Abstract

Radio-frequency (RF) waveform generators are key devices for a variety of applications, including radar, ultra-wideband communications, and electronic test measurements. Following advances in broadband coherent pulsed sources and pulse-shaping technologies, reconfigurable RF waveform generators operating at bandwidths >1 GHz have become a reality. In this work, we demonstrate reconfigurable RF waveform generation using broadband spectrally incoherent optical sources. This is achieved in two steps. First, we implement an RF incoherent filter. The energy spectrum of the optical source is conveniently apodized using a commercially available computer-controlled D-WDM channel selector with 100-GHz resolution. The channel controller provides high flexibility for shaping the optical source energy spectrum and, hence, high reconfigurability capabilities in terms of the RF filter. Second, we show that by applying a short baseband electrical waveform to the input of the RF filter, the output RF spectrum of the electrical signal is a mapped version of the designed RF filter transfer function. Specifically, we illustrate the capabilities of our technique by generating RF signals with ~10 GHz bandwidth and tunable repetition rate. Finally, we discuss how this method can be scaled up to the millimeter-wave range with current technology.

© 2008 IEEE

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  31. S. J. Xiao, A. M. Weiner, "Coherent Fourier transform electrical pulse shaping," Opt. Express 14, 3073-3082 (2006).
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  35. M. A. Muriel, J. Azaña, A. Carballar, "Real-time Fourier transformer based on fiber gratings," Opt. Lett. 24, 1-3 (1999).
  36. I. S. Lin, J. D. McKinney, A. M. Weiner, "Photonic synthesis of broadband microwave arbitrary waveforms applicable to ultra-wideband communication," IEEE Microw. Wire. Comp. Lett. 15, 226-228 (2005).
  37. V. Torres-Company, J. Lancis, P. Andrés, "Arbitrary waveform generator based on all-incoherent pulse shaping," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2626-2628 (2006).
  38. V. Torres-Company, J. Lancis, P. Andrés, L. R. Chen, "Reconfigurable RF waveform generation using optical incoherent sources," CLEO 2008 .
  39. L. J. Wang, B. E. Magill, L. Mandel, "Propagation of thermal light through a dispersive medium," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 6, 964-966 (1989).
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  41. N. A. Riza, M. A. Arain, "Programmable broadband radio-frequency transversal filter with compact fiber-optics and digital microeletromechanical system-based optical spectral control," Appl. Opt. 43, 3159-3165 (2004).
  42. C. Dorrer, "Temporal van Cittert-Zernike theorem and its application to the measurement of chromatic dispersion," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 21, 1417-1423 (2004).
  43. I. Y. Poberezhskiy, B. Bortnik, J. Chou, B. Jalali, H. R. Fetterman, "Serrodyne frequency translation of continuous optical signals using ultra-wideband electrical sawtooth waveforms," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 1533-1539 (2005).
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  45. M. Sagues, R. G. Olcina, A. Loayssa, S. Sales, J. Capmany, "Multi-tap complex coefficient incoherent microwave photonic filters based on optical single-sideband modulation and narrow band optical filtering," Opt. Express 16, 295-303 (2008).

2008 (2)

V. Torres-Company, J. Lancis, P. Andrés, "Flat-top ultra-wideband photonic filters based on mutual coherence function synthesis," Opt. Commun 281, 1438-1444 (2008).

M. Sagues, R. G. Olcina, A. Loayssa, S. Sales, J. Capmany, "Multi-tap complex coefficient incoherent microwave photonic filters based on optical single-sideband modulation and narrow band optical filtering," Opt. Express 16, 295-303 (2008).

2007 (5)

2006 (9)

P. J. Delfyett, S. Gee, M. T. Choi, H. Izadpanah, W. Lee, S. Ozharar, F. Quinlan, T. Yilmaz, "Optical frequency combs from semiconductor lasers and applications in ultrawideband signal processing and communications," IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 2701-2719 (2006).

B. Bortnik, I. Y. Poberezhskiy, J. Chou, B. Jalali, H. R. Fetterman, "Predistortion technique for RF-photonic generation of high-power ultrawideband arbitrary waveforms," IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 2752-2759 (2006).

