Abstract

We report experimental demonstration and modeling of all-optical on-chip non-return-to-zero (NRZ) to pseudo-return-to-zero (PRZ) format conversion using narrow-band silicon microring resonator-based notch filters. Our proof-of-principle experiment using a carrier-injection-based tunable silicon microring resonator demonstrates NRZ-to-PRZ conversion at 3.6 Gbit/s. Our Fourier-transform-based modeling reveals in detail the format conversion dependence on the microring resonance Q factor, extinction ratio, phase response, and NRZ signal transition times, assuming signal format conversion of 40 Gbit/s.

© 2008 IEEE

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  1. M. A. Popovié, T. Barwicz, M. R. Watts, P. T. Rakich, L. Socci, E. P. Ippen, F. X. Kärtner, H. I. Smith, "Multistage high-order microring-resonator add-drop filters," Opt. Lett. 31, 2571-2573 (2006).
  2. F. Xia, L. Sekaric, Y. Vlasov, "Ultracompact optical buffers on a silicon chip," Nature Photon. 1, 65-71 (2007).
  3. C. A. Barrios, V. R. Almeida, R. Panepucci, M. Lipson, "Electrooptic modulation of silicon-on-insulator submicrometer-size waveguide devices," J. Lightw. Technol 21, 2332-2339 (2003).
  4. Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, M. Lipson, "Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator," Nature 435, 325-327 (2005).
  5. L. Zhou, A. W. Poon, "Silicon electro-optic modulators using p–i–n diodes embedded 10-micron-diameter microdisk resonators," Opt. Expr. 14, 6851-6857 (2006).
  6. Q. Xu, S. Manipatruni, B. Schmidt, J. Shakya, M. Lipson, "12.5 Gbit/s carrier-injection-based silicon micro-ring silicon modulators," Opt. Expr. 15, 430-436 (2007).
  7. S. F. Preble, Q. Xu, M. Lipson, "Changing the color of light in a silicon resonator," Nature Photon. 1, 293-296 (2007).
  8. L. Zhou, H. Chen, A. W. Poon, "NRZ-to-PRZ format conversion using silicon second-order coupled-microring resonator-based notch filters," Proc. CLEO/QELS 2007 (2007).
  9. J. Slovak, C. Bornholdt, J. Kreissl, S. Bauer, M. Biletzke, M. Schlak, B. Sartorius, "Bit rate and wavelength transparent all-optical clock recovery scheme for NRZ-coded PRBS signals," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 844-846 (2006).
  10. H. J. Lee, H. G. Kim, J. Y. Choi, H. K. Lee, "All-optical clock recovery from NRZ data with simple NRZ-to-PRZ converter based on self-phase modulation of semiconductor optical amplifier," Electron. Lett. 35, 989-990 (1999).
  11. Y. D. Jeong, H. J. Lee, H. Yoo, Y. H. Won, "All-optical NRZ-to-PRZ converter at 10 Gb/s based on self-phase modulation of Fabry-Perot laser diode," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1179-1181 (2004).
  12. X. Li, C. Kim, G. Li, "All-optical passive clock extraction of 40 Gbit/s NRZ data using narrow-band filtering," Opt. Expr. 12, 3196-3203 (2004).
  13. G. Contestabile, A. D'Errico, M. Presi, E. Ciaramella, "40-GHz all-optical clock extraction using a semiconductor-assisted Fabry-Perot filter," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2523-2525 (2004).
  14. G. Contestabile, M. Presi, N. Calabretta, E. Ciaramella, "All-optical clock recovery from 40 Gbit/s NRZ signal based on clock line enhancement and sharp periodic filtering," Electron. Lett. 40, 1361-1362 (2004).
  15. B. Franz, "Optical signal processing for very high speed (> 40 Gbit/s) ETDM binary NRZ clock recovery," Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. (2001) pp. MG1-1-MG1-6.
  16. C. Kim, I. Kim, X. Li, G. Li, "All-optical clock recovery of NRZ data at 40 Gbit/s using Fabry-Perot filter and two-section gain-coupled DFB laser," Electron. Lett. 39, 1456-1457 (2003).
  17. H. K. Lee, C. H. Lee, S. B. Kang, M.-Y. Jeon, K. H. Kim, J. T. Ahn, E.-H. Lee, "All-fibre-optic clock recovery from non-return-to-zero format data," Electron. Lett. 34, 478-480 (1998).
  18. W. W. Tang, M. P. Fok, C. Chu, "All-optical clock recovery from NRZ data using a NRZ-to-PRZ converter constructed with a polarization-maintaining fiber loop mirror filter," Proc. Conf. Lasers Electro-Opt. (2005) pp. 1198-1199.
  19. C.-H. Lee, H. K. Lee, "Passive all-optical clock signal extractor for non-return-to-zero signals," Electron. Lett. 34, 295-297 (1998).
  20. J. Yu, G. K. Chang, J. Barry, Y. Su, "40 Gbit/s signal format conversion from NRZ to RZ using a Mach-Zehnder delay interferometer," Opt. Commun. 248, 419-422 (2004).
  21. H. K. Lee, J. T. Ahn, M. Y. Jeon, K. H. Kim, D. S. Lim, C.-H. Lee, "All-optical clock recovery from NRZ data of 10 Gb/s," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 730-732 (1999).
  22. K. M. Ho, Electroabsorption-modulator based clock recovery circuit for high-speed optical non-return-to-zero (NRZ) signals M.Phil. thesis Hong Kong Univ. Sci. Technol.Hong KongChina (2005).
  23. R. A. Soref, B. R. Bennett, "Electrooptical effects in silicon," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 123-129 (1987).
  24. A. Yariv, "Universal relations for coupling of optical power between microresonators and dielectric waveguides," Electron. Lett. 36, 321-322 (2000).
  25. V. Nguyen, T. Montalbo, C. Manolatou, A. Agarwal, C. Y. Hong, J. Yasaitis, L. C. Kimerling, J. Michel, "Silicon-based highly-efficient fiber-to-waveguide coupler for high index contrast systems," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, (2006).
  26. V. R. Almeida, R. R. Panepucci, M. Lipson, "Nanotaper for compact mode conversion," Opt. Lett. 28, 1302-1305 (2003).
  27. J. Niehusmann, A. Vörckel, P. H. Bolivar, "Ultrahigh-quality-factor silicon-on-insulator microring resonator," Opt. Lett. 29, 2861-2863 (2004).
  28. M. S. Nawrocka, T. Liu, X. Wang, R. R. Panepucci, "Tunable silicon microring resonator with wide free spectral range," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, (2006).
  29. B. Maune, R. Lawson, C. Gunn, A. Scherer, L. Dalton, "Electrically tunable ring resonators incorporating nematic liquid crystals as cladding layers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4689-4691 (2003).

