Abstract

Optoelectronic techniques for generation and detection of terahertz (THz) signals have been reviewed. The operation principles of THz photomixer sources and THz parametric sources have been studied and recent developments in these areas have been presented. The performances of developed THz optoelectronic sources have been discussed and compared.

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2008 (4)

J. A. Fan, M. A. Belkin, F. Capasso, S. P. Khanna, M. Lachab, A. G. Davies, E. H. Linfield, "Wide-ridge metal-metal terahertz quantum cascade lasers with high-order lateral mode suppression," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 031106 (2008).

A. A. Danylov, J. Waldman, T. M. Goyette, A. J. Gatesman, R. H. Giles, J. Li, W. D. Goodhue, K. J. Linden, W. E. Nixon, "Terahertz sideband-tuned quantum cascade laser radiation," Opt. Express 16, 5171-5179 (2008).

M. Neshat, D. Saeedkia, S. Safavi-Naeini, "Semi-analytical calculation of terahertz signal generated from photocurrent radiation in traveling-wave photonic mixers," Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 29, 822-835 (2008).

H. Page, S. Malik, M. Evans, I. Gregory, I. Farrer, D. Ritchie, "Waveguide coupled terahertz photoconductive antennas: Toward integrated photonic terahertz devices," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 163502 (2008).

2007 (24)

K. S. Lee, C. S. Kim, R. K. Kim, G. Patterson, M. Koleskin, J. V. Moloney, K. Peyghambarian, "Dual-wavelength external cavity laser with a sampled grating formed in a silica PLC waveguide for terahertz beat signal generation," Appl. Phys. B 87, 293-296 (2007).

Y. J. Ding, "High-power tunable terahertz sources based on parametric processes and applications," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 13, 705-720 (2007).

K. Suizu, K. Miyamoto, T. Yamashita, H. Ito, "High-power terahertz-wave generation using DAST crystal and detection using mid-infrared powermeter," Opt. Lett. 32, 2885-2887 (2007).

W. Shi, M. Leigh, J. Zong, S. Jiang, "Single-frequency terahertz source pumped by Q-switched fiber lasers based on difference-frequency generation in GaSe crystal," Opt. Lett. 32, 949-951 (2007).

D. Creeden, J. C. McCarthy, P. A. Ketteridge, T. Southward, P. G. Schunemann, J. J. Komiak, W. Dove, E. P. Chicklis, "Compact fiber-pumped terahertz source based on difference frequency mixing in ZGP," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 13, 732-737 (2007).

J. A. L'huillier, G. Torosyan, M. Theuer, Y. Avetisyan, R. Beigang, "Generation of THz radiation using bulk, periodically and aperiodically poled lithium niobate," Appl. Phys. B 86, 185-208 (2007).

J. E. Schaar, K. L. Vodopyanov, M. M. Fejer, "Intracavity terahertz-wave generation in a synchronously pumped optical parametric oscillator using quasi-phase-matched GaAs," Opt. Lett. 32, 1284-1286 (2007).

S. Preu, F. H. Renner, S. Malzer, G. H. Dohler, L. J. Wang, M. Hanson, A. C. Gossard, T. L. J. Wilkinson, E. R. Brown, "Efficient terahertz emission from ballistic transport enhanced n-i-p-n-i-p superlattice photomixers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 212115 (2007).

M. S. Vitiello, G. Scamarcio, V. Spagnolo, S. S. Dhillonc, C. Sirtori, "Terahertz quantum cascade lasers with large wall-plug efficiency," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 19115 (2007).

U. Willer, "A novel THz source based on a two-color Nd:LSB microchip-laser and a LT-GaAsSb photomixer," Appl. Phys. B 87, 13-16 (2007).

P. Kordos, M. Marso, M. Mikulics, "Performance optimization of GaAs-based photomixers as sources of THz radiation," Appl. Phys. A 87, 563-567 (2007).

M. Awad, M. Nagel, H. Kurz, J. Herfort, K. Ploog, "Characterization of low temperature GaAs antenna array terahertz emitters," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 181124 (2007).

D. Saeedkia, S. Safavi-Naeini, "Modeling and analysis of a multilayer dielectric slab waveguide with applications in edge-coupled terahertz photomixer sources," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 432-439 (2007).

E. A. Michael, I. C. Mayorga, R. Gusten, A. Dewald, R. Schieder, "Terahertz continuous-wave large-area traveling-wave photomixers on high-energy low-dose ion-implanted GaAs," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 171109 (2007).