J. D. McKinney, I. S. Lin, A. M. Weiner, "Shaping the power spectrum of ultra-wideband radio-frequency signals," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Techn. 54, 4247-4255 (2006).

J. Mora, B. Ortega, A. Díez, J. L. Cruz, M. V. Andrés, J. Capmany, D. Pastor, "Photonic microwave tunable single-bandpass filter based on a Mach-Zender interferometer," IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 2500-2509 (2006).

V. Torres-Company, J. Lancis, P. Andrés, "Arbitrary waveform generator based on all-incoherent pulse shaping," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2626-2628 (2006).

R. A. Minasian, "Photonic signal processing of microwave signals," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 54, 832-846 (2006).

J. Mora, J. Capmany, A. Loayssa, D. Pastor, "Novel technique for implementing incoherent microwave photonic filters with negative coefficients using phase modulation and single sideband selection," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1943-1945 (2006).

A. Loayssa, J. Capmany, M. Sagues, J. Mora, "Demonstration of incoherent microwave photonic filters with all-optical complex coefficients," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1744-1746 (2006).

S. J. Xiao, A. M. Weiner, "Coherent Fourier transform electrical pulse shaping," Opt. Express 14, 3073-3082 (2006).

2005 (6)

Z. Jiang, D. S. Deo, D. E. Leaird, A. M. Weiner, "Spectral line-by-line pulse shaping," Opt. Lett. 30, 1557-1559 (2005).

J. Capmany, J. Mora, D. Pastor, B. Ortega, "High-quality online-reconfigurable microwave photonic transversal filter with positive and negative coefficients," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2730-2732 (2005).

B. Vidal, M. A. Piqueras, J. Martí, "Photonic microwave filter based on spectrum slicing with reconfiguration capability," Electron. Lett. 41, 1286-1287 (2005).

J. Capmany, B. Ortega, D. Pastor, S. Sales, "Discrete-time optical processing of microwave signals," IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 702-723 (2005).

I. S. Lin, J. D. McKinney, A. M. Weiner, "Photonic synthesis of broadband microwave arbitrary waveforms applicable to ultra-wideband communication," IEEE Microw. Wire. Comp. Lett. 15, 226-228 (2005).

I. Y. Poberezhskiy, B. Bortnik, J. Chou, B. Jalali, H. R. Fetterman, "Serrodyne frequency translation of continuous optical signals using ultra-wideband electrical sawtooth waveforms," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 1533-1539 (2005).

2004 (5)

M. Shen, R. A. Minasian, "Toward a high-speed arbitrary waveform generation by a novel photonic processing structure," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1155-1157 (2004).

C. Dorrer, "Temporal van Cittert-Zernike theorem and its application to the measurement of chromatic dispersion," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 21, 1417-1423 (2004).

N. S. You, R. A. Minasian, "All-optical photonic signal processors with negative coefficients," IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 2739-2742 (2004).

N. A. Riza, M. A. Arain, "Programmable broadband radio-frequency transversal filter with compact fiber-optics and digital microeletromechanical system-based optical spectral control," Appl. Opt. 43, 3159-3165 (2004).

F. Zeng, J. P. Yao, "All-optical microwave filter based on an electro-optic phase modulator," Opt. Express 12, 3814-3819 (2004).

2003 (2)

2002 (2)

2000 (3)

H. Murata, A. Morimoto, T. Kobayashi, S. Yamamoto, "Optical pulse generation by electrooptic-modulation method and its application to integrated ultrashort pulse generators," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 1325-1331 (2000).

O. Boyraz, J. Kim, M. N. Islam, F. Coppinger, B. Jalali, "10 Gb/s multiple wavelength, coherent short pulse source based on spectral carving of supercontinuum generated in fibres," IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. 18, 2167-2175 (2000).

A. M. Weiner, "Femtosecond pulse shaping using spatial light modulators," Rev. Sci. Inst. 71, 1929-1960 (2000).

1999 (1)

1998 (1)

K. Imai, M. Kourogi, M. Ohtsu, "30-THz span optical frequency comb generation by self-phase modulation in an optical fiber," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 54-68 (1998).