2007 (3)

F. Xia, L. Sekaric, Y. Vlasov, "Ultracompact optical buffers on a silicon chip," Nature Photon. 1, 65-71 (2007).

Q. Xu, S. Manipatruni, B. Schmidt, J. Shakya, M. Lipson, "12.5 Gbit/s carrier-injection-based silicon micro-ring silicon modulators," Opt. Expr. 15, 430-436 (2007).

S. F. Preble, Q. Xu, M. Lipson, "Changing the color of light in a silicon resonator," Nature Photon. 1, 293-296 (2007).

2006 (5)

J. Slovak, C. Bornholdt, J. Kreissl, S. Bauer, M. Biletzke, M. Schlak, B. Sartorius, "Bit rate and wavelength transparent all-optical clock recovery scheme for NRZ-coded PRBS signals," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 844-846 (2006).

L. Zhou, A. W. Poon, "Silicon electro-optic modulators using p–i–n diodes embedded 10-micron-diameter microdisk resonators," Opt. Expr. 14, 6851-6857 (2006).

V. Nguyen, T. Montalbo, C. Manolatou, A. Agarwal, C. Y. Hong, J. Yasaitis, L. C. Kimerling, J. Michel, "Silicon-based highly-efficient fiber-to-waveguide coupler for high index contrast systems," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, (2006).

M. S. Nawrocka, T. Liu, X. Wang, R. R. Panepucci, "Tunable silicon microring resonator with wide free spectral range," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, (2006).

M. A. Popovié, T. Barwicz, M. R. Watts, P. T. Rakich, L. Socci, E. P. Ippen, F. X. Kärtner, H. I. Smith, "Multistage high-order microring-resonator add-drop filters," Opt. Lett. 31, 2571-2573 (2006).

2005 (1)

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, M. Lipson, "Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator," Nature 435, 325-327 (2005).

2004 (6)

Y. D. Jeong, H. J. Lee, H. Yoo, Y. H. Won, "All-optical NRZ-to-PRZ converter at 10 Gb/s based on self-phase modulation of Fabry-Perot laser diode," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1179-1181 (2004).