I. C. Mayorga, E. A. Michael, A. Schmitz, P. van der Wal, R. Gusten, K. Maier, A. Dewald, "Terahertz photomixing in high energy oxygen- and nitrogen-ion-implanted GaAs," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 031107 (2007).

A. Takazato, M. Kamakura, T. Matsui, J. Kitagawa, Y. Kadoya, "Terahertz wave emission and detection using photoconductive antennas made on low-temperature grown InGaAs with 1.55 µm pulse," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 011102 (2007).

R. Guo, K. Akiyama, H. Minamide, H. Ito, "Frequency-agile terahertz-wave spectrometer for high-resolution gas sensing," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 121127 (2007).

M. Naftaly, R. E. Miles, "Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy for material characterization," Proc. IEEE 95, 1658-1665 (2007).

C. Baker, T. Lo, W. R. Tribe, B. E. Cole, M. R. Hogbin, M. C. Kemp, "Detection of concealed explosives at a distance using terahertz technology," Proc. IEEE 95, 1559-1565 (2007).

S. G. Biedron, "Compact, high-power electron beam based terahertz sources," Proc. IEEE 95, 1666-1678 (2007).

L. Ozyuzer, A. E. Koshelev, C. Kurter, N. Gopalsami, Q. Li, M. Tachiki, K. Kadowaki, T. Yamamoto, H. Minami, H. Yamaguchi, T. Tachiki, K. E. Gray, W.-K. Kwok, U. Welp, "Emission of coherent THz radiation from superconductors," Science 318, 1291-1293 (2007).

S. Hayashi, H. Minamide, T. Ikari, Y. Ogawa, J. Shikata, H. Ito, C. Otani, K. Kawase, "Output power enhancement of a palmtop terahertz-wave parametric generator," Appl. Opt. 46, 117-123 (2007).

A. W. Thomas, G. P. Williams, "The free electron laser at Jefferson lab: The technology and the science," Proc. IEEE 95, 1679-1682 (2007).

C. Walther, M. Fischer, G. Scalari, R. Terazzi, N. Hoyler, J. Faist, "Quantum cascade lasers operating from 1.2 to 1.6 THz," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 131122 (2007).

2006 (16)

B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, J. L. Reno, "High-power terahertz quantum-cascade lasers," Electron. Lett. 42, 89-90 (2006).

C. P. Endres, H. S. P. Muller, S. Brunken, D. G. Paveliev, T. F. Giesen, S. Schlemmer, F. Lewen, "High resolution rotation-inversion spectroscopy on doubly deuterated ammonia, ND2H, up to 2.6 THz," J. Mol. Struct. 795, 242-255 (2006).

H. Eisele, "InP Gunn devices for 400–425 GHz," Electron. Lett. 42, 358-359 (2006).

D. Saeedkia, S. Safavi-Naeini, "A comprehensive model for photomixing in ultrafast photoconductors," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1457-1459 (2006).

M. Nagel, M. Forst, H. Kurz, "THz biosensing: Fundamentals and technology," J. Phys. Condens. Matter 18, S601-S618 (2006).

T. Ikari, X. Zhang, H. Minamide, "THz-wave parametric oscillator with a surface-emitted configuration," Opt. Express 14, 1604-1610 (2006).

N. Chimot, J. Mangeney, P. Crozat, J. M. Lourtioz, K. Blary, J. F. Lampin, G. Mouret, D. Bigourd, E. Fertein, "Photomixing at 1.55µm in ion-irradiated In0.53Ga0.47As on InP," Opt. Express 14, 1856-1861 (2006).

M. Mikulics, E. A. Michael, R. Schieder, J. Stutzki, R. Güsten, M. Marso, A. van der Hart, H. P. Bochem, H. Luth, P. Kordos, "Traveling-wave photomixer with recessed interdigitated contacts on low-temperature-grown GaAs," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 041118 (2006).

C. Worrall, J. Alton, M. Houghton, S. Barbieri, H. E. Beere, D. Ritchie, C. Sirtori, "Continuous wave operation of a superlattice quantum cascade laser emitting at 2 THz," Opt. Express 14, 171-181 (2006).

C. Walther, G. Scalari, J. Faist, H. Beere, D. Ritchie, "Low frequency terahertz quantum cascade laser operating from 1.6 to 1.8 THz," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 231121 (2006).

G. Scalari, C. Walther, J. Faist, H. Beere, D. Ritchie, "Electrically switchable, two-color quantum cascade laser emitting at 1.39 and 2.3 THz," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 141102 (2006).

S. Kumar, B. S. Williams, Q. Hu, J. L. Reno, "1.9 THz quantum-cascade lasers with one-well injector," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 121123 (2006).