1997 (2)

F. Coppinger, S. Yegnanarayan, P. D. Trinh, B. Jalali, "All-optical incoherent negative taps for photonic signal processing," Electron. Lett. 33, 973-975 (1997).

Y. C. Tong, L. Y. Chan, H. K. Tsang, "Fibre dispersion or pulse spectrum measurement using a sampling oscilloscope," Electron. Lett. 33, 983-985 (1997).

1995 (1)

S. Sales, J. Capmany, J. Martí, D. Pastor, "Experimental demonstration of fiberoptic delay-line filters with negative coefficients," Electron. Lett. 31, 1095-1096 (1995).

1994 (1)

T. Morioka, K. Mori, S. Kawanishi, M. Saruwatari, "Multi-WDM-channel, Gbit/s pulse generation from a single laser source utilizing LD-pumped supercontinuum in optical fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 365-368 (1994).

1989 (1)

L. J. Wang, B. E. Magill, L. Mandel, "Propagation of thermal light through a dispersive medium," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 6, 964-966 (1989).

1985 (1)

K. Jackson, S. Newton, B. Moslehi, M. Tur, C. C. Cutler, J. W. Goodman, H. J. Shaw, "Optical fiber delay-line signal processing," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Techn. MTT-33, 193-204 (1985).

1976 (1)

K. Wilner, A. P. V. den Heuvel, "Fiber-optic delay lines for microwave signal processing," Proc. IEEE 64, 805-807 (1976).

Appl. Opt. (2)

Electron. Lett. (4)

B. Vidal, M. A. Piqueras, J. Martí, "Photonic microwave filter based on spectrum slicing with reconfiguration capability," Electron. Lett. 41, 1286-1287 (2005).

F. Coppinger, S. Yegnanarayan, P. D. Trinh, B. Jalali, "All-optical incoherent negative taps for photonic signal processing," Electron. Lett. 33, 973-975 (1997).

S. Sales, J. Capmany, J. Martí, D. Pastor, "Experimental demonstration of fiberoptic delay-line filters with negative coefficients," Electron. Lett. 31, 1095-1096 (1995).

Y. C. Tong, L. Y. Chan, H. K. Tsang, "Fibre dispersion or pulse spectrum measurement using a sampling oscilloscope," Electron. Lett. 33, 983-985 (1997).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

K. Imai, M. Kourogi, M. Ohtsu, "30-THz span optical frequency comb generation by self-phase modulation in an optical fiber," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 54-68 (1998).

I. Y. Poberezhskiy, B. Bortnik, J. Chou, B. Jalali, H. R. Fetterman, "Serrodyne frequency translation of continuous optical signals using ultra-wideband electrical sawtooth waveforms," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 1533-1539 (2005).

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

H. Murata, A. Morimoto, T. Kobayashi, S. Yamamoto, "Optical pulse generation by electrooptic-modulation method and its application to integrated ultrashort pulse generators," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 1325-1331 (2000).

IEEE Microw. Wire. Comp. Lett. (1)

I. S. Lin, J. D. McKinney, A. M. Weiner, "Photonic synthesis of broadband microwave arbitrary waveforms applicable to ultra-wideband communication," IEEE Microw. Wire. Comp. Lett. 15, 226-228 (2005).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (7)

V. Torres-Company, J. Lancis, P. Andrés, "Arbitrary waveform generator based on all-incoherent pulse shaping," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2626-2628 (2006).

J. Chou, Y. Han, B. Jalali, "Adaptive RF-photonic arbitrary waveform generator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 581-583 (2003).

T. Morioka, K. Mori, S. Kawanishi, M. Saruwatari, "Multi-WDM-channel, Gbit/s pulse generation from a single laser source utilizing LD-pumped supercontinuum in optical fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 365-368 (1994).

J. Capmany, J. Mora, D. Pastor, B. Ortega, "High-quality online-reconfigurable microwave photonic transversal filter with positive and negative coefficients," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2730-2732 (2005).