X. Li, C. Kim, G. Li, "All-optical passive clock extraction of 40 Gbit/s NRZ data using narrow-band filtering," Opt. Expr. 12, 3196-3203 (2004).

G. Contestabile, A. D'Errico, M. Presi, E. Ciaramella, "40-GHz all-optical clock extraction using a semiconductor-assisted Fabry-Perot filter," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2523-2525 (2004).

G. Contestabile, M. Presi, N. Calabretta, E. Ciaramella, "All-optical clock recovery from 40 Gbit/s NRZ signal based on clock line enhancement and sharp periodic filtering," Electron. Lett. 40, 1361-1362 (2004).

J. Yu, G. K. Chang, J. Barry, Y. Su, "40 Gbit/s signal format conversion from NRZ to RZ using a Mach-Zehnder delay interferometer," Opt. Commun. 248, 419-422 (2004).

J. Niehusmann, A. Vörckel, P. H. Bolivar, "Ultrahigh-quality-factor silicon-on-insulator microring resonator," Opt. Lett. 29, 2861-2863 (2004).

2003 (4)

C. Kim, I. Kim, X. Li, G. Li, "All-optical clock recovery of NRZ data at 40 Gbit/s using Fabry-Perot filter and two-section gain-coupled DFB laser," Electron. Lett. 39, 1456-1457 (2003).

B. Maune, R. Lawson, C. Gunn, A. Scherer, L. Dalton, "Electrically tunable ring resonators incorporating nematic liquid crystals as cladding layers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4689-4691 (2003).

V. R. Almeida, R. R. Panepucci, M. Lipson, "Nanotaper for compact mode conversion," Opt. Lett. 28, 1302-1305 (2003).

C. A. Barrios, V. R. Almeida, R. Panepucci, M. Lipson, "Electrooptic modulation of silicon-on-insulator submicrometer-size waveguide devices," J. Lightw. Technol 21, 2332-2339 (2003).

2000 (1)

A. Yariv, "Universal relations for coupling of optical power between microresonators and dielectric waveguides," Electron. Lett. 36, 321-322 (2000).

1999 (2)

H. K. Lee, J. T. Ahn, M. Y. Jeon, K. H. Kim, D. S. Lim, C.-H. Lee, "All-optical clock recovery from NRZ data of 10 Gb/s," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 730-732 (1999).

H. J. Lee, H. G. Kim, J. Y. Choi, H. K. Lee, "All-optical clock recovery from NRZ data with simple NRZ-to-PRZ converter based on self-phase modulation of semiconductor optical amplifier," Electron. Lett. 35, 989-990 (1999).

1998 (2)

H. K. Lee, C. H. Lee, S. B. Kang, M.-Y. Jeon, K. H. Kim, J. T. Ahn, E.-H. Lee, "All-fibre-optic clock recovery from non-return-to-zero format data," Electron. Lett. 34, 478-480 (1998).

C.-H. Lee, H. K. Lee, "Passive all-optical clock signal extractor for non-return-to-zero signals," Electron. Lett. 34, 295-297 (1998).

1987 (1)

R. A. Soref, B. R. Bennett, "Electrooptical effects in silicon," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 123-129 (1987).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

V. Nguyen, T. Montalbo, C. Manolatou, A. Agarwal, C. Y. Hong, J. Yasaitis, L. C. Kimerling, J. Michel, "Silicon-based highly-efficient fiber-to-waveguide coupler for high index contrast systems," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, (2006).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

M. S. Nawrocka, T. Liu, X. Wang, R. R. Panepucci, "Tunable silicon microring resonator with wide free spectral range," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, (2006).

B. Maune, R. Lawson, C. Gunn, A. Scherer, L. Dalton, "Electrically tunable ring resonators incorporating nematic liquid crystals as cladding layers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4689-4691 (2003).

Electron. Lett. (1)

A. Yariv, "Universal relations for coupling of optical power between microresonators and dielectric waveguides," Electron. Lett. 36, 321-322 (2000).

Electron. Lett. (5)

C.-H. Lee, H. K. Lee, "Passive all-optical clock signal extractor for non-return-to-zero signals," Electron. Lett. 34, 295-297 (1998).

H. J. Lee, H. G. Kim, J. Y. Choi, H. K. Lee, "All-optical clock recovery from NRZ data with simple NRZ-to-PRZ converter based on self-phase modulation of semiconductor optical amplifier," Electron. Lett. 35, 989-990 (1999).