E. R. Brown, A. W. M. Lee, B. S. Navi, J. E. Bjamason, "Characterization of a planar self-complementary square-spiral antenna in the THz region," Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 48, 524-529 (2006).

G. Imeshev, M. E. Fermann, K. L. Vodopyanov, M. M. Fejer, X. Yu, J. S. Harris, D. Bliss, C. Lynch, "High-power source of THz radiation based on orientation-patterned GaAs pumped by a fiber laser," Opt. Express 14, 4439-4444 (2006).

I. Tomita, H. Suzuki, H. Ito, H. Takenouchi, K. Ajito, R. Rungsawang, Y. Ueno, "Terahertz-wave generation from quasi-phase-matched GaP for 1.55 µm pumping," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 071118 (2006).

J.-Y. Lu, L.-J. Chen, T.-F. Kao, H.-H. Chang, H.-W. Chen, A.-S. Liu, Y.-C. Chen, R.-B. Wu, W.-S. Liu, J.-I. Chyi, C.-K. Sun, "Terahertz microchip for illicit drug detection," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2254-2256 (2006).

2005 (24)

W. Shi, Y. J. Ding, "Tunable terahertz waves generated by mixing two copropagating infrared beams in GaP," Opt. Lett. 30, 1030-1032 (2005).

D. Saeedkia, S. Safavi-Naeini, R. R. Mansour, "The intraction of laser and photoconductor in a continuous-wave terahertz photomixer," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 1188-1196 (2005).

E. A. Michael, B. Vowinkel, R. Schieder, M. Mikulics, M. Marso, P. Kordos, "Large-area traveling-wave photonic mixers for increased continuous terahertz power," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 111120-111123 (2005).

G. H. Dohler, F. Renner, O. Klar, M. Eckardt, A. SchwanhauBer, S. Malzer, D. Driscoll, M. Hanson, A. C. Gossard, G. Loata, T. Loffler, H. Roskos, "THz-photomixer based on quasi-ballistic transport," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, S178-S190 (2005).

B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, "Operation of terahertz quantum-cascade lasers at 164 K in pulsed mode and at 117 K in continuous-wave mode," Opt. Express 13, 3331-3339 (2005).

S. Kohen, B. S. Williams, Q. Hu, "Electromagnetic modeling of terahertz quantum cascade laser waveguides and resonators," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 053106 (2005).

M. Tani, O. Morikawa, S. Matsuura, M. Hangyo, "Generation of terahertz radiation by photomixing with dual- and multiple-mode lasers," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, S151-S163 (2005).

M. Naftaly, M. R. Stone, A. Malcoci, R. E. Miles, I. Camara Mayorga, "Generation of CW terahertz radiation using two-colour laser with Fabry-Perot etalon," Electron. Lett. 41, 128-129 (2005).

R. Mendis, C. Sydlo, J. Sigmund, M. Feiginov, P. Meissner, H. L. Hartnagel, "Coherent generation and detection of continuous terahertz waves using two photomixers driven by laser diodes," Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 26, 201-207 (2005).

D. Saeedkia, A. H. Majedi, S. Safavi-Naeini, R. R. Mansour, "Analysis and design of a photoconductive integrated photomixer/antenna for terahertz applications," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 234-241 (2005).

H. Ito, F. Nakajima, T. Furuta, T. Ishibashi, "Continuous THz-wave generation using antenna-integrated uni-travelling-carrier photodiodes," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, S191-S198 (2005).

H. Ito, T. Furuta, F. Nakajima, K. Yoshino, T. Ishibashi, "Photonic generation of continuous THz wave using uni-traveling-carrier photodiode," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 4016-4021 (2005).

M. Suzuki, M. Tonouchi, "Fe-implanted InGaAs terahertz emitters for 1.55 µm wavelength excitation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 051104 (2005).

I. S. Gregory, C. Baker, W. R. Tribe, I. V. Bradley, M. J. Evans, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, M. Missous, "Optimization of photomixers and antennas for continuous-wave terahertz emission," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 717-728 (2005).

E. A. Michael, "Travelling-wave photonic mixers for increased continuous-wave power beyond 1 THz," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, S164-S177 (2005).

D. Saeedkia, R. R. Mansour, S. Safavi-Naeini, "Modeling and analysis of high-temperature superconductor terahertz photomixers," IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 15, 3847-3855 (2005).

D. Saeedkia, R. R. Mansour, S. Safavi-Naeini, "A sub-milliwatt terahertz high-temperature superconductive photomixer array source: Analysis and design," IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 15, 3868-3873 (2005).

