Abstract

We have achieved a silica-based PLC thermooptic switch with a power consumption of only 30 mW without any deterioration in the optical properties by using a tapered narrow ridge structure. To reduce the power consumption further, we propose a novel structure, the suspended narrow ridge structure, which has the advantages of both the tapered narrow ridge structure and the already reported suspended-bridge structure. As a result, we achieved PLC-VOA/switches with excellent heat design flexibility and a power consumption of 20 mW. In addition, using the proposed the suspended narrow ridge structure, we demonstrate a 16-channel V-AWG with a compact size of 20 $\times$ 17 mm and a low total power consumption of 320 mW.

© 2008 IEEE

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  1. Okamoto, M. Okuno, A. Himeno, Y. Ohmori, "16-channel optical add/drop multiplexer consisting of arrayed-waveguide gratings and double-gate switches," Electron. Lett. 32, 1471-1472 (1996).
  2. C. R. Doerr, L. W. Stulz, M. Cappuzzo, E. Laskowski, A. Paunescu, L. Gomez, J. V. Gates, S. Shunk, A. E. White, "40-wavelength add drop filter," Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1437-1439 (1999).
  3. M. P. Earnshaw, M. Cappuzzo, E. Chen, L. Gomez, A. Griffin, E. Laskowski, A. Wong-Foy, J. Soole, "Planar lightwave circuit based reconfigurable optical add-drop multiplexer architectures and reusable subsystem module," J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 11, 313-322 (2005).
  4. A. Kaneko, Y. Doi, Y. Hashizume, S. Kamei, Y. Tamura, I. Ogawa, T. Kominato, S. Suzuki, "Ultra small 16 ch variable optical attenuator multiplexer (V-AWG) using multi-chip PLC integration technology for ROADM," Proc. 31st Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. (2005) pp. 987-990.
  5. I. Ogawa, H. Yamazaki, Y. Hashizume, M. Abe, M. Yanagisawa, T. Shibata, M. Kohtoku, S. Kamei, A. Kaneko, "32ch reconfigurable optical add multiplexer using technique for stacked integration of chip-scale-package PDs on silica-based PLC," 32nd Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. CannesFrance (2006) Paper Tu4.4.2.
  6. I. Ogawa, Y. Doi, Y. Hashizume, S. Kamei, Y. Tamura, M. Ishii, T. Kominato, H. Yamazaki, A. Kaneko, "Packaging technology for ultra-small variable optical attenuator multiplexer (V-AWG) with multichip PLC integration structure using chip-scale-package PD array," J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 12, 1045-1052 (2006).
  7. M.-Y. Park, J.-H. Kim, H.-K. Lee, S.-M. Cho, S.-K. Hong, Y.-G. Lee, Y.-S. Oh, J.-B. Hong, "Development of small port-count ROADM using MEMS type 2 $\times$ 2 OSWs and VOAs," Proc. Optical MEMS and Their Applications Conf. (2005) pp. 153-154.
  8. K. P. Lo, N. E. Lewis, H. Kouns, B. Witherspoon, A. Bourque, "Microelectromechanical switches for reconfigurable optical add/drop multiplexers," Proc. SPIE 4788.
  9. M. C. Wu, O. Solgaard, J. E. Ford, "Optical MEMS for lightwave communication," J. Lightw. Technol 24, 4433-4454 (2006).
  10. L. Eldada, "Advances in ROADM technologies and subsystems," Proc. SPIE 597022 (2005).
  11. T. Shibata, M. Okuno, T. Goh, T. Watanabe, M. Yasu, M. Itoh, M. Ishii, Y. Hibino, "Silica-based waveguide-type 16 $\times$ 16 optical switch module incorporating driving circuits," Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1300-1302 (2003).
  12. A. Sugita, K. Jinguji, N. Takato, K. Katoh, M. Kawachi, "Bridge suspended silica-waveguide thermo-optic phase shifter and its application to Mach–Zehnder type optical switch," Trans. IEICE E73, 105 (1990).
  13. M. Takahashi, T. Hatakenaka, K. Suzuki, T. Shimoda, S. Takaesu, J. Ushioda, A. Furukawa, I. Nakamatsu, H. Yamazaki, Y. Urino, "Variable optical attenuators array with low power consumption," Proc. IEICE General Conf. (2003) pp. 246.
  14. M. P. Earnshaw, M. A. Cappuzzo, E. Chen, L. Gomez, A. Wong-Foy, "Ultra-low power thermo-optic silica-on silicon waveguide membrane switch," Electron Lett. 43, 393-394 (2007).
  15. S. Sohma, T. Goh, H. Okazaki, M. Okuno, A. Sugita, "Low switching power silica-based super high delta thermo-optic switch with heat insulating grooves," Electron Lett. 38, 127 (2002).
  16. M. Popovic, M. Wada, K. Akiyama, S. Haus, H. A. Michel, "Air trenches for sharp silica waveguide bends," J. Lightw. Technol. 20, 1762-1772 (2002).
  17. S. Akiyama, M. A. Popovic, P. T. Rakich, K. Wada, J. Michel, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, L. C. Kimerling, "Air trench bends and splitters for dense optical integration in low index contrast," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 2271-2277 (2005).
  18. M. Kawachi, "Silica waveguides on silicon and their application to integrated-optic components," Opt. Quantum Electron. 22, 391-416 (1990).
  19. Y. Hibino, "Recent advances in high-density and large-scale AWG multi/demultiplexers with high index-contrast silica-based PLCs," J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 8, 459-470 (2002).
  20. T. Mizuno, T. Kitoh, T. Saida, Y. Inoue, M. Itoh, T. Shibata, Y. Hibino, Y. Hida, "Low-loss 1.5%- $\Delta$arrayed waveguide grating with vertically tapered spotsize converter," Electron. Lett. 37, 1452-1454 (2001).
  21. K. Tanaka, N. Kitano, Y. Abe, H. Komano, T. Chiba, M. Okawa, S. Kashimura, H. Uetsuka, "Fabrication and investigation of fast response variable optical attenuator on silica substrate," OFC 2006 AnaheimCA Paper OWV3.

