Abstract

The transmittance spectra of a long-period fiber grating element immersed in different mixtures of water and dimethyl sulfoxide were recorded. The obtained data were compared with a theoretical model based on linearly polarized modes treated with a coupled-mode approach. Excellent agreement between the measurements and theoretical results was found over a wide wavelength range.

© 2008 IEEE

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  31. I. del Villar, I. R. Matías, F. J. Arregui, M. Achaerandio, "Nanodeposition of materials with complex refractive index in long-period fiber gratings," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 4192-4199 (2005).
  32. V. Bhatia, A. M. Vengsarkar, "Optical fiber long-period grating sensors," Opt. Lett. 21, 692-694 (1996).
  33. Y. Koyamada, "Numerical analysis of core-mode to radiation-mode coupling in long-period fiber gratings," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 308-310 (2001).
  34. R. Hou, Z. Ghassemlooy, A. Hassan, C. Lu, K. P. Dowker, "Modelling of long-period fibre grating response to refractive index higher than that of cladding," Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 1709-1713 (2001).
  35. R. Mehra, "Application of refractive index mixing rules in binary systems of hexadecane and heptadecane with n-alkanols at different temperatures," Proc. Indian Acad. Sci. (Chem. Sci.) 115, 147-154 (2003).
  36. T. M. Aminabhavi, P. Munk, "Excess polarizability and volume of mixing and their effect on the partial specific volume and the refractive increment of polymers in mixed solvents," Macromolecules 12, 1186-1194 (1979).
  37. The International Association for the Properties of Water and SteamRelease on the refractive index of ordinary water substance as a function of wavelength, temperature and pressure (1997).
  38. H. El-Kashef, "The necessary requirements imposed on polar dielectric laser dye solvents – II," Phys. B 311, 376-379 (2002).

2006 (3)

A. Cusano, A. Iadicicco, P. Pilla, L. Contessa, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, M. Giordano, "Mode transition in high refractive index coated long period gratings," Opt. Expr. 14, 19-34 (2006).

A. Cusano, A. Iadicicco, P. Pilla, L. Contessa, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, M. Giordano, G. Guerra, "Coated long-period fiber gratings as high-sensitivity optochemical sensors," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 1776-1786 (2006).

I. del Villar, I. R. Martín, F. J. Arregui, "Influence on cladding mode distribution of overlay deposition on long-period fiber gratings," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A 23, 651-658 (2006).

2005 (7)

I. del Villar, I. R. Matías, F. J. Arregui, M. Achaerandio, "Nanodeposition of materials with complex refractive index in long-period fiber gratings," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 4192-4199 (2005).

I. del Villar, I. R. Matías, F. J. Arregui, P. Lalanne, "Optimization of sensitivity in long period fiber gratings with overlay deposition," Opt. Expr. 13, 56-69 (2005).

I. M. Ishaq, A. Quintela, S. W. James, G. J. Ashwell, J. M. Lopez-Higuera, R. P. Tatam, "Modification of the refractive index response of long period gratings using thin film overlays," Sens. Actuators B 107, 738-741 (2005).

Z. Wang, J. R. Heflin, R. H. Stolen, S. Ramachandran, "Highly sensitive optical response of optical fiber long period gratings to nanometer-thick ionic self-assembled multilayers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 223104 (2005).

Z. Wang, J. R. Heflin, R. H. Stolen, S. Ramachandran, "Analysis of optical response of long period fiber gratings to nm-thick thin-film coatings," Opt. Expr. 13, 2808-2813 (2005).

I. del Villar, M. Achaerandio, I. R. Martín, F. J. Arregui, "Deposition of overlays by electrostatic self-assambly in long-period fiber gratings," Opt. Lett. 30, 720-722 (2005).

R. Falate, R. C. Kamikawachi, M. Müller, H. J. Kalinowski, J. L. Fabris, "Fiber optic sensors for hydrocarbon detection," Sens. Actuators B 105, 430-436 (2005).

2003 (4)

S. W. James, R. P. Tatam, "Optical fibre long-period grating sensors: Characteristics and application," Meas. Sci. Technol. 14, R49-R61 (2003).

T. Allsop, D. J. Webb, I. Bennion, "A comparison of the sensing characteristics of long period gratings written in three different types of fibers," Opt. Fiber Technol. 9, 210-223 (2003).

E. Anemogiannis, E. N. Glytsis, T. K. Gaylord, "Transmission characteristics of long-period fiber gratings having arbitrary azimuthal/radial refractive index variations," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 218-227 (2003).