E. R. Brown, D. C. Driscoll, A. C. Gossard, "State-of-the-art in 1.55 µm ultrafast InGaAs photoconductors, and the use of signal-processing techniques to extract the photocarrier lifetime," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, S199-S204 (2005).

D. Saeedkia, R. R. Mansour, S. Safavi-Naeini, "Analysis of a photoconductive photomixer array source designed for terahertz applications," IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 53, 4044-4050 (2005).

H. Eisele, "355 GHz oscillator with GaAs TUNNETT diode," Electron. Lett. 41, 55-56 (2005).

N. Orihashi, S. Suzuki, M. Asada, "One THz harmonic oscillation of resonant tunneling diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 233501 (2005).

W. Hafez, W. Snodgrass, M. Feng, "12.5 nm base pseudomorphic heterojunction bipolar transistors achieving ft = 710 GHz and fmax = 340 GHz," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 252109 (2005).

H. Eisele, M. Naftaly, R. Kamoua, "Generation of submillimeter-wave radiation with GaAs TUNNETT diodes and InP Gunn devices in a second or higher harmonic mode," Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 26, 1-14 (2005).

W. W. Bewley, J. R. Lindle, C. S. Kim, I. Vurgaftman, J. R. Meyer, A. J. Evans, J. S. Yu, S. Slivken, M. Razeghi, "Beam steering in high-power CW quantum-cascade lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 833-841 (2005).

2004 (19)

S. Kumar, B. S. Williams, S. Kohen, Q. Hu, J. L. Reno, "Continuous-wave operation of terahertz quantum-cascade lasers above liquid-nitrogen temperature," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2494-2496 (2004).

A. Maestrini, J. Ward, J. Gill, H. Javadi, E. Schlecht, G. Chattopadhyay, F. Maiwald, N. R. Erickson, I. Mehdi, "A 1.7–1.9 THz local oscillator source," IEEE Microw. Wireless Compon. Lett. 14, 253-255 (2004).

M. Dragoman, D. Dragoman, "Carbon nanotube resonant-tunneling diodes," Physica E 24, 282-289 (2004).

K. Shinohara, Y. Yamashita, A. Endoh, I. Watanabe, K. Hikosaka, T. Matsui, T. Mimura, S. Hiyamizu, "547-GHz ft In0.7Gs0.3As - In0.52Al0.48As HEMTs with reduced source and drain resistance," IEEE Electron Device Lett. 25, 241-243 (2004).

L. Samoska, A. Peralta, M. Hu, M. Micovic, A. Schmitz, "A 20 mW, 150 GHz InP HEMT MMIC power amplifier module," IEEE Microw. Wireless Compon. Lett. 14, 56-58 (2004).

H. Eisele, R. Kamoua, "Submillimeter-wave InP Gunn devices," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 52, 2371-2378 (2004).

S. Krishnagopal, V. Kumar, "Free-electron lasers," Radiat. Phys. Chem. 70, 559-569 (2004).

C. Pellegrini, S. Reiche, "The development of X-ray free-electron lasers," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 10, 1393-1404 (2004).

R. L. Ives, "Microfabrication of high-frequency vacuum electron devices," IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 32, 1277-1291 (2004).

G. Chattopadhyay, E. Schlecht, J. S. Ward, J. J. Gill, H. H. S. Javadi, F. Maiwald, I. Mehdi, "An all-solid-state broad-band frequency multiplier chain at 1500 GHz," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 52, 1538-1546 (2004).

P. H. Siegel, "Terahertz technology in biology and medicine," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 52, 2438-2447 (2004).

P. F. Taday, "Applications of terahertz spectroscopy to pharmaceutical sciences," Phil. Trans. Royal Soc. London 362, 351-364 (2004).

V. P. Wallace, P. F. Taday, A. J. Fitzgerald, R. M. Woodward, J. Cluff, R. J. Pye, D. D. Arnone, "Terahertz pulsed imaging and spectroscopy for biomedical and pharmaceutical applications," Discuss. Faraday Soc. 126, 255-263 (2004).

M. Hanson, D. C. Driscoll, J. D. Zimmeman, A. C. Gossard, E. R. Brown, "Subpicosecond photocarrier lifetimes in GaSb/ErSb nanoparticle superlattices at 1.55 µm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3110-3112 (2004).

J. E. Bjarnason, T. L. J. Chan, A. W. M. Lee, E. R. Brown, D. C. Driscoll, M. Hanson, A. C. Gossard, R. E. Muller, "ErAs:GaAs photomixer with two-decade tunability and 12 µW peak output power," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3983-3985 (2004).