2007 (1)

M. P. Earnshaw, M. A. Cappuzzo, E. Chen, L. Gomez, A. Wong-Foy, "Ultra-low power thermo-optic silica-on silicon waveguide membrane switch," Electron Lett. 43, 393-394 (2007).

2006 (2)

I. Ogawa, Y. Doi, Y. Hashizume, S. Kamei, Y. Tamura, M. Ishii, T. Kominato, H. Yamazaki, A. Kaneko, "Packaging technology for ultra-small variable optical attenuator multiplexer (V-AWG) with multichip PLC integration structure using chip-scale-package PD array," J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 12, 1045-1052 (2006).

M. C. Wu, O. Solgaard, J. E. Ford, "Optical MEMS for lightwave communication," J. Lightw. Technol 24, 4433-4454 (2006).

2005 (3)

L. Eldada, "Advances in ROADM technologies and subsystems," Proc. SPIE 597022 (2005).

S. Akiyama, M. A. Popovic, P. T. Rakich, K. Wada, J. Michel, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, L. C. Kimerling, "Air trench bends and splitters for dense optical integration in low index contrast," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 2271-2277 (2005).

M. P. Earnshaw, M. Cappuzzo, E. Chen, L. Gomez, A. Griffin, E. Laskowski, A. Wong-Foy, J. Soole, "Planar lightwave circuit based reconfigurable optical add-drop multiplexer architectures and reusable subsystem module," J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 11, 313-322 (2005).

2003 (1)

T. Shibata, M. Okuno, T. Goh, T. Watanabe, M. Yasu, M. Itoh, M. Ishii, Y. Hibino, "Silica-based waveguide-type 16 $\times$ 16 optical switch module incorporating driving circuits," Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1300-1302 (2003).

2002 (3)

S. Sohma, T. Goh, H. Okazaki, M. Okuno, A. Sugita, "Low switching power silica-based super high delta thermo-optic switch with heat insulating grooves," Electron Lett. 38, 127 (2002).

M. Popovic, M. Wada, K. Akiyama, S. Haus, H. A. Michel, "Air trenches for sharp silica waveguide bends," J. Lightw. Technol. 20, 1762-1772 (2002).

Y. Hibino, "Recent advances in high-density and large-scale AWG multi/demultiplexers with high index-contrast silica-based PLCs," J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 8, 459-470 (2002).

2001 (1)

T. Mizuno, T. Kitoh, T. Saida, Y. Inoue, M. Itoh, T. Shibata, Y. Hibino, Y. Hida, "Low-loss 1.5%- $\Delta$arrayed waveguide grating with vertically tapered spotsize converter," Electron. Lett. 37, 1452-1454 (2001).

1999 (1)

C. R. Doerr, L. W. Stulz, M. Cappuzzo, E. Laskowski, A. Paunescu, L. Gomez, J. V. Gates, S. Shunk, A. E. White, "40-wavelength add drop filter," Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1437-1439 (1999).

1996 (1)

Okamoto, M. Okuno, A. Himeno, Y. Ohmori, "16-channel optical add/drop multiplexer consisting of arrayed-waveguide gratings and double-gate switches," Electron. Lett. 32, 1471-1472 (1996).

1990 (2)

A. Sugita, K. Jinguji, N. Takato, K. Katoh, M. Kawachi, "Bridge suspended silica-waveguide thermo-optic phase shifter and its application to Mach–Zehnder type optical switch," Trans. IEICE E73, 105 (1990).

M. Kawachi, "Silica waveguides on silicon and their application to integrated-optic components," Opt. Quantum Electron. 22, 391-416 (1990).

Electron Lett. (2)

M. P. Earnshaw, M. A. Cappuzzo, E. Chen, L. Gomez, A. Wong-Foy, "Ultra-low power thermo-optic silica-on silicon waveguide membrane switch," Electron Lett. 43, 393-394 (2007).

S. Sohma, T. Goh, H. Okazaki, M. Okuno, A. Sugita, "Low switching power silica-based super high delta thermo-optic switch with heat insulating grooves," Electron Lett. 38, 127 (2002).

