Abstract

A balanced photonic receiver is demonstrated to suppress photodiode-generated even-order nonlinearities in a photonic link. This result is especially important for multioctave analog applications. Experimental results are presented for a high-frequency (2–30 MHz) link exhibiting 33-dB suppression of the second harmonic, resulting in an output intercept point of 99 dBm due to second-order intermodulation distortion at 26-mA average photocurrent.

© 2008 IEEE

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  1. S. Montebugnoli, M. Boschi, F. Perini, P. Faccin, G. Brunori, E. Pirazzini, "Large antenna array remoting using radio-over-fiber techniques for radio astronomical application," Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 46, 48-54 (2005).
  2. R. Spencer, L. Hu, B. Smith, M. Bently, I. Morison, B. Anderson, D. Moodie, M. Robertson, D. Nesset, "The use of optical fibers in radio astronomy," J. Mod. Opt. 47, 2015-2020 (2000).
  3. P. R. Jewell, R. M. Prestage, "The green bank telescope," Proc. of SPIE 5489, 312-323 (2004).
  4. H. V. Roussell, M. D. Regan, J. L. Prince, C. H. Cox, J. X. Chen, W. K. Burns, G. E. Betts, E. I. Ackerman, J. C. Campbell, "Gain, noise figure and bandwidth-limited dynamic range of a low-biased external modulation link," IEEE Int. Meet. Microw. Photon. Dig. (2007) pp. 84-87.
  5. J. A. MacDonald, M. V. Kubak, A. Katz, "Wideband dynamic range improvement of microwave photonic links," IEEE Avionics Fiber-Opt. Photon. Conf. Dig. (2005) pp. 67-68.
  6. A. Karim, J. Davenport, "Noise figure reduction in externally modulated analog fiber-optic links," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 312-314 (2007).
  7. K. J. Williams, L. T. Nichols, R. D. Esman, "Photodetector nonlinearity limitations on a high-dynamic range 3 GHz fiber optic link," J. Lightw. Technol. 16, 192-199 (1998).
  8. K. J. Williams, L. T. Nichols, R. D. Esman, "Externally-modulated 3 GHz fiber optic link utilizing high current and balanced detection," Electron. Lett. 33, 1327-1328 (1997).
  9. J. D. McKinney, M. Godinez, V. J. Urick, S. Thaniyavarn, W. Charczenko, K. J. Williams, "Sub-10-dB noise figure in a multiple-GHz analog optical link," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 465-467 (2007).
  10. F. Reynaud, J. J. Alleman, P. Connes, "Interferometric control of fiber lengths for a coherent telescope array," App. Opt. 31, 3736-3743 (1992).
  11. J. J. Alleman, F. Reynaud, P. Connes, "Fiber-linked telescope array: description and laboratory test of a two-channel prototype," App. Opt. 34, 2284-2294 (1995).
  12. A. N. Bratchikov, D. I. Voskresensky, K. van't Klooster, "Radio astronomical phased arrays with fiber-optic design architecture," IEEE Int. Conf. Antenna Theory Tech. Dig. (2003) pp. 617-623.
  13. S. M. Foreman, A. D. Ludlow, M. H. G. de Miranda, J. E. Stalnaker, S. A. Diddams, J. Ye, "Coherent optical phase transfer over a 32-km fiber with 1 s instability at 10-17," Phys. Rev. Lett. 153601 (2007).
  14. J. Geist, H. Baltes, "High accuracy modeling of photodiode quantum efficiency," Appl. Opt. 28, 3929-3939 (1989).
  15. R. R. Hayes, D. L. Persechini, "Nonlinearity of p-i-n photodetectors," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lettt. 5, 70-72 (1993).
  16. K. J. Williams, "Nonlinear mechanisms in microwave photodetectors operated with high intrinsic region electric fields," Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 1219-1221 (1994).
  17. K. J. Williams, R. D. Esman, M. Dagenais, "Nonlinearities in p-i-n microwave photodetectors," J. Lightw. Technol. 14, 84-96 (1996).
  18. Y. Kuhara, Y. Fujimura, N. Nishsyama, H. Terauchi, N. Yamabayashi, "Characterization and theoretical analysis of second-order intermodulation distortion of InGaAs/InP p-i-n photodiode modules for fiber-optic CATV," J. Lightw. Technol. 15, 636-641 (1997).
  19. K. J. Williams, R. D. Esman, "Photodiode dc and microwave nonlinearity at high currents due to carrier recombination nonlinearities," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1015-1017 (1998).
  20. H. Jiang, P. K. L. Yu, "Equivalent circuit analysis of harmonic distortion in photodiodes," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1608-1610 (1998).
  21. B. H. Kolner, D. W. Dolfi, "Intermodulation distortion and compression in an integrated electrooptic modulator," Appl. Opt. 26, 3676-3680 (1987).
  22. W. E. Stephens, T. R. Jospeh, "System characteristics of direct modulated and externally modulated RF fiber-optic links," J. Lightw. Technol. LT-5, 380-387 (1987).
  23. C. H. Cox III, G. E. Betts, L. M. Johnson, "An analytical and experimental comparison of direct and external modulation in analog fiber-optic links," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 38, 501-509 (1990).
  24. E. E. Funk, A. L. Campillo, D. A. Tulchinsky, "Nonlinear distortion and crosstalk in microwave fiber-radio links," IEEE MTT-S Dig. 3, 1691-1693 (2002).
  25. D. A. Tulchinsky, private communication (2007).
  26. R. D. Esman, K. J. Williams, "Measurement of harmonic distortion in microwave photodetectors," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 502-504 (1990).
  27. D. M. Pozar, Microwave Engineering (Wiley, 2005).
  28. J. C. Pedro, N. B. Carvalho, Intermodulation Distortion in Microwave and Wireless Circuits (Artech, 2003).