H. Ito, S. Kodama, Y. Muramoto, T. Furuta, T. Nagatsuma, T. Ishibashi, "High-speed and high-output InP-InGaAs unitraveling-carrier photodiodes," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 10, 709-727 (2004).

T. Taniuchi, H. Nakanishi, "Collinear phase-matched terahertz-wave generation in GaP crystal using a dual-wavelength optical parametric oscillator," J. Appl. Phys. 95, 7588-7591 (2004).

T. Taniuchi, S. Okada, H. Nakanishi, "Widely tunable terahertz-wave generation in an organic crystal and its spectroscopic application," J. Appl. Phys. 95, 5984-5988 (2004).

T.-I. Jeona, D. Grischkowsky, "Direct optoelectronic generation and detection of sub-ps-electrical pulses on sub-mm-coaxial transmission lines," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 6092-6094 (2004).

2003 (11)

P. H. Bolivar, M. Nagel, F. Richter, M. Brucherseifer, H. Kurz, A. Bosserhoff, R. Büttner, "Label-free THz sensing of genetic sequences: Towards THz biochips," Phil. Trans. Royal Soc. London 362, 323-335 (2003).

M. Nagel, F. Richter, P. Haring-Bolivar, H. Kurz, "A functionalized THz sensor for marker-free DNA analysis," Phil. Trans. Royal Soc. London 48, 3625-3636 (2003).

T. Tanabe, K. Suto, J. Nishizawa, T. Kimura, K. Saito, "Frequency-tunable high-power terahertz wave generation from GaP," J. Appl. Phys. 93, 4610-4615 (2003).

S. Barbieri, J. Alton, S. S. Dhillon, H. E. Beere, M. Evans, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. Kohler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, "Continuous-wave operation of terahertz quantum-cascade lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 586-591 (2003).

M. Sukhotin, E. R. Brown, A. C. Gossard, D. C. Driscoll, M. Hanson, P. Marker, R. Muller, "Photomixing and photoconductor measurements on ErAs/InGaAs at 1.55 µm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3116-3118 (2003).

S. Wang, B. Ferguson, D. Abbott, X.-C. Zhang, "T-ray imaging and tomography," J. Biol. Phys. 29, 247-256 (2003).

T. Globus, D. Woolard, M. Bykhovskaia, B. Gelmont, L. Werbos, A. Samuels, "THz-frequency spectroscopic sensing of DNA and related biological materials," Int. J. High Speed Electr. Syst. 13, 903-936 (2003).

E. R. Brown, "THz generation by potomixing in ultrafast photoconductors," Int. J. High Speed Electr. Syst. 13, 497-545 (2003).

R. Kohler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, S. S. Dhillon, C. Sirtori, "High-performance continuous-wave operation of superlattice terahertz quantum-cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1518-1520 (2003).

G. Scalari, L. Ajili, J. Faist, H. Beere, E. Linfield, D. Ritchie, G. Davies, "Far-infrared (λ = 87 µm bound-to-continuum quantum cascade laser operating up to 90 K," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3165-3167 (2003).

B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, H. Callebaut, Q. Hu, J. L. Reno, "Terahertz quantum-cascade laser at λ = 100 µm using metal waveguide for mode confinement," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2124-2126 (2003).

2002 (8)

S. Slivken, Z. Huang, A. Evans, M. Razeghi, "High-power (λ = 9 µm quantum cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4091-4093 (2002).

P. H. Siegel, "Terahertz technology," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 50, 910-928 (2002).

F. Capasso, "Quantum cascade lasers: Ultrahigh-speed operation, optical wireless communication, narrow linewidth, and far-infrared emission," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 511-532 (2002).

J. Faist, D. Hofstetter, M. Beck, T. Aellen, M. Rochat, S. Blaser, "Bound-to-continuum and two-phonon resonance, quantum-cascade lasers for high duty cycle, high-temperature operation," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 533-546 (2002).

G. I. Haddad, R. J. Trew, "Microwave solid-state active devices," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 50, 760-779 (2002).

G. Dammertz, "Development of a 140-GHz 1-MW continuous wave gyrotron for the W7-X stellarator," IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 30, 808-818 (2002).

R. Kohler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, F. Rossi, "Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser," Nature 417, 156-159 (2002).

J. Shikata, K. Kawase, T. Taniuchi, H. Ito, "Fourier-transform spectrometer with a terahertz-wave parametric generator," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, 134-138 (2002).

2001 (7)

K. Kawase, J. Shikata, K. Imai, H. Ito, "Transform-limited, narrow-linewidth, terahertz-wave parametric generator," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2819-2821 (2001).

