi, O. Mitomi, H. Miyazawa, "Millimeter-wave Ti:LiNbO3 optical modulators," J. Lightw. Technol. 16, 615-19 (1998).

R. Lewen, R. Lewen, S. Irmscher, U. Westergren, L. Thylen, U. Eriksson, "Segmented transmission-line electroabsorption modulators," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 172-179 (2004).

L. Li, "Small signal analysis of optical FM signal amplification by an injection-locked type semiconductor laser amplifier," J. Lightw. Technol. 10, 477-481 (1992).

P. Spano, M. Tamburrini, S. Piazzolla, "Optical FSK modulation using injection-locked laser diodes," J. Lightw. Technol. 7, 726-728 (1989).

M. Bhattacharya, T. Chatlopadhyay, "A method for generation of optical FM signal through injection locking," J. Lightw. Technol. 16, 656-660 (1998).

W. V. Sorin, K. W. Chang, G. A. Conrad, P. R. Hernday, "Frequency domain analysis of an optical FM discriminator," J. Lightw. Technol. 10, 787-93 (1992).

J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B (1)

S. Kasapi, S. Lathi, Y. Yamamoto, "Sub-shot-noise frequency-modulation spectroscopy by use of amplitude-squeezed light from semiconductor lasers," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 17, 275-9 (2000).

Opt. Commun. (1)

M. Vainio, M. Merimaa, K. Nyholm, "Modulation transfer characteristics of injection-locked diode lasers," Opt. Commun. 267, 455-463 (2006).

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Other (3)

E. K. Lau, H. K. Sung, X. Zhao, D. Parekh, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, M. C. Wu, "Bandwidth enhancement of electro-absorption modulated lasers by optical injection locking," Proc. Annu. Meeting IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Soc. (2007) pp. 188-189.

E. K. Lau, M. C. Wu, "Amplitude and frequency modulation of the master laser in injection-locked laser systems," Proc. Int. Topical Meeting Microw. Photon. (2004) pp. 142-5.

E. K. Lau, H.-K. Sung, X. Zhao, D. Parekh, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, M. C. Wu, "Bandwidth enhancement by optical amplitude and phase modulation of injection-locked semiconductor lasers," Proc. Int. Topical Meeting Microw. Photon. (2007) pp. 241-244.

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