2007 (3)

A. Karim, J. Davenport, "Noise figure reduction in externally modulated analog fiber-optic links," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 312-314 (2007).

J. D. McKinney, M. Godinez, V. J. Urick, S. Thaniyavarn, W. Charczenko, K. J. Williams, "Sub-10-dB noise figure in a multiple-GHz analog optical link," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 465-467 (2007).

S. M. Foreman, A. D. Ludlow, M. H. G. de Miranda, J. E. Stalnaker, S. A. Diddams, J. Ye, "Coherent optical phase transfer over a 32-km fiber with 1 s instability at 10-17," Phys. Rev. Lett. 153601 (2007).

2005 (1)

S. Montebugnoli, M. Boschi, F. Perini, P. Faccin, G. Brunori, E. Pirazzini, "Large antenna array remoting using radio-over-fiber techniques for radio astronomical application," Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 46, 48-54 (2005).

2004 (1)

P. R. Jewell, R. M. Prestage, "The green bank telescope," Proc. of SPIE 5489, 312-323 (2004).

2002 (1)

E. E. Funk, A. L. Campillo, D. A. Tulchinsky, "Nonlinear distortion and crosstalk in microwave fiber-radio links," IEEE MTT-S Dig. 3, 1691-1693 (2002).

2000 (1)

R. Spencer, L. Hu, B. Smith, M. Bently, I. Morison, B. Anderson, D. Moodie, M. Robertson, D. Nesset, "The use of optical fibers in radio astronomy," J. Mod. Opt. 47, 2015-2020 (2000).

1998 (3)

K. J. Williams, L. T. Nichols, R. D. Esman, "Photodetector nonlinearity limitations on a high-dynamic range 3 GHz fiber optic link," J. Lightw. Technol. 16, 192-199 (1998).

K. J. Williams, R. D. Esman, "Photodiode dc and microwave nonlinearity at high currents due to carrier recombination nonlinearities," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1015-1017 (1998).

