Abstract

We present a monochromatic sub-terahertz signal generation technique using an optical comb signal, arrayed waveguide gratings (AWGs), and a uni-traveling carrier photodiode (UTC-PD) for spectroscopic applications. This scheme offers random or continuous frequency tuning in the range between 100 GHz and up to 1 THz. In addition, since a RF synthesizer is employed as a reference signal source of the photonic frequency multiplier, frequency locking with external instruments and reliable operation are offered. Highly coherent optical comb signal for the photonic frequency multiplication provides a narrow linewidth and very low phase noise in the generated sub-terahertz signal. For 125 GHz, the phase noise is approximately -92 dBc/Hz at the offset frequency of 10 kHz. This is larger than that of the 25-GHz RF source by about 13 dB and agrees well with the theory regarding phase noise multiplications due to frequency multiplication. For generating monochromatic signals, unwanted spurious signals are suppressed in the optical domain over a wide range with two AWGs, and the suppression ratio is expected to be better than 46 dBc. Utilizing the implemented sub-terahertz signal generator with a J-band UTC-PD module, absorption lines of N<sub>2</sub>O were measured in the frequency range between 240 and 360 GHz and compared with theoretical calculations.

© 2008 IEEE

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  1. D. L. Woolard, E. R. Brown, M. Pepper, M. Kemp, "Terahertz frequency sensing and imaging: A time of reckoning future applications?," Proc. IEEE 93, 1722-1743 (2005).
  2. M. Tonouchi, "Cutting-edge terahertz technology," Nature Photon. 1, 97-105 (2007).
  3. A. Hirata, T. Kosugi, H. Takahashi, R. Yamaguchi, F. Nakajima, T. Furuta, H. Ito, H. Sugahara, Y. Sato, T. Nagatsuma, "120-GHz-band millimeter-wave photonic wireless link for 10-Gb/s data transmission," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 54, 1937-1944 (2006).
  4. P. Y. Han, X. C. Zhang, "Free-space coherent broadband terahertz time-domain spectroscopy," Measure. Sci. Technol. 12, 1747-1756 (2001).
  5. W. Withayachumnankul, B. Ferguson, T. Rainsford, S. P. Mickan, D. Abbott, "Simple material parameter estimation via terahertz time-domain spectroscopy," Electron. Lett. 41, 800-801 (2005).
  6. X. Xin, H. Altan, A. Saint, D. Matten, R. R. Alfano, "Terahertz absorption spectrum of para and ortho water vapors at different humidities at room temperature," J. Appl. Phys. 100, 094905 (2006).
  7. R. Kohler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, F. Rossi, "Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser," Nature 417, 156-159 (2002).
  8. S. Giacomo, W. Christoph, F. Jerome, B. Harvey, R. David, "Electrically switchable, two-color quantum cascade laser emitting at 1.39 and 2.3 THz," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 141102 (2006).
  9. R. X. Guo, K. Akiyama, H. Minamide, H. Ito, "All-solid-state, narrow linewidth, wavelength-agile terahertz-wave generator," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, (2006).
  10. J. Nishizawa, T. Tanabe, K. Suto, Y. Watanabe, T. Sasaki, Y. Oyama, "Continuous-wave frequency-tunable terahertz-wave generation from GaP," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2008-2010 (2006).
  11. H. Ito, T. Furuta, F. Nakajima, K. Yoshino, T. Ishibashi, "Photonic generation of continuous THz wave using uni-traveling-carrier photodiode," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 4016-4021 (2005).
  12. I. S. Gregory, W. R. Tribe, C. Baker, B. E. Cole, M. J. Evans, L. Spencer, M. Pepper, M. Missous, "Continuous-wave terahertz system with a 60 dB dynamic range," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 204104 (2005).
  13. A. Majewski, R. Abreu, M. Wraback, "A high resolution terahertz spectrometer for chemical detection," Proc. SPIE 6549, 65490B (2007).
  14. E. R. Brown, J. E. Bjarnason, A. M. Fedor, T. M. Korter, "On the strong and narrow absorption signature in lactose at 0.53 THz," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 061908 (2007).
  15. R. X. Guo, K. Akiyama, H. Minamide, H. Ito, "Frequency-agile terahertz-wave spectrometer for high-resolution gas sensing," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 121127 (2007).
  16. J. Payne, B. Shillue, A. Vaccari, "Photonic techniques for use on the atacama large millimeter array," Proc. Int. Top. Meet. Microw. Photon. MWP'99 (1999) pp. 105-108.
  17. S. Pengbo, P. A. Davies, W. P. Shillue, L. R. A. D. A. L. R. D'Addario, J. M. A. P. J. M. Payne, "Millimetre wave generation using an optical comb generator with optical phase-locked loops," Proc. Int. Top. Meet. Microw. Photon. (2002) pp. 101-104.
  18. R. T. Logan, Jr."All-optical heterodyne RF signal generation using a mode-locked-laser frequency comb: Theory and experiments," Microw. Symp. Dig. 2000 IEEE MTT-S Int. (2000) pp. 1741-1744.
  19. L. A. Johansson, A. J. Seeds, "Millimeter-wave modulated optical signal generation with high spectral purity and wide-locking bandwidth using a fiber-integrated optical injection phase-lock loop," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 690-692 (2000).
  20. H. Takara, T. Ohara, K. Mori, K. Sato, E. Yamada, Y. Inoue, T. Shibata, M. Abe, T. Morioka, K. I. Sato, "More than 1000 channel optical frequency chain generation from single supercontinuum source with 12.5 GHz channel spacing," Electron. Lett. 36, 2089-2090 (2000).
  21. K. Mori, K. Sato, H. Takara, T. Ohara, "Supercontinuum lightwave source generating 50 GHz spaced optical ITU grid seamlessly over S-, C- and L-bands," Electron. Lett. 39, 544-546 (2003).
  22. T. Kuri, T. Nakasyotani, H. Toda, K. I. Kitayama, "Characterizations of supercontinuum light source for WDM millimeter-wave-band radio-on-fiber systems," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1274-1276 (2005).
  23. H.-J. Song, N. Shimizu, T. Nagatsuma, "Generation of two-mode optical signals with broadband frequency tunability and low spurious signal level," Opt. Express 15, 14901-14906 (2007).
  24. T. Nagatsuma, H. Ito, T. Ishibashi, "Photonic THz sources using uni-traveling-carrier photodiode technologies," The 20th Ann. Meet. IEEE Lasers Electro-Optics Soc. (LEOS) (2007) pp. 792-793.
  25. H. Ito, T. Furuta, S. Kodama, T. Ishibashi, "InP/InGaAs uni-travelling-carrier photodiode with 310 GHz bandwidth," Electron. Lett. 36, 1809-1810 (2000).
  26. H. Ito, T. Furuta, Y. Muramoto, T. Ito, T. Ishibashi, "Photonic millimetre- and sub-millimetre-wave generation using J-band rectangular-waveguide-output uni-travelling-carrier photodiode module," Electron. Lett. 42, 1424-1425 (2006).
  27. A. Hirata, H. Togo, N. Shimizu, H. Takahashi, K. Okamoto, T. Nagatsuma, "Low-phase noise photonic millimeter-wave generator using an AWG integrated with a 3-dB combiner," IEICE Trans. Electron. E88c, 1458-1464 (2005).
  28. L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. B. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, "The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database," J. Quantitat. Spectrosc. Radiative Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).