G. Contestabile, M. Presi, N. Calabretta, E. Ciaramella, "All-optical clock recovery from 40 Gbit/s NRZ signal based on clock line enhancement and sharp periodic filtering," Electron. Lett. 40, 1361-1362 (2004).

C. Kim, I. Kim, X. Li, G. Li, "All-optical clock recovery of NRZ data at 40 Gbit/s using Fabry-Perot filter and two-section gain-coupled DFB laser," Electron. Lett. 39, 1456-1457 (2003).

H. K. Lee, C. H. Lee, S. B. Kang, M.-Y. Jeon, K. H. Kim, J. T. Ahn, E.-H. Lee, "All-fibre-optic clock recovery from non-return-to-zero format data," Electron. Lett. 34, 478-480 (1998).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

R. A. Soref, B. R. Bennett, "Electrooptical effects in silicon," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 123-129 (1987).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (4)

H. K. Lee, J. T. Ahn, M. Y. Jeon, K. H. Kim, D. S. Lim, C.-H. Lee, "All-optical clock recovery from NRZ data of 10 Gb/s," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 730-732 (1999).

Y. D. Jeong, H. J. Lee, H. Yoo, Y. H. Won, "All-optical NRZ-to-PRZ converter at 10 Gb/s based on self-phase modulation of Fabry-Perot laser diode," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1179-1181 (2004).

J. Slovak, C. Bornholdt, J. Kreissl, S. Bauer, M. Biletzke, M. Schlak, B. Sartorius, "Bit rate and wavelength transparent all-optical clock recovery scheme for NRZ-coded PRBS signals," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 844-846 (2006).

G. Contestabile, A. D'Errico, M. Presi, E. Ciaramella, "40-GHz all-optical clock extraction using a semiconductor-assisted Fabry-Perot filter," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2523-2525 (2004).

J. Lightw. Technol (1)

C. A. Barrios, V. R. Almeida, R. Panepucci, M. Lipson, "Electrooptic modulation of silicon-on-insulator submicrometer-size waveguide devices," J. Lightw. Technol 21, 2332-2339 (2003).

Nature Photon. (1)

S. F. Preble, Q. Xu, M. Lipson, "Changing the color of light in a silicon resonator," Nature Photon. 1, 293-296 (2007).

Nature (1)

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, M. Lipson, "Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator," Nature 435, 325-327 (2005).

Nature Photon. (1)

F. Xia, L. Sekaric, Y. Vlasov, "Ultracompact optical buffers on a silicon chip," Nature Photon. 1, 65-71 (2007).

Opt. Expr. (1)

X. Li, C. Kim, G. Li, "All-optical passive clock extraction of 40 Gbit/s NRZ data using narrow-band filtering," Opt. Expr. 12, 3196-3203 (2004).

Opt. Commun. (1)

J. Yu, G. K. Chang, J. Barry, Y. Su, "40 Gbit/s signal format conversion from NRZ to RZ using a Mach-Zehnder delay interferometer," Opt. Commun. 248, 419-422 (2004).

Opt. Expr. (2)

L. Zhou, A. W. Poon, "Silicon electro-optic modulators using p–i–n diodes embedded 10-micron-diameter microdisk resonators," Opt. Expr. 14, 6851-6857 (2006).

Q. Xu, S. Manipatruni, B. Schmidt, J. Shakya, M. Lipson, "12.5 Gbit/s carrier-injection-based silicon micro-ring silicon modulators," Opt. Expr. 15, 430-436 (2007).

Opt. Lett. (3)

Other (4)

K. M. Ho, Electroabsorption-modulator based clock recovery circuit for high-speed optical non-return-to-zero (NRZ) signals M.Phil. thesis Hong Kong Univ. Sci. Technol.Hong KongChina (2005).

L. Zhou, H. Chen, A. W. Poon, "NRZ-to-PRZ format conversion using silicon second-order coupled-microring resonator-based notch filters," Proc. CLEO/QELS 2007 (2007).

W. W. Tang, M. P. Fok, C. Chu, "All-optical clock recovery from NRZ data using a NRZ-to-PRZ converter constructed with a polarization-maintaining fiber loop mirror filter," Proc. Conf. Lasers Electro-Opt. (2005) pp. 1198-1199.

B. Franz, "Optical signal processing for very high speed (> 40 Gbit/s) ETDM binary NRZ clock recovery," Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. (2001) pp. MG1-1-MG1-6.

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