H. Jiang, P. K. L. Yu, "Equivalent circuit analysis of harmonic distortion in photodiodes," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1608-1610 (1998).

1997 (2)

K. J. Williams, L. T. Nichols, R. D. Esman, "Externally-modulated 3 GHz fiber optic link utilizing high current and balanced detection," Electron. Lett. 33, 1327-1328 (1997).

Y. Kuhara, Y. Fujimura, N. Nishsyama, H. Terauchi, N. Yamabayashi, "Characterization and theoretical analysis of second-order intermodulation distortion of InGaAs/InP p-i-n photodiode modules for fiber-optic CATV," J. Lightw. Technol. 15, 636-641 (1997).

1996 (1)

K. J. Williams, R. D. Esman, M. Dagenais, "Nonlinearities in p-i-n microwave photodetectors," J. Lightw. Technol. 14, 84-96 (1996).

1995 (1)

J. J. Alleman, F. Reynaud, P. Connes, "Fiber-linked telescope array: description and laboratory test of a two-channel prototype," App. Opt. 34, 2284-2294 (1995).

1994 (1)

K. J. Williams, "Nonlinear mechanisms in microwave photodetectors operated with high intrinsic region electric fields," Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 1219-1221 (1994).

1993 (1)

R. R. Hayes, D. L. Persechini, "Nonlinearity of p-i-n photodetectors," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lettt. 5, 70-72 (1993).

1992 (1)

F. Reynaud, J. J. Alleman, P. Connes, "Interferometric control of fiber lengths for a coherent telescope array," App. Opt. 31, 3736-3743 (1992).

1990 (2)

R. D. Esman, K. J. Williams, "Measurement of harmonic distortion in microwave photodetectors," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 502-504 (1990).

C. H. Cox III, G. E. Betts, L. M. Johnson, "An analytical and experimental comparison of direct and external modulation in analog fiber-optic links," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 38, 501-509 (1990).

1989 (1)

J. Geist, H. Baltes, "High accuracy modeling of photodiode quantum efficiency," Appl. Opt. 28, 3929-3939 (1989).

1987 (2)

B. H. Kolner, D. W. Dolfi, "Intermodulation distortion and compression in an integrated electrooptic modulator," Appl. Opt. 26, 3676-3680 (1987).

W. E. Stephens, T. R. Jospeh, "System characteristics of direct modulated and externally modulated RF fiber-optic links," J. Lightw. Technol. LT-5, 380-387 (1987).

App. Opt. (2)

F. Reynaud, J. J. Alleman, P. Connes, "Interferometric control of fiber lengths for a coherent telescope array," App. Opt. 31, 3736-3743 (1992).

J. J. Alleman, F. Reynaud, P. Connes, "Fiber-linked telescope array: description and laboratory test of a two-channel prototype," App. Opt. 34, 2284-2294 (1995).

Appl. Opt. (1)

J. Geist, H. Baltes, "High accuracy modeling of photodiode quantum efficiency," Appl. Opt. 28, 3929-3939 (1989).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

K. J. Williams, "Nonlinear mechanisms in microwave photodetectors operated with high intrinsic region electric fields," Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 1219-1221 (1994).

Appl. Opt. (1)

Electron. Lett. (1)

K. J. Williams, L. T. Nichols, R. D. Esman, "Externally-modulated 3 GHz fiber optic link utilizing high current and balanced detection," Electron. Lett. 33, 1327-1328 (1997).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

K. J. Williams, R. D. Esman, "Photodiode dc and microwave nonlinearity at high currents due to carrier recombination nonlinearities," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1015-1017 (1998).

IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. (1)

C. H. Cox III, G. E. Betts, L. M. Johnson, "An analytical and experimental comparison of direct and external modulation in analog fiber-optic links," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 38, 501-509 (1990).