2007 (5)

M. Tonouchi, "Cutting-edge terahertz technology," Nature Photon. 1, 97-105 (2007).

A. Majewski, R. Abreu, M. Wraback, "A high resolution terahertz spectrometer for chemical detection," Proc. SPIE 6549, 65490B (2007).

E. R. Brown, J. E. Bjarnason, A. M. Fedor, T. M. Korter, "On the strong and narrow absorption signature in lactose at 0.53 THz," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 061908 (2007).

R. X. Guo, K. Akiyama, H. Minamide, H. Ito, "Frequency-agile terahertz-wave spectrometer for high-resolution gas sensing," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 121127 (2007).

H.-J. Song, N. Shimizu, T. Nagatsuma, "Generation of two-mode optical signals with broadband frequency tunability and low spurious signal level," Opt. Express 15, 14901-14906 (2007).

2006 (6)

H. Ito, T. Furuta, Y. Muramoto, T. Ito, T. Ishibashi, "Photonic millimetre- and sub-millimetre-wave generation using J-band rectangular-waveguide-output uni-travelling-carrier photodiode module," Electron. Lett. 42, 1424-1425 (2006).

X. Xin, H. Altan, A. Saint, D. Matten, R. R. Alfano, "Terahertz absorption spectrum of para and ortho water vapors at different humidities at room temperature," J. Appl. Phys. 100, 094905 (2006).

A. Hirata, T. Kosugi, H. Takahashi, R. Yamaguchi, F. Nakajima, T. Furuta, H. Ito, H. Sugahara, Y. Sato, T. Nagatsuma, "120-GHz-band millimeter-wave photonic wireless link for 10-Gb/s data transmission," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 54, 1937-1944 (2006).

S. Giacomo, W. Christoph, F. Jerome, B. Harvey, R. David, "Electrically switchable, two-color quantum cascade laser emitting at 1.39 and 2.3 THz," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 141102 (2006).

R. X. Guo, K. Akiyama, H. Minamide, H. Ito, "All-solid-state, narrow linewidth, wavelength-agile terahertz-wave generator," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, (2006).