A. Loayssa, J. Capmany, M. Sagues, J. Mora, "Demonstration of incoherent microwave photonic filters with all-optical complex coefficients," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1744-1746 (2006).

J. Mora, J. Capmany, A. Loayssa, D. Pastor, "Novel technique for implementing incoherent microwave photonic filters with negative coefficients using phase modulation and single sideband selection," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1943-1945 (2006).

M. Shen, R. A. Minasian, "Toward a high-speed arbitrary waveform generation by a novel photonic processing structure," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1155-1157 (2004).

IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. (1)

R. A. Minasian, "Photonic signal processing of microwave signals," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 54, 832-846 (2006).

IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Techn. (3)

K. Jackson, S. Newton, B. Moslehi, M. Tur, C. C. Cutler, J. W. Goodman, H. J. Shaw, "Optical fiber delay-line signal processing," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Techn. MTT-33, 193-204 (1985).

A. Seeds, "Microwave photonics," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Techn. 50, 877-887 (2002).

J. D. McKinney, I. S. Lin, A. M. Weiner, "Shaping the power spectrum of ultra-wideband radio-frequency signals," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Techn. 54, 4247-4255 (2006).

IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. (6)

B. Bortnik, I. Y. Poberezhskiy, J. Chou, B. Jalali, H. R. Fetterman, "Predistortion technique for RF-photonic generation of high-power ultrawideband arbitrary waveforms," IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 2752-2759 (2006).

P. J. Delfyett, S. Gee, M. T. Choi, H. Izadpanah, W. Lee, S. Ozharar, F. Quinlan, T. Yilmaz, "Optical frequency combs from semiconductor lasers and applications in ultrawideband signal processing and communications," IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 2701-2719 (2006).

O. Boyraz, J. Kim, M. N. Islam, F. Coppinger, B. Jalali, "10 Gb/s multiple wavelength, coherent short pulse source based on spectral carving of supercontinuum generated in fibres," IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. 18, 2167-2175 (2000).

J. Capmany, B. Ortega, D. Pastor, S. Sales, "Discrete-time optical processing of microwave signals," IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 702-723 (2005).

N. S. You, R. A. Minasian, "All-optical photonic signal processors with negative coefficients," IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 2739-2742 (2004).

J. Mora, B. Ortega, A. Díez, J. L. Cruz, M. V. Andrés, J. Capmany, D. Pastor, "Photonic microwave tunable single-bandpass filter based on a Mach-Zender interferometer," IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 2500-2509 (2006).

J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B (2)

C. Dorrer, "Temporal van Cittert-Zernike theorem and its application to the measurement of chromatic dispersion," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 21, 1417-1423 (2004).

L. J. Wang, B. E. Magill, L. Mandel, "Propagation of thermal light through a dispersive medium," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 6, 964-966 (1989).

Nature Photon. (2)

J. Capmany, D. Novak, "Microwave photonics combines two worlds," Nature Photon. 1, 319-330 (2007).

Z. Jiang, C. B. Huang, D. E. Leaird, A. M. Weiner, "Optical arbitrary waveform processing of more than 100 spectral comb lines," Nature Photon. 1, 463-467 (2007).

Opt. Commun (1)

V. Torres-Company, J. Lancis, P. Andrés, "Flat-top ultra-wideband photonic filters based on mutual coherence function synthesis," Opt. Commun 281, 1438-1444 (2008).

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (6)

Proc. IEEE (1)

K. Wilner, A. P. V. den Heuvel, "Fiber-optic delay lines for microwave signal processing," Proc. IEEE 64, 805-807 (1976).

Rev. Sci. Inst. (1)

A. M. Weiner, "Femtosecond pulse shaping using spatial light modulators," Rev. Sci. Inst. 71, 1929-1960 (2000).

Other (2)

V. Torres-Company, J. Lancis, P. Andrés, L. R. Chen, "Reconfigurable RF waveform generation using optical incoherent sources," CLEO 2008 .

L. Mandel, E. Wolf, Optical Coherence and Quantum Optics (Cambridge Univ. Press, 1995).

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