IEEE MTT-S Dig. (1)

E. E. Funk, A. L. Campillo, D. A. Tulchinsky, "Nonlinear distortion and crosstalk in microwave fiber-radio links," IEEE MTT-S Dig. 3, 1691-1693 (2002).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (4)

R. D. Esman, K. J. Williams, "Measurement of harmonic distortion in microwave photodetectors," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 502-504 (1990).

H. Jiang, P. K. L. Yu, "Equivalent circuit analysis of harmonic distortion in photodiodes," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1608-1610 (1998).

J. D. McKinney, M. Godinez, V. J. Urick, S. Thaniyavarn, W. Charczenko, K. J. Williams, "Sub-10-dB noise figure in a multiple-GHz analog optical link," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 465-467 (2007).

A. Karim, J. Davenport, "Noise figure reduction in externally modulated analog fiber-optic links," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 312-314 (2007).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lettt. (1)

R. R. Hayes, D. L. Persechini, "Nonlinearity of p-i-n photodetectors," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lettt. 5, 70-72 (1993).

J. Lightw. Technol. (1)

W. E. Stephens, T. R. Jospeh, "System characteristics of direct modulated and externally modulated RF fiber-optic links," J. Lightw. Technol. LT-5, 380-387 (1987).

J. Lightw. Technol. (3)

K. J. Williams, R. D. Esman, M. Dagenais, "Nonlinearities in p-i-n microwave photodetectors," J. Lightw. Technol. 14, 84-96 (1996).

Y. Kuhara, Y. Fujimura, N. Nishsyama, H. Terauchi, N. Yamabayashi, "Characterization and theoretical analysis of second-order intermodulation distortion of InGaAs/InP p-i-n photodiode modules for fiber-optic CATV," J. Lightw. Technol. 15, 636-641 (1997).

K. J. Williams, L. T. Nichols, R. D. Esman, "Photodetector nonlinearity limitations on a high-dynamic range 3 GHz fiber optic link," J. Lightw. Technol. 16, 192-199 (1998).

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

R. Spencer, L. Hu, B. Smith, M. Bently, I. Morison, B. Anderson, D. Moodie, M. Robertson, D. Nesset, "The use of optical fibers in radio astronomy," J. Mod. Opt. 47, 2015-2020 (2000).

Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. (1)

S. Montebugnoli, M. Boschi, F. Perini, P. Faccin, G. Brunori, E. Pirazzini, "Large antenna array remoting using radio-over-fiber techniques for radio astronomical application," Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 46, 48-54 (2005).

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

S. M. Foreman, A. D. Ludlow, M. H. G. de Miranda, J. E. Stalnaker, S. A. Diddams, J. Ye, "Coherent optical phase transfer over a 32-km fiber with 1 s instability at 10-17," Phys. Rev. Lett. 153601 (2007).

Proc. of SPIE (1)

P. R. Jewell, R. M. Prestage, "The green bank telescope," Proc. of SPIE 5489, 312-323 (2004).

Other (6)

H. V. Roussell, M. D. Regan, J. L. Prince, C. H. Cox, J. X. Chen, W. K. Burns, G. E. Betts, E. I. Ackerman, J. C. Campbell, "Gain, noise figure and bandwidth-limited dynamic range of a low-biased external modulation link," IEEE Int. Meet. Microw. Photon. Dig. (2007) pp. 84-87.

J. A. MacDonald, M. V. Kubak, A. Katz, "Wideband dynamic range improvement of microwave photonic links," IEEE Avionics Fiber-Opt. Photon. Conf. Dig. (2005) pp. 67-68.

A. N. Bratchikov, D. I. Voskresensky, K. van't Klooster, "Radio astronomical phased arrays with fiber-optic design architecture," IEEE Int. Conf. Antenna Theory Tech. Dig. (2003) pp. 617-623.

D. M. Pozar, Microwave Engineering (Wiley, 2005).

J. C. Pedro, N. B. Carvalho, Intermodulation Distortion in Microwave and Wireless Circuits (Artech, 2003).

D. A. Tulchinsky, private communication (2007).

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