J. Nishizawa, T. Tanabe, K. Suto, Y. Watanabe, T. Sasaki, Y. Oyama, "Continuous-wave frequency-tunable terahertz-wave generation from GaP," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2008-2010 (2006).

2005 (7)

H. Ito, T. Furuta, F. Nakajima, K. Yoshino, T. Ishibashi, "Photonic generation of continuous THz wave using uni-traveling-carrier photodiode," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 4016-4021 (2005).

I. S. Gregory, W. R. Tribe, C. Baker, B. E. Cole, M. J. Evans, L. Spencer, M. Pepper, M. Missous, "Continuous-wave terahertz system with a 60 dB dynamic range," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 204104 (2005).

D. L. Woolard, E. R. Brown, M. Pepper, M. Kemp, "Terahertz frequency sensing and imaging: A time of reckoning future applications?," Proc. IEEE 93, 1722-1743 (2005).

W. Withayachumnankul, B. Ferguson, T. Rainsford, S. P. Mickan, D. Abbott, "Simple material parameter estimation via terahertz time-domain spectroscopy," Electron. Lett. 41, 800-801 (2005).

T. Kuri, T. Nakasyotani, H. Toda, K. I. Kitayama, "Characterizations of supercontinuum light source for WDM millimeter-wave-band radio-on-fiber systems," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1274-1276 (2005).

A. Hirata, H. Togo, N. Shimizu, H. Takahashi, K. Okamoto, T. Nagatsuma, "Low-phase noise photonic millimeter-wave generator using an AWG integrated with a 3-dB combiner," IEICE Trans. Electron. E88c, 1458-1464 (2005).

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. B. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, "The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database," J. Quantitat. Spectrosc. Radiative Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).

2003 (1)

K. Mori, K. Sato, H. Takara, T. Ohara, "Supercontinuum lightwave source generating 50 GHz spaced optical ITU grid seamlessly over S-, C- and L-bands," Electron. Lett. 39, 544-546 (2003).

2002 (1)

R. Kohler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, F. Rossi, "Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser," Nature 417, 156-159 (2002).

2001 (1)

P. Y. Han, X. C. Zhang, "Free-space coherent broadband terahertz time-domain spectroscopy," Measure. Sci. Technol. 12, 1747-1756 (2001).

2000 (3)

L. A. Johansson, A. J. Seeds, "Millimeter-wave modulated optical signal generation with high spectral purity and wide-locking bandwidth using a fiber-integrated optical injection phase-lock loop," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 690-692 (2000).

H. Takara, T. Ohara, K. Mori, K. Sato, E. Yamada, Y. Inoue, T. Shibata, M. Abe, T. Morioka, K. I. Sato, "More than 1000 channel optical frequency chain generation from single supercontinuum source with 12.5 GHz channel spacing," Electron. Lett. 36, 2089-2090 (2000).

H. Ito, T. Furuta, S. Kodama, T. Ishibashi, "InP/InGaAs uni-travelling-carrier photodiode with 310 GHz bandwidth," Electron. Lett. 36, 1809-1810 (2000).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

I. S. Gregory, W. R. Tribe, C. Baker, B. E. Cole, M. J. Evans, L. Spencer, M. Pepper, M. Missous, "Continuous-wave terahertz system with a 60 dB dynamic range," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 204104 (2005).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

E. R. Brown, J. E. Bjarnason, A. M. Fedor, T. M. Korter, "On the strong and narrow absorption signature in lactose at 0.53 THz," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 061908 (2007).

R. X. Guo, K. Akiyama, H. Minamide, H. Ito, "Frequency-agile terahertz-wave spectrometer for high-resolution gas sensing," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 121127 (2007).

S. Giacomo, W. Christoph, F. Jerome, B. Harvey, R. David, "Electrically switchable, two-color quantum cascade laser emitting at 1.39 and 2.3 THz," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 141102 (2006).

R. X. Guo, K. Akiyama, H. Minamide, H. Ito, "All-solid-state, narrow linewidth, wavelength-agile terahertz-wave generator," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, (2006).

Electron. Lett. (5)

W. Withayachumnankul, B. Ferguson, T. Rainsford, S. P. Mickan, D. Abbott, "Simple material parameter estimation via terahertz time-domain spectroscopy," Electron. Lett. 41, 800-801 (2005).

H. Takara, T. Ohara, K. Mori, K. Sato, E. Yamada, Y. Inoue, T. Shibata, M. Abe, T. Morioka, K. I. Sato, "More than 1000 channel optical frequency chain generation from single supercontinuum source with 12.5 GHz channel spacing," Electron. Lett. 36, 2089-2090 (2000).

K. Mori, K. Sato, H. Takara, T. Ohara, "Supercontinuum lightwave source generating 50 GHz spaced optical ITU grid seamlessly over S-, C- and L-bands," Electron. Lett. 39, 544-546 (2003).