K. Kawase, J. Shikata, H. Ito, "Terahertz wave parametric source," J. Phys. D, Appl. Phys. 34, R1-R14 (2001).

J.-W. Shi, K.-G. Gan, Y.-J. Chiu, Y.-H. Chen, C.-K. Sun, Y.-J. Yang, J. E. Bowers, "Metal-semiconductor-metal traveling-wave photodetectors," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 623-625 (2001).

A. Stohr, R. Heinzelmann, A. Malcoci, D. S. Jager, "Optical heterodyne millimeter-wave generation using 1.55-µm traveling-wave photodetectors," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 49, 1926-1933 (2001).

S. M. Duffy, S. Verghese, K. A. McIntosh, A. Jackson, C. Gossard, S. Matsuura, "Accurate modeling of dual dipole and slot elements used with photomixers for coherent terahertz output power," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 49, 1032-1038 (2001).

L. A. Eyres, P. J. Tourreau, T. J. Pinguet, C. B. Ebert, J. S. Harris, M. M. Fejer, L. Becouarn, B. Gerard, E. Lallier, "All-epitaxial fabrication of thick, orientation-patterned GaAs films for nonlinear optical frequency conversion," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 904-906 (2001).

A. Hirata, H. Ishii, T. Nagatsuma, "Design and characterization of a 120-GHz millimeter-wave antenna for integrated photonic transmitters," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 49, 2157-2162 (2001).

2000 (4)

Y.-S. Lee, T. Meade, V. Perlin, H. Winful, T. B. Norris, A. Galvanauskas, "Generation of narrow-band terahertz radiation via optical rectification of femtosecond pulses in periodically poled lithium niobate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 2505-2507 (2000).

T. Taniuchi, J. Shikata, H. Ito, "Tunable terahertz-wave generation in DAST crystal with dual-wavelength KTP optical parametric oscillator," Electron. Lett. 36, 1414-1416 (2000).

H. Eisele, A. Rydberg, G. I. Haddad, "Recent advances in the performance of InP Gunn devices and GaAs TUNNETT diodes for the 100–300-GHz frequency range and above," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 48, 626-631 (2000).

J. N. Hovenier, M. C. Diez, T. O. Klaassen, W. T. Wenckebach, A. V. Muravjov, S. G. Pavlov, V. N. Shastin, "The p-Ge terahertz laser-properties under pulsedand mode-locked operation," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 48, 670-676 (2000).

1999 (6)

L. Granatstein, R. K. Parker, C. M. Armstrong, "Vacuume electronics at the dawn of the twenty-first century," Proc. IEEE 87, 702-716 (1999).

K. Flech, B. G. Danly, H. R. Jory, K. E. Kreischer, W. Lawson, B. Levush, R. J. Temkin, "Characteristics and applications of fast-wave gyrodevices," Proc. IEEE 87, 752-781 (1999).

S. Matsuura, G. A. Blake, R. A. Wyss, J. C. Pearson, C. Kadow, A. W. Jackson, A. C. Gossard, "A traveling-wave THz photomixer based on angle-tuned phase matching," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 2872-2874 (1999).

E. R. Brown, "A photoconductive model for superior GaAs THz photomixer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 769-771 (1999).

N. Zamdmer, Q. Hu, K. A. McIntosh, S. Verghese, "Increase in response time of low-temperature-grown GaAs photoconductive switches at high voltage bias," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2313-2315 (1999).

N. Zamdmer, Q. Hu, K. A. McIntosh, S. Verghese, A. Forster, "On-chip frequency-domain submillimeter-wave transceiver," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3877-3879 (1999).

1998 (2)

S. Verghese, K. A. McIntosh, S. Calawa, W. F. Dinatale, E. K. Duerr, K. A. Molvar, "Generation and detection of coherent terahertz waves using two photomixers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 3824-3826 (1998).

H. Eisele, G. I. Haddad, "Two-terminal millimeter-wave sources," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 46, 739-746 (1998).

1997 (4)

S. Matsuura, M. Tani, K. Sakai, "Generation of coherent terahertz radiation by photomixing in dipole photoconductive antennas," Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 559-561 (1997).

S. Verghese, K. A. McIntosh, E. R. Brown, "Highly tunable fiber-coupled photomixers with coherent terahetz output power," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 45, 1301-1309 (1997).

L. Y. Lin, M. C. Wu, T. Itoh, T. A. Vang, R. E. Muller, D. L. Sivco, A. Y. Cho, "High-power high-speed photodetectors-design, analysis, and experimental demonstration," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 45, 1320-1331 (1997).

