Abstract

In this paper, we present the ambient refractive index (ARI) sensing characteristics of metal-coated side-polished optical fiber gratings based on the excitation of the pure surface plasmon polariton. The resonance wavelength shift as a function of the ARI and the grating lengths required for a fixed minimum transmitivity (30%) for the TM-like mode are obtained for different metal and residual cladding thicknesses. It is found that a long-period grating (LPG)-based sensor is about 5–20 times more sensitive to the change in the ARI and requires much shorter grating lengths for a given sensitivity than the one based on fiber Bragg grating (FBG). Further, unlike a FBG-based device, an LPG-based sensor is found to have maximum sensitivity at an optimum value of metal thickness, the reason for which is also explained. This paper should find application in the design of sensitive fiber-optic bio/chemical sensors.

© 2008 IEEE

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2007 (2)

N. Chen, B. Yun, Y. Wang, Y. Cui, "Theoretical and experimental study on etched fiber Bragg grating cladding mode resonances for ambient refractive index sensing," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 24, 439-445 (2007).

Y. Y. Shevchenko, J. Albert, "Plasmon resonances in gold-coated tilted fiber Bragg gratings," Opt. Lett. 32, 211-213 (2007).

2006 (4)

G. Nemova, R. Kashyap, "Fiber-Bragg-grating-assisted surface plasmon-polariton sensor," Opt. Lett. 31, 2118-2120 (2006).

G. Nemova, R. Kashyap, "Modeling of plasmon-polariton refractive-index hollow core sensors assisted by a fiber Bragg grating," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 3789-3796 (2006).

Y.-J. He, Y.-L. Lo, J.-F. Huang, "Optical-fiber surface-plasmon-resonance sensor employing long-period fiber gratings in multiplexing," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B. 23, 801-811 (2006).

E. I. Karakoleva, A. T. Andreev, B. S. Zafirova, "Numerical investigation of refractrometric sensor elements based on side polished fibers using the Galerkin method," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 8, 1034-1042 (2006).

2005 (1)

W. Liang, Y. Huang, Y. Xu, R. K. Lee, A. Yariv, "Highly sensitive fiber Bragg grating refractive index sensors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 151122-151122 (2005).

2004 (1)

A. Iadicicco, A. Cusano, A. Cutolo, R. Bernini, M. Giordano, "Thinned fiber Bragg gratings as highly sensitive refractive index sensor," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1149-1151 (2004).

2000 (1)

T. Erdogan, "Errata: cladding-mode resonances in short- and long-period fiber grating filters,," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A 17, 2113-2113 (2000).

1999 (1)

R. Slavik, J. Homola, J. Ctyroky, "Single-mode optical fiber surface plasmon resonance sensor," Sens. Actuators B 54, 74-79 (1999).

1997 (3)

S.-M. Tseng, K.-Y. Hsu, H.-S. Wei, K.-F. Chen, "Analysis and Experiment of thin metal-clad fiber polarizer with index overlay," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 628-630 (1997).

T. Erdogan, "Cladding-mode resonances in short- and long-period fiber grating filters," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A 14, 1760-1773 (1997).

S.-M. Tseng, K.-Y. Hsu, H.-S. Wei, K.-F. Chen, "Analysis and experiments of thin metal-clad fiber polarizer with index overlay," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 628-630 (1997).

1996 (1)

A. Diez, M. V. Andres, D. O. Culverhouse, T. A. Birks, "Cylindrical metal-coated optical fiber devices for filters and sensors," Electron. Lett. 32, 1390-1392 (1996).

1995 (1)

J. Homola, "Optical fiber sensor based on surface plasmon excitation," Sens. Actuators B 29, 401-405 (1995).

1994 (1)

1992 (1)

D. Marcuse, F. Ladouceur, J. D. Love, "Vectors modes of D-shaped fibers," Proc. Inst. Elect. Eng. J 139, 117-126 (1992).

1990 (2)

W. Johnstone, G. Stewart, T. Hart, B. Culshaw, "Surface plasmon polariton in thin metal films and their role in fiber optic polarizing devices," J. Lightw. Technol. 8, 538-544 (1990).

A. Sharma, J. Kompella, P. K. Mishra, "Analysis of fiber directional coupler half blocks using a new simple model for single mode fiber," J. Lightw. Technol. 8, 143-151 (1990).

1989 (1)

P. J. Severin, "Multipurpose single-mode fibre-optic coupling substrate, made with silicon etch and polishing," Electron. Lett. 25, 969-970 (1989).