H. Ito, T. Furuta, S. Kodama, T. Ishibashi, "InP/InGaAs uni-travelling-carrier photodiode with 310 GHz bandwidth," Electron. Lett. 36, 1809-1810 (2000).

H. Ito, T. Furuta, Y. Muramoto, T. Ito, T. Ishibashi, "Photonic millimetre- and sub-millimetre-wave generation using J-band rectangular-waveguide-output uni-travelling-carrier photodiode module," Electron. Lett. 42, 1424-1425 (2006).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

J. Nishizawa, T. Tanabe, K. Suto, Y. Watanabe, T. Sasaki, Y. Oyama, "Continuous-wave frequency-tunable terahertz-wave generation from GaP," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2008-2010 (2006).

IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. (1)

A. Hirata, T. Kosugi, H. Takahashi, R. Yamaguchi, F. Nakajima, T. Furuta, H. Ito, H. Sugahara, Y. Sato, T. Nagatsuma, "120-GHz-band millimeter-wave photonic wireless link for 10-Gb/s data transmission," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 54, 1937-1944 (2006).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

L. A. Johansson, A. J. Seeds, "Millimeter-wave modulated optical signal generation with high spectral purity and wide-locking bandwidth using a fiber-integrated optical injection phase-lock loop," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 690-692 (2000).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

T. Kuri, T. Nakasyotani, H. Toda, K. I. Kitayama, "Characterizations of supercontinuum light source for WDM millimeter-wave-band radio-on-fiber systems," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1274-1276 (2005).

IEICE Trans. Electron. (1)

A. Hirata, H. Togo, N. Shimizu, H. Takahashi, K. Okamoto, T. Nagatsuma, "Low-phase noise photonic millimeter-wave generator using an AWG integrated with a 3-dB combiner," IEICE Trans. Electron. E88c, 1458-1464 (2005).

J. Quantitat. Spectrosc. Radiative Transfer (1)

L. S. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. B. Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, "The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database," J. Quantitat. Spectrosc. Radiative Transfer 96, 139-204 (2005).

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

X. Xin, H. Altan, A. Saint, D. Matten, R. R. Alfano, "Terahertz absorption spectrum of para and ortho water vapors at different humidities at room temperature," J. Appl. Phys. 100, 094905 (2006).

J. Lightw. Technol. (1)

H. Ito, T. Furuta, F. Nakajima, K. Yoshino, T. Ishibashi, "Photonic generation of continuous THz wave using uni-traveling-carrier photodiode," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 4016-4021 (2005).

Measure. Sci. Technol. (1)

P. Y. Han, X. C. Zhang, "Free-space coherent broadband terahertz time-domain spectroscopy," Measure. Sci. Technol. 12, 1747-1756 (2001).

Nature Photon. (1)

M. Tonouchi, "Cutting-edge terahertz technology," Nature Photon. 1, 97-105 (2007).

Nature (1)

R. Kohler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, F. Rossi, "Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser," Nature 417, 156-159 (2002).

Opt. Express (1)

H.-J. Song, N. Shimizu, T. Nagatsuma, "Generation of two-mode optical signals with broadband frequency tunability and low spurious signal level," Opt. Express 15, 14901-14906 (2007).

Proc. IEEE (1)

D. L. Woolard, E. R. Brown, M. Pepper, M. Kemp, "Terahertz frequency sensing and imaging: A time of reckoning future applications?," Proc. IEEE 93, 1722-1743 (2005).

Proc. SPIE (1)

A. Majewski, R. Abreu, M. Wraback, "A high resolution terahertz spectrometer for chemical detection," Proc. SPIE 6549, 65490B (2007).

Other (4)

J. Payne, B. Shillue, A. Vaccari, "Photonic techniques for use on the atacama large millimeter array," Proc. Int. Top. Meet. Microw. Photon. MWP'99 (1999) pp. 105-108.

S. Pengbo, P. A. Davies, W. P. Shillue, L. R. A. D. A. L. R. D'Addario, J. M. A. P. J. M. Payne, "Millimetre wave generation using an optical comb generator with optical phase-locked loops," Proc. Int. Top. Meet. Microw. Photon. (2002) pp. 101-104.

R. T. Logan, Jr."All-optical heterodyne RF signal generation using a mode-locked-laser frequency comb: Theory and experiments," Microw. Symp. Dig. 2000 IEEE MTT-S Int. (2000) pp. 1741-1744.

T. Nagatsuma, H. Ito, T. Ishibashi, "Photonic THz sources using uni-traveling-carrier photodiode technologies," The 20th Ann. Meet. IEEE Lasers Electro-Optics Soc. (LEOS) (2007) pp. 792-793.

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