S. Verghese, K. A. McIntosh, E. R. Brown, "Optical and terahertz power limits in the low-temperature-grown GaAs photomixers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2743-2745 (1997).

1996 (3)

K. A. McIntosh, E. R. Brown, K. B. Nichols, O. B. McMahon, W. F. DiNatale, T. M. Lyszczarz, "Terahertz measurements of resonant planar antennas coupled to low-temperature-grown GaAs photomixers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 3632-3634 (1996).

E. R. Brown, C. D. Parker, "Resonant tunnel diodes as submillimetre-wave sources," Phil. Trans. Royal Soc. London 354, 2365-2381 (1996).

F. Capasso, J. Faist, C. Sirtori, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, "Quantum cascade lasers: New resonant tunnelling light sources for the mid-infrared," Phil. Trans. Royal Soc. London 354, 2463-2467 (1996).

1995 (2)

E. R. Brown, K. A. McIntosh, K. B. Nichols, C. L. Dennis, "Photomixing up to 3.8 THz in low-temperature-grown GaAs," Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 285-287 (1995).

E. H. Bottcher, D. Bimberg, "Millimeter wave distributed metal-semiconductor-metal photodetectors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 3648-3650 (1995).

1994 (1)

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, A. Y. Cho, "Quantum cascade laser," Science 264, 553-556 (1994).

1993 (2)

C. Waschke, H. G. Roskos, K. Schwedler, K. Leo, K. Kohler, "Coherent submillimeter-wave emission from Bloch oscillations in a semiconductor superlattice," Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 3319-3322 (1993).

E. R. Brown, F. W. Smith, K. A. McIntosh, "Coherent millimeter-wave generation by heterodyne conversion in low-temperature-grown GaAs photoconductors," J. Appl. Phys. 73, 1480-1484 (1993).

1992 (1)

K. Leo, P. Haring Bolivar, F. Bruggemann, K. Schwedler, K. Kohler, "Observation of Bloch oscillations in a semiconductor superlattice," Solid State Commun. 84, 943-946 (1992).

1991 (3)

G. A. Blake, K. B. Laughlin, R. C. Cohen, K. L. Busarow, D.-H. Gwo, C. A. Schmuttenmaer, D. W. Steyert, R. J. Saykally, "Tunable far infrared laser spectrometers," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 62, 1693-1700 (1991).

E. R. Brown, J. R. Soderstrom, C. D. Parker, L. J. Mahoney, K. M. Molvar, T. C. McGill, "Oscillations up to 712 GHz in InAs/AlSb resonant tunneling diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 2291-2293 (1991).

S. Gupta, M. Y. Frankel, J. A. Valdmanis, J. F. Whitaker, G. A. Mourou, F. W. Smith, A. R. Calawa, "Subpicosecond carrier llifetime in GaAs grown by molecular beam epitaxy at low temperatures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 3276-3278 (1991).

1989 (2)

M. Kaminska, Z. Liliental-Weber, E. R. Weber, T. George, J. B. Kortright, F. W. Smith, B.-Y. Tsaur, A. R. Calawa, "Structural properties of As-rich GaAs grown by molecular beam epitaxy at low temperatures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 1881-1883 (1989).

E. L. Kollberg, A. Rydberg, "Quantum-barrier-varactor diode for high efficiency millimeter-wave multipliers," Electron. Lett. 25, 1696-1697 (1989).

1986 (2)

M. C. Gaidis, H. M. Pickett, C. D. Smith, S. C. Martin, P. R. Smith, P. H. Siegel, "A review of frequency measurements of optically pumped lasers from 0.1 to 8 THz," J. Appl. Phys. 60, R161-R192 (1986).

M. Inguscio, G. Moruzzi, K. M. Evenson, D. A. Jennings, "A review of frequency measurements of optically pumped lasers from 0.1 to 8 THz," J. Appl. Phys. 60, R161-R192 (1986).

1983 (1)

G. M. Metze, A. R. Calawa, "Effects of very low growth rates on GaAs grown by molecular beam epitaxy at low substrate temperatures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 42, 818-820 (1983).

1981 (2)

J. Soohoo, S.-K. Yao, J. E. Miller, R. R. Shurtz, Y. Taur, R. A. Gudmundsen, "A laser-induced traveling-wave device for generating millimeter waves," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. MTT-29, 1174-1181 (1981).

L. Wandinger, "mm-wave InP Gunn devices: Status and trends," Microw. J. 24, 71-78 (1981).

1978 (1)

D. D. Bicanic, B. F. J. Zuidberg, A. Dymanus, "Generation of continuously tunable laser sidebands in the submillimeter region," Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 367-369 (1978).