Electron. Lett. (2)

Okamoto, M. Okuno, A. Himeno, Y. Ohmori, "16-channel optical add/drop multiplexer consisting of arrayed-waveguide gratings and double-gate switches," Electron. Lett. 32, 1471-1472 (1996).

T. Mizuno, T. Kitoh, T. Saida, Y. Inoue, M. Itoh, T. Shibata, Y. Hibino, Y. Hida, "Low-loss 1.5%- $\Delta$arrayed waveguide grating with vertically tapered spotsize converter," Electron. Lett. 37, 1452-1454 (2001).

J. Lightw. Technol. (1)

M. Popovic, M. Wada, K. Akiyama, S. Haus, H. A. Michel, "Air trenches for sharp silica waveguide bends," J. Lightw. Technol. 20, 1762-1772 (2002).

J. Lightw. Technol (1)

M. C. Wu, O. Solgaard, J. E. Ford, "Optical MEMS for lightwave communication," J. Lightw. Technol 24, 4433-4454 (2006).

J. Lightw. Technol. (1)

S. Akiyama, M. A. Popovic, P. T. Rakich, K. Wada, J. Michel, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, L. C. Kimerling, "Air trench bends and splitters for dense optical integration in low index contrast," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 2271-2277 (2005).

J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (1)

I. Ogawa, Y. Doi, Y. Hashizume, S. Kamei, Y. Tamura, M. Ishii, T. Kominato, H. Yamazaki, A. Kaneko, "Packaging technology for ultra-small variable optical attenuator multiplexer (V-AWG) with multichip PLC integration structure using chip-scale-package PD array," J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 12, 1045-1052 (2006).

J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (1)

M. P. Earnshaw, M. Cappuzzo, E. Chen, L. Gomez, A. Griffin, E. Laskowski, A. Wong-Foy, J. Soole, "Planar lightwave circuit based reconfigurable optical add-drop multiplexer architectures and reusable subsystem module," J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 11, 313-322 (2005).

J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (1)

Y. Hibino, "Recent advances in high-density and large-scale AWG multi/demultiplexers with high index-contrast silica-based PLCs," J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 8, 459-470 (2002).

Opt. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. Kawachi, "Silica waveguides on silicon and their application to integrated-optic components," Opt. Quantum Electron. 22, 391-416 (1990).

Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

T. Shibata, M. Okuno, T. Goh, T. Watanabe, M. Yasu, M. Itoh, M. Ishii, Y. Hibino, "Silica-based waveguide-type 16 $\times$ 16 optical switch module incorporating driving circuits," Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1300-1302 (2003).

C. R. Doerr, L. W. Stulz, M. Cappuzzo, E. Laskowski, A. Paunescu, L. Gomez, J. V. Gates, S. Shunk, A. E. White, "40-wavelength add drop filter," Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1437-1439 (1999).

Proc. SPIE (1)

K. P. Lo, N. E. Lewis, H. Kouns, B. Witherspoon, A. Bourque, "Microelectromechanical switches for reconfigurable optical add/drop multiplexers," Proc. SPIE 4788.

Proc. SPIE (1)

L. Eldada, "Advances in ROADM technologies and subsystems," Proc. SPIE 597022 (2005).

Trans. IEICE (1)

A. Sugita, K. Jinguji, N. Takato, K. Katoh, M. Kawachi, "Bridge suspended silica-waveguide thermo-optic phase shifter and its application to Mach–Zehnder type optical switch," Trans. IEICE E73, 105 (1990).

Other (5)

M. Takahashi, T. Hatakenaka, K. Suzuki, T. Shimoda, S. Takaesu, J. Ushioda, A. Furukawa, I. Nakamatsu, H. Yamazaki, Y. Urino, "Variable optical attenuators array with low power consumption," Proc. IEICE General Conf. (2003) pp. 246.

M.-Y. Park, J.-H. Kim, H.-K. Lee, S.-M. Cho, S.-K. Hong, Y.-G. Lee, Y.-S. Oh, J.-B. Hong, "Development of small port-count ROADM using MEMS type 2 $\times$ 2 OSWs and VOAs," Proc. Optical MEMS and Their Applications Conf. (2005) pp. 153-154.

A. Kaneko, Y. Doi, Y. Hashizume, S. Kamei, Y. Tamura, I. Ogawa, T. Kominato, S. Suzuki, "Ultra small 16 ch variable optical attenuator multiplexer (V-AWG) using multi-chip PLC integration technology for ROADM," Proc. 31st Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. (2005) pp. 987-990.

I. Ogawa, H. Yamazaki, Y. Hashizume, M. Abe, M. Yanagisawa, T. Shibata, M. Kohtoku, S. Kamei, A. Kaneko, "32ch reconfigurable optical add multiplexer using technique for stacked integration of chip-scale-package PDs on silica-based PLC," 32nd Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. CannesFrance (2006) Paper Tu4.4.2.

K. Tanaka, N. Kitano, Y. Abe, H. Komano, T. Chiba, M. Okawa, S. Kashimura, H. Uetsuka, "Fabrication and investigation of fast response variable optical attenuator on silica substrate," OFC 2006 AnaheimCA Paper OWV3.

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