R. Mehra, "Application of refractive index mixing rules in binary systems of hexadecane and heptadecane with n-alkanols at different temperatures," Proc. Indian Acad. Sci. (Chem. Sci.) 115, 147-154 (2003).

2002 (1)

H. El-Kashef, "The necessary requirements imposed on polar dielectric laser dye solvents – II," Phys. B 311, 376-379 (2002).

2001 (4)

Y. Koyamada, "Numerical analysis of core-mode to radiation-mode coupling in long-period fiber gratings," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 308-310 (2001).

R. Hou, Z. Ghassemlooy, A. Hassan, C. Lu, K. P. Dowker, "Modelling of long-period fibre grating response to refractive index higher than that of cladding," Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 1709-1713 (2001).

P. Palai, M. N. Satyanarayan, M. Das, K. Thyagarajan, P. B. Pal, "Characterisation and simulation of long period gratings fabricated using electric discharge," Opt. Commun. 193, 181-185 (2001).

T. Allsop, L. Zhang, I. Bennion, "Detection of organic aromatic compounds in paraffin by a long-period fiber grating optical sensor with optimized sensitivity," Opt. Commun. 191, 181-190 (2001).

2000 (1)

1999 (1)

X. Shu, D. Huang, "Highly sensitive chemical sensor based on the measurement of the separation of dual resonant peaks in a 100-µm-period fiber grating," Opt. Commun. 171, 65-69 (1999).

1998 (2)

H. J. Patrick, A. D. Kersey, F. Bucholtz, "Analysis of the response of long period fiber gratings to external index of refraction," J. Lightw. Technol. 16, 1606-1612 (1998).

H. J. Patrick, C. C. Chang, S. T. Vohra, "Long period fobre gratings for structural bend sensing," Electron. Lett. 34, 1773-1775 (1998).

1997 (4)

1996 (2)

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, J. E. Sipe, "Long-period fiber gratings as band-rejection filters," J. Lightw. Technol. 14, 58-65 (1996).

V. Bhatia, A. M. Vengsarkar, "Optical fiber long-period grating sensors," Opt. Lett. 21, 692-694 (1996).

1979 (1)

T. M. Aminabhavi, P. Munk, "Excess polarizability and volume of mixing and their effect on the partial specific volume and the refractive increment of polymers in mixed solvents," Macromolecules 12, 1186-1194 (1979).

1977 (1)

C. Yeh, G. Lindgren, "Computing the propagation characteristics of radially stratified fibers: An efficient method," Appl. Opt. 16, 483-493 (1977).

1971 (1)

Appl. Opt. (1)

C. Yeh, G. Lindgren, "Computing the propagation characteristics of radially stratified fibers: An efficient method," Appl. Opt. 16, 483-493 (1977).

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

Z. Wang, J. R. Heflin, R. H. Stolen, S. Ramachandran, "Highly sensitive optical response of optical fiber long period gratings to nanometer-thick ionic self-assembled multilayers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 223104 (2005).

Electron. Lett. (1)

H. J. Patrick, C. C. Chang, S. T. Vohra, "Long period fobre gratings for structural bend sensing," Electron. Lett. 34, 1773-1775 (1998).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

Y. Koyamada, "Numerical analysis of core-mode to radiation-mode coupling in long-period fiber gratings," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 308-310 (2001).

J. Lightw. Technol. (2)

I. del Villar, I. R. Matías, F. J. Arregui, M. Achaerandio, "Nanodeposition of materials with complex refractive index in long-period fiber gratings," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 4192-4199 (2005).

H. J. Patrick, A. D. Kersey, F. Bucholtz, "Analysis of the response of long period fiber gratings to external index of refraction," J. Lightw. Technol. 16, 1606-1612 (1998).

J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A (1)

I. del Villar, I. R. Martín, F. J. Arregui, "Influence on cladding mode distribution of overlay deposition on long-period fiber gratings," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A 23, 651-658 (2006).

J. Lightw. Technol. (4)

T. Erdogan, "Fiber grating spectra," J. Lightw. Technol. 15, 1277-1294 (1997).

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, J. E. Sipe, "Long-period fiber gratings as band-rejection filters," J. Lightw. Technol. 14, 58-65 (1996).

A. Cusano, A. Iadicicco, P. Pilla, L. Contessa, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, M. Giordano, G. Guerra, "Coated long-period fiber gratings as high-sensitivity optochemical sensors," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 1776-1786 (2006).

E. Anemogiannis, E. N. Glytsis, T. K. Gaylord, "Transmission characteristics of long-period fiber gratings having arbitrary azimuthal/radial refractive index variations," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 218-227 (2003).

J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A (1)

T. Erdogan, "Cladding-mode resonances in short- and long-period fiber grating filters," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A 14, 1760-1773 (1997).

Macromolecules (1)

T. M. Aminabhavi, P. Munk, "Excess polarizability and volume of mixing and their effect on the partial specific volume and the refractive increment of polymers in mixed solvents," Macromolecules 12, 1186-1194 (1979).

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

R. Hou, Z. Ghassemlooy, A. Hassan, C. Lu, K. P. Dowker, "Modelling of long-period fibre grating response to refractive index higher than that of cladding," Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 1709-1713 (2001).

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

S. W. James, R. P. Tatam, "Optical fibre long-period grating sensors: Characteristics and application," Meas. Sci. Technol. 14, R49-R61 (2003).

Opt. Expr. (1)

I. del Villar, I. R. Matías, F. J. Arregui, P. Lalanne, "Optimization of sensitivity in long period fiber gratings with overlay deposition," Opt. Expr. 13, 56-69 (2005).

Opt. Lett. (1)

I. del Villar, M. Achaerandio, I. R. Martín, F. J. Arregui, "Deposition of overlays by electrostatic self-assambly in long-period fiber gratings," Opt. Lett. 30, 720-722 (2005).

Opt. Commun. (3)

P. Palai, M. N. Satyanarayan, M. Das, K. Thyagarajan, P. B. Pal, "Characterisation and simulation of long period gratings fabricated using electric discharge," Opt. Commun. 193, 181-185 (2001).

X. Shu, D. Huang, "Highly sensitive chemical sensor based on the measurement of the separation of dual resonant peaks in a 100-µm-period fiber grating," Opt. Commun. 171, 65-69 (1999).

T. Allsop, L. Zhang, I. Bennion, "Detection of organic aromatic compounds in paraffin by a long-period fiber grating optical sensor with optimized sensitivity," Opt. Commun. 191, 181-190 (2001).

Opt. Expr. (2)

A. Cusano, A. Iadicicco, P. Pilla, L. Contessa, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, M. Giordano, "Mode transition in high refractive index coated long period gratings," Opt. Expr. 14, 19-34 (2006).

Z. Wang, J. R. Heflin, R. H. Stolen, S. Ramachandran, "Analysis of optical response of long period fiber gratings to nm-thick thin-film coatings," Opt. Expr. 13, 2808-2813 (2005).

Opt. Fiber Technol. (1)

T. Allsop, D. J. Webb, I. Bennion, "A comparison of the sensing characteristics of long period gratings written in three different types of fibers," Opt. Fiber Technol. 9, 210-223 (2003).

Opt. Lett. (4)

Phys. B (1)

H. El-Kashef, "The necessary requirements imposed on polar dielectric laser dye solvents – II," Phys. B 311, 376-379 (2002).

Proc. Indian Acad. Sci. (Chem. Sci.) (1)

R. Mehra, "Application of refractive index mixing rules in binary systems of hexadecane and heptadecane with n-alkanols at different temperatures," Proc. Indian Acad. Sci. (Chem. Sci.) 115, 147-154 (2003).

Sens. Actuators B (2)

I. M. Ishaq, A. Quintela, S. W. James, G. J. Ashwell, J. M. Lopez-Higuera, R. P. Tatam, "Modification of the refractive index response of long period gratings using thin film overlays," Sens. Actuators B 107, 738-741 (2005).

R. Falate, R. C. Kamikawachi, M. Müller, H. J. Kalinowski, J. L. Fabris, "Fiber optic sensors for hydrocarbon detection," Sens. Actuators B 105, 430-436 (2005).

Other (6)

H.-P. Loock, R. S. Brown, J. A. Barnes, N. R. Trefiak, K. L. Laugesen, G. Nemova, Long period grating sensor methods and apparatus U.S. Patent Application no. 60/576 628 (2004).

A. W. Snyder, J. D. Love, Optical Waveguide Theory (Chapman and Hall, 1983).

C. Tsao, Optical Fibre Waveguide Analysis (Oxford Univ. Press, 19921).

D. Marcuse, Dielectric Optical Waveguides (Academic, 1991).

V. Bhatia, Properties and sensing applications of long-period gratings Ph.D. dissertation Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ.BlacksburgVA (1996).

The International Association for the Properties of Water and SteamRelease on the refractive index of ordinary water substance as a function of wavelength, temperature and pressure (1997).

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