1975 (1)

M. A. Piestrup, R. N. Fleming, R. H. Pantell, "Continuously tunable submillimeter wave source," Appl. Phys. Lett. 26, 418-421 (1975).

1973 (1)

B. Lax, R. L. Aggarwal, G. Favrot, "Far-infrared step-tunable coherent radiation source: 70 $\mu{\rm m}$ to 2 mm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 23, 679-681 (1973).

1972 (1)

T. J. Bridges, A. R. Strnad, "Submillimeter wave generation by difference-frequency mixing in GaAs," Appl. Phys. Lett. 20, 382-384 (1972).

1971 (2)

B. C. Johnson, H. E. Purhoff, J. SooHoo, S. S. Sussman, "Power and linewidth of tunable stimulated far-infrared emission in LiNbO3," Appl. Phys. Lett. 18, 181-183 (1971).

R. Kazarionov, R. A. Suris, "Possibility of the amplification of electromagnetic waves in a semiconductor with a superlattice," Sov. Phys.—Semicond. 5, 707-709 (1971).

1970 (1)

T. Y. Chang, T. J. Bridges, "Laser action at 452, 496, and 541 µm in optically pumped CH3F," Opt. Commun. 1, 423-426 (1970).

1969 (3)

D. W. Faries, K. A. Gehring, P. L. Richards, Y. R. Shen, "Tunable far-infrared radiation generated from the difference frequency between two ruby lasers," Phys. Rev. 180, 363-365 (1969).

J. M. Yarborough, S. S. Sussman, H. E. Purhoff, R. H. Pantell, B. C. Johnson, "Efficient, tunable optical emission from LiNbO}3 without a resonator," Appl. Phys. Lett. 15, 102-105 (1969).

M. C. Teich, "Field-theoretical treatment of photomixing," Appl. Phys. Lett. 14, 201-203 (1969).

1968 (2)

H. E. Puthoff, R. H. Pantell, B. G. Huth, M. A. Chacon, "Near-forward Raman scattering in LiNbO3," J. Appl. Phys. 39, 2144-2146 (1968).

H. W. Thim, "Computer study of bulk GaAs Devices with random one-dimentional doping fluctuations," J. Appl. Phys. 39, 3897-3904 (1968).

1966 (1)

J. C. Bass, J. A. Jones, "Observation of microwave beats in a parallel-plate transmission-line photomixer," Electron. Lett. 2, 25-26 (1966).

1965 (1)

F. Zernike, P. R. Berman, "Generation of far infrared as a difference frequency," Phys. Rev. Lett. 15, 999-1001 (1965).

1953 (1)

R. Kompfner, N. T. Williams, "Backward-wave tubes," Proc. IRE 41, 1602-1610 (1953).

Appl. Opt. (1)

S. Hayashi, H. Minamide, T. Ikari, Y. Ogawa, J. Shikata, H. Ito, C. Otani, K. Kawase, "Output power enhancement of a palmtop terahertz-wave parametric generator," Appl. Opt. 46, 117-123 (2007).

Appl. Phys. B (2)

U. Willer, "A novel THz source based on a two-color Nd:LSB microchip-laser and a LT-GaAsSb photomixer," Appl. Phys. B 87, 13-16 (2007).

J. A. L'huillier, G. Torosyan, M. Theuer, Y. Avetisyan, R. Beigang, "Generation of THz radiation using bulk, periodically and aperiodically poled lithium niobate," Appl. Phys. B 86, 185-208 (2007).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (10)

L. A. Eyres, P. J. Tourreau, T. J. Pinguet, C. B. Ebert, J. S. Harris, M. M. Fejer, L. Becouarn, B. Gerard, E. Lallier, "All-epitaxial fabrication of thick, orientation-patterned GaAs films for nonlinear optical frequency conversion," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 904-906 (2001).

B. Lax, R. L. Aggarwal, G. Favrot, "Far-infrared step-tunable coherent radiation source: 70 $\mu{\rm m}$ to 2 mm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 23, 679-681 (1973).

R. Kohler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, S. S. Dhillon, C. Sirtori, "High-performance continuous-wave operation of superlattice terahertz quantum-cascade lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1518-1520 (2003).

S. Kumar, B. S. Williams, Q. Hu, J. L. Reno, "1.9 THz quantum-cascade lasers with one-well injector," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 121123 (2006).

S. Preu, F. H. Renner, S. Malzer, G. H. Dohler, L. J. Wang, M. Hanson, A. C. Gossard, T. L. J. Wilkinson, E. R. Brown, "Efficient terahertz emission from ballistic transport enhanced n-i-p-n-i-p superlattice photomixers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 212115 (2007).

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