1988 (1)

C. D. Hussey, J. D. Minelly, "Optical fibre polishing with a motor-driven polishing wheel," Electron. Lett. 24, 805-807 (1988).

1986 (1)

C. Vassallo, "Rigorous theory for modes of optical fibers with cladding limited by a plane," Electron. Lett. 22, 944-945 (1986).

1983 (1)

1965 (1)

I. H. Malitson, "Interspecimen comparison of the refractive index of fused silica," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A 55, 1205-1209 (1965).

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

W. Liang, Y. Huang, Y. Xu, R. K. Lee, A. Yariv, "Highly sensitive fiber Bragg grating refractive index sensors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 151122-151122 (2005).

Electron. Lett. (1)

P. J. Severin, "Multipurpose single-mode fibre-optic coupling substrate, made with silicon etch and polishing," Electron. Lett. 25, 969-970 (1989).

Electron. Lett. (3)

C. D. Hussey, J. D. Minelly, "Optical fibre polishing with a motor-driven polishing wheel," Electron. Lett. 24, 805-807 (1988).

C. Vassallo, "Rigorous theory for modes of optical fibers with cladding limited by a plane," Electron. Lett. 22, 944-945 (1986).

A. Diez, M. V. Andres, D. O. Culverhouse, T. A. Birks, "Cylindrical metal-coated optical fiber devices for filters and sensors," Electron. Lett. 32, 1390-1392 (1996).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (3)

S.-M. Tseng, K.-Y. Hsu, H.-S. Wei, K.-F. Chen, "Analysis and Experiment of thin metal-clad fiber polarizer with index overlay," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 628-630 (1997).

S.-M. Tseng, K.-Y. Hsu, H.-S. Wei, K.-F. Chen, "Analysis and experiments of thin metal-clad fiber polarizer with index overlay," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 628-630 (1997).

A. Iadicicco, A. Cusano, A. Cutolo, R. Bernini, M. Giordano, "Thinned fiber Bragg gratings as highly sensitive refractive index sensor," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1149-1151 (2004).

J. Lightw. Technol. (2)

A. Sharma, J. Kompella, P. K. Mishra, "Analysis of fiber directional coupler half blocks using a new simple model for single mode fiber," J. Lightw. Technol. 8, 143-151 (1990).

G. Nemova, R. Kashyap, "Modeling of plasmon-polariton refractive-index hollow core sensors assisted by a fiber Bragg grating," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 3789-3796 (2006).

J. Lightw. Technol. (1)

W. Johnstone, G. Stewart, T. Hart, B. Culshaw, "Surface plasmon polariton in thin metal films and their role in fiber optic polarizing devices," J. Lightw. Technol. 8, 538-544 (1990).

J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. (1)

E. I. Karakoleva, A. T. Andreev, B. S. Zafirova, "Numerical investigation of refractrometric sensor elements based on side polished fibers using the Galerkin method," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 8, 1034-1042 (2006).

J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A (1)

T. Erdogan, "Errata: cladding-mode resonances in short- and long-period fiber grating filters,," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A 17, 2113-2113 (2000).

J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A (2)

I. H. Malitson, "Interspecimen comparison of the refractive index of fused silica," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A 55, 1205-1209 (1965).

T. Erdogan, "Cladding-mode resonances in short- and long-period fiber grating filters," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A 14, 1760-1773 (1997).

J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B (1)

N. Chen, B. Yun, Y. Wang, Y. Cui, "Theoretical and experimental study on etched fiber Bragg grating cladding mode resonances for ambient refractive index sensing," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 24, 439-445 (2007).

J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B. (1)

Y.-J. He, Y.-L. Lo, J.-F. Huang, "Optical-fiber surface-plasmon-resonance sensor employing long-period fiber gratings in multiplexing," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B. 23, 801-811 (2006).

Opt. Lett. (2)

Proc. Inst. Elect. Eng. J (1)

D. Marcuse, F. Ladouceur, J. D. Love, "Vectors modes of D-shaped fibers," Proc. Inst. Elect. Eng. J 139, 117-126 (1992).

Sens. Actuators B (2)

J. Homola, "Optical fiber sensor based on surface plasmon excitation," Sens. Actuators B 29, 401-405 (1995).

R. Slavik, J. Homola, J. Ctyroky, "Single-mode optical fiber surface plasmon resonance sensor," Sens. Actuators B 54, 74-79 (1999).

Other (3)

H. Raether, Surface Plasmons on Smooth and Rough Surfaces and on Gratings (Springer-Verlag, 1988).

R. Kashyap, Fiber Bragg Gratings (Academic, 1999).

Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